Fort Vancouver National Historic Site
Fort Vancouver National Historic Site is a United States National Historic Site located in the states of Washington and Oregon. The National Historic Site consists of two units, one located on the site of Fort Vancouver in modern-day Vancouver, Washington; the two sites were separately given national historic designation in the 1940s. The Fort Vancouver unit was designated a National Historic Site in 1961, was combined with the McLoughlin House into a unit in 2003; the visitor center at Fort Vancouver National Historic Site was built in 1966 as a part of the National Park Service's Mission 66 Program. Today, the visitor center is co-operated by the both the National Park Service and the United States Forest Service. Recent renovations to the visitor center transformed the historic building as an information center for both Fort Vancouver National Historic Site and the Gifford Pinchot National Forest; the visitor center features rotating archaeological exhibits from the national historic site and art exhibits from local native artists.
The building has a theater that shows 3 films from the National Park Service and the United States Forest Service: Fort Vancouver - One place Across Time, Vancouver Kaiser Shipyards Documentary, Mount St. Helens - Eruption of Life; the main unit of the site, containing Fort Vancouver, is located in Vancouver, just north of Portland, Oregon. Fort Vancouver was an important Hudson's Bay Company fur trading post, established in 1824. Operations until 1845 were overseen by Chief Factor John McLoughlin, it was the headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company's fur trade activity on the Pacific coast and its influence stretched from the Rocky mountains in the east, to Alaska in the north, Alta California in the south, to the Kingdom of Hawaii in the Pacific. Ratified in 1846, the Treaty of Oregon was signed by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the United States, thereby ending the decades long Oregon boundary dispute; the treaty permitted the Hudson's Bay Company to continue to operate at Fort Vancouver, now within the Oregon Territory.
On June 14, 1860, Fort Vancouver was abandoned by the Hudson's Bay Company in favor of their stations in British Columbia, such as Fort Victoria. In 1849, the United States Army constructed the Vancouver Barracks adjacent to the British trading post. A fire destroyed the Hudson's Bay Company fort in 1866, but the Army facility continued in operation in various forms until to the present. Fort Vancouver was separated from the Army's barracks and became a national monument in 1948. Congress re-designated the site as a National Historic Site. For some years after its addition to the National Park System, the National Park Service was reluctant to begin reconstruction of the fort walls or buildings, preferring to manage it as an archaeological site as provided by its standing policies. However, in 1965, with the urging of the local community, Congress directed reconstruction to begin. All fort structures seen today are modern replicas, albeit placed on the original locations. In response to concerns about the designation of reconstructed structures, the Park Service designated the Vancouver National Historic Reserve Historic District to encompass reconstructed buildings as well as historic Army and Mission 66 era Park Service structures.
The National Park Service operates the Pearson Air Museum on the fort grounds. An earth-covered pedestrian land bridge was built over the Lewis and Clark Highway, as part of the Confluence Project, in 2007, it connects the site with the Columbia River. The McLoughlin House unit consists of the homes of McLoughlin, of Dr. Forbes Barclay, an explorer and associate of McLoughlin's, they are located adjacent to each other on a bluff overlooking the Willamette River in Oregon City, Oregon, on a plot of land set aside for public use by McLoughlin in the 1840s. In 1846, McLoughlin left the employ of Hudson's Bay Company, purchased from the company a land claim located on the Willamette River in Oregon City. McLoughlin constructed the house there, lived there until his death in 1857; the house, a two-style colonial mansion, is typical of East Coast residences from the time. After McLoughlin's death in 1857, his widow lived there; the home soon became a bordello known as the Phoenix Hotel. In 1908, the paper mill that owned the property wished to expand and the house was threatened with demolition, but preservationists saved it the next year, raising over $1,000 and overcoming a referendum.
The house was moved from the riverfront to its current location on a bluff overlooking downtown Oregon City in 1910. It sat there for twenty-five years, until being restored in 1935-1936 under the auspices of the Civil Works Administration, opened as a museum; the Barclay House was built in 1849 by Portland carpenter and pioneer John L. Morrison, occupied by Dr. Barclay and his family. Barclay died in 1874. Today, the Barclay House contains a gift shop; the McLoughlin House became a National Historic Site in 1941, both homes were added to the National Park System in 2003, becoming part of the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site. The McLoughlin House unit lies on the Oregon National Historic Trail, a part of the National Trails System; the graves of McLoughlin and his wife are on the
Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail
The Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail is a route across the United States commemorating the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804 to 1806. It is part of the National Trails System of the United States, it extends for some 3,700 miles from Wood River, Illinois, to the mouth of the Columbia River in Oregon. The trail is administered by the National Park Service, but sites along the trail are managed by federal land management agencies, local and private organizations; the trail is not a hiking trail, but provides opportunities for hiking and horseback riding at many locations along the route. The trail is the second longest of the 23 National National Historic Trails. Beginning at the Camp Dubois recreation in Illinois, it passes through portions of Missouri, Iowa, South Dakota, North Dakota, Idaho and Washington; the official headquarters for the trail is located at the National Park Service Midwest Regional Headquarters, in Omaha, Nebraska. The visitor center features exhibits about the explorers and their historic trip, as well as information about sites along the trail.
In 1948 the National Park Service proposed a "Lewis and Clark Tour-way" along the Missouri River from St. Louis to Three Forks, Montana. Jay "Ding" Darling proposed the development of the expedition route as a recreational trail. Following a 1966 report by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, the National Trails System Act of 1968 listed the route for study as a possible National Scenic Trail. In 1978 the law was amended by the National Parks and Recreation Act to provide for a new category of trail, National Historic Trails, one of, to be the Lewis and Clark trail. From 2003 to 2006, the National Park Service commemorated the bicentennial of the Lewis and Clark Expedition with the Corps of Discovery II traveling exhibit. Bassman, John H.. A navigation companion for the Lewis & Clark Trail. Volume 1, camp locations and daily summaries of expedition activities. United States: John H. Bassman. National Park Service. Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Comprehensive Plan for Management and Use. United States: United States Department of the Interior.
Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation Lewis and Clark Trust lewisandclarktrail.org
Island County, Washington
Island County is a county located in the U. S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 census, its population was 78,506, its county seat is Coupeville. The county's name reflects the fact that it is composed of islands, it contains two large islands and Camano, seven smaller islands. Island County was created out of Thurston County on December 22, 1852, by the legislature of Oregon Territory, is the eighth-oldest county in Washington, it encompassed what are now Snohomish, Skagit and San Juan Counties. Island County comprises the Oak Harbor, WA Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Seattle-Tacoma, WA Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 517 square miles, of which 208 square miles is land and 309 square miles is water, it is the second-smallest county in Washington by area. Puget Sound Strait of Juan de Fuca Whidbey Island Camano Island Saratoga Passage Snohomish County – east Kitsap County – southwest Jefferson County – west San Juan County – northwest Skagit County – north Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve As of the census of 2000, there were 71,558 people, 27,784 households, 20,254 families residing in the county.
The population density was 343 people per square mile. There were 32,378 housing units at an average density of 155 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.17% White, 2.36% Black or African American, 0.97% Native American, 4.19% Asian, 0.44% Pacific Islander, 1.43% from other races, 3.44% from two or more races. 3.97% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.2% were of German, 11.2% English, 9.9% Irish, 7.2% United States or American and 6.0% Norwegian ancestry. 92.5 % spoke 2.5 % Spanish and 2.2 % Tagalog as their first language. There were 27,784 households out of which 33.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.20% were married couples living together, 7.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.10% were non-families. 21.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.50% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 28.00% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, 14.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $45,513, the median income for a family was $51,363. Males had a median income of $35,331 versus $25,612 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,472. About 5.10% of families and 7.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.80% of those under age 18 and 4.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 78,506 people, 32,746 households, 22,156 families residing in the county; the population density was 376.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 40,234 housing units at an average density of 193.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 86.1% white, 4.4% Asian, 2.2% black or African American, 0.8% American Indian, 0.5% Pacific islander, 1.5% from other races, 4.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 5.5% of the population.
The largest ancestry groups were: Of the 32,746 households, 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.3% were non-families, 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.81. The median age was 43.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $57,190 and the median income for a family was $68,106. Males had a median income of $46,801 versus $35,189 for females; the per capita income for the county was $29,079. About 5.7% of families and 8.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.1% of those under age 18 and 4.0% of those age 65 or over. The primary islands of Island County, Whidbey Island and Camano Island are served by a total of 3 Washington State Routes, those being SR 20 and SR 525, on Whidbey Island, SR 532 on Camano Island. SR 20 enters Island County via the Port Townsend-Coupeville ferry route from the West, departs via the Deception Pass Bridge in the North.
SR 525 enters Island County from the East/South via the Mukilteo-Clinton ferry and terminates at an intersection with SR 20, South of Coupeville. SR 532 begins on Camano Island, just a few hundred yards inside Island County at an intersection with Sunrise Boulevard and departs Island County to the East via the Mark Clark Bridge; these islands are served by a fare-free/pre-paid bus service called Island Transit. Island County is divided in many ways between its south. While the north is conservative – George W. Bush received 65 percent of the 2004 vote and carried all precincts – all southern and central precincts voted for John Kerry; the south-central area voted over 60 percent for Kerry. Camano Island has a Republican lean and went for Bush with 52 percent of the vote in 2004, but is much less polarized than the rest of the county. Langley Oak Harbor Coupeville Camano Clinton Freeland Whidbey Island Station listed as Ault Field Juniper Beach, a wedding ceremony locale in past years, has given its name to the Juniper Beach Water Di
Camano Island is a large island in the Possession Sound portion of Puget Sound, located in Island County, between Whidbey Island and the mainland. The body of water separating Whidbey Island and Camano Island is called Saratoga Passage. Camano Island is separated from mainland Snohomish County by Davis Slough near the city of Stanwood; the island is reached via State Route 532 over the Camano Gateway Bridge in the northeast of the island. There were 13,358 residents on the island as of the 2000 census, but the population peaks at 17,000 during the summer months with retired "snowbirds." The island has a total land area of 102.99 km², though it was larger before the Great Slide of 1825. During the Last Ice Age the island and land surrounding the sound was covered by a mile thick sheet of ice; as temperatures rose the glacier receding carving the island and leaving behind deposits of glacial till. Camano Island is named for the Spanish explorer Jacinto Caamaño; the original name of the island was Kal-lut-chin which in the language of the indigenous Snohomish tribe means "land jutting into a bay".
They used the island as a base during the shellfish gathering expeditions. Charles Wilkes, during the Wilkes Expedition of 1838–1842, named it MacDonough Island in honor of Thomas MacDonough for his victory of the Battle of Lake Champlain during the War of 1812. Following this theme, Wilkes named the body of water between Camano and Whidbey Island after MacDonough's flagship the Saratoga; when Henry Kellett reorganized the official British Admiralty charts in 1847, he removed Wilkes' name MacDonough and bestowed the name Camano, which the Spanish had given to Admiralty Inlet in 1790. Wilkes' name Saratoga Passage was retained. Jacinto Caamaño explored much of the Pacific Northwest going as farth north as what is now Alaska for the Spanish, he began his expedition far to the south in Mexico. In addition to its Snohomish name the island has been known as Macdonough Island named for Thomas Macdonough a U. S. Navy officer during the War of 1812 and as Perry Island after an 1855 treaty between local Native Americans and Washington Territory governor Isaac Stevens.
The first Euro-American settlers on the island arrived at the time of the signing of the treaty. Lastly the island was called Crow Island during the logging era that took place during the early 1900s; the Port Susan Snow Goose & Birding Festival The Camano Island Mother's Day Art Studio Tour The Spring Art Show Twin City Idlers Classic Car Show Art by the Bay, The Stanwood–Camano Festival of Art and Music Vintage Trailer Show The Stanwood Camano Community Fair Collectors Car Show The Harvest Jubilee The AAUW Art for Education Show The Stanwood–Camano Chili & Chowder Cookoff Camano Island is connected to mainland Washington by State Route 532, which travels from the north end of the island to Stanwood via two bridges over the Davis Slough and Stillaguamish River. The island has several connecting roads that travel along the west and east edges to various neighborhoods and the two state parks. Island Transit operates free bus services connecting Camano Island to Stanwood, with onward connections to Mount Vernon, Amtrak Cascades, Everett.
Several proposals for alternate ferry connections to Coupeville and Everett have been rejected by local residents and potential operators. Camano, Washington List of islands of Washington State by population and area Camano Island Whidbey Camano Islands Camano animal shelter
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Bureau of Land Management
The Bureau of Land Management is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior that administers more than 247.3 million acres of public lands in the United States which constitutes one eighth of the landmass of the country. President Harry S. Truman created the BLM in 1946 by combining two existing agencies: the General Land Office and the Grazing Service; the agency manages the federal government's nearly 700 million acres of subsurface mineral estate located beneath federal and private lands severed from their surface rights by the Homestead Act of 1862. Most BLM public lands are located in these 12 western states: Alaska, California, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming; the mission of the BLM is "to sustain the health and productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations." BLM holdings were described as "land nobody wanted" because homesteaders had passed them by. All the same, ranchers hold nearly 18,000 permits and leases for livestock grazing on 155 million acres of BLM public lands.
The agency manages 221 wilderness areas, 27 national monuments and some 636 other protected areas as part of the National Conservation Lands, totaling about 36 million acres. In addition the National Conservation Lands include nearly 2,400 miles of Wild and Scenic Rivers, nearly 6,000 miles of National Scenic and Historic Trails. There are more than 63,000 gas wells on BLM public lands. Total energy leases generated $5.4 billion in 2013, an amount divided among the Treasury, the states, Native American groups. The BLM's roots go back to the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787; these laws provided for the survey and settlement of the lands that the original 13 colonies ceded to the federal government after the American Revolution. As additional lands were acquired by the United States from Spain and other countries, the United States Congress directed that they be explored and made available for settlement. During the Revolutionary War, military bounty land was promised to soldiers who fought for the colonies.
After the war, the Treaty of Paris of 1783, signed by the United States, England and Spain, ceded territory to the United States. In the 1780s, other states relinquished their own claims to land in modern-day Ohio. By this time, the United States needed revenue to function. Land was sold. In order to sell the land, surveys needed to be conducted; the Land Ordinance of 1785 instructed a geographer to oversee this work as undertaken by a group of surveyors. The first years of surveying were completed by error. In 1812, Congress established the General Land Office as part of the Department of the Treasury to oversee the disposition of these federal lands. By the early 1800s, promised bounty land claims were fulfilled. Over the years, other bounty land and homestead laws were enacted to dispose of federal land. Several different types of patents existed; these include cash entry, homestead, military warrants, mineral certificates, private land claims, state selections, town sites, town lots. A system of local land offices spread throughout the territories, patenting land, surveyed via the corresponding Office of the Surveyor General of a particular territory.
This pattern spread across the entire United States. The laws that spurred this system with the exception of the General Mining Law of 1872 and the Desert Land Act of 1877 have since been repealed or superseded. In the early 20th century, Congress took additional steps toward recognizing the value of the assets on public lands and directed the Executive Branch to manage activities on the remaining public lands; the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 allowed leasing and production of selected commodities, such as coal, oil and sodium to take place on public lands. The Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 established the United States Grazing Service to manage the public rangelands by establishment of advisory boards that set grazing fees; the Oregon and California Revested Lands Sustained Yield Management Act of 1937 referred as the O&C Act, required sustained yield management of the timberlands in western Oregon. In 1946, the Grazing Service was merged with the General Land Office to form the Bureau of Land Management within the Department of the Interior.
It took several years for this new agency to reorganize. In the end, the Bureau of Land Management became less focused on land disposal and more focused on the long term management and preservation of the land; the agency achieved its current form by combining offices in the western states and creating a corresponding office for lands both east of and alongside the Mississippi River. As a matter of course, the BLM's emphasis fell on activities in the western states as most of the mining, land sales, federally owned areas are located west of the Mississippi. BLM personnel on the ground have been oriented toward local interests, while bureau management in Washington are led by presidential guidance. By means of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, Congress created a more unified bureau mission and recognized the value of the remaining public lands by declaring that these lands would remain in public ownership; the law directed that these lands be managed with a view toward "multiple use" defined as "management of the public lands and their various resource values so that th
San Juan Island National Historical Park
San Juan Island National Historical Park known as American and English Camps, San Juan Island, is a U. S. National Historical Park owned and operated by the National Park Service on San Juan Island in the state of Washington; the park is made up of the sites of the British and U. S. Army camps during the Pig War, a boundary dispute over the ownership of the island. Both of these camps were set up in 1859 as response to a border controversy triggered by the killing of a pig; the camps were occupied for 12 years, until the islands were awarded to the United States by Kaiser Wilhelm I in an arbitration agreed by the parties in the 1872 Treaty of Washington. The British abandoned their camp in November 1872, while the American camp was disbanded in July 1874; the camp sites were designated a National Historic Landmark in 1961, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966. The park was created by an Act of Congress in 1966. San Juan Island is located in Puget Sound, the westernmost of the main islands of the San Juan Islands group.
This island group is separated from Vancouver Island by the Haro Strait, from the Washington mainland by the Rosario Strait. These two channels defined the competing territorial claims of the United States and Great Britain after the Oregon Treaty of 1846 settled most of the northwestern border. Both sides pursued their territorial claims, with Americans homesteading on San Juan Island, the British Hudson's Bay Company establishing a farm on the southern tip of the island. In 1859, an American killed a stray British-owned pig, sparking the international dispute known as the Pig War; the American homesteaders requested military protection, resulting in the establishment of the American camp, while the British sent Royal Navy ships. Cooler heads prevailed, an agreement was reached whereby both sides would maintain camps on the island until the dispute could be resolved through diplomacy. From 1860 to 1872, British Royal Marines occupied a camp on the northwestern part of the island; the period of military occupation was peaceful.
In 1871, the two countries negotiated the Treaty of Washington, in which the matter of the islands was to arbitrated by the German Kaiser. His decision the following year declared the boundary to be the Haro Strait, thus awarding the islands to the United States; the British withdrew from their camp soon after, the American camp was reduced in size and scope. The buildings and properties were abandoned; the British camp was homesteaded in 1876 by William Crook, a farmer and carpenter, whose son built a house in the camp area in the early 20th century. The Crooks donated their property to the state beginning in the 1950s, the state acquired land around the American camp beginning in 1951; these properties formed the core what became this park in 1966. The British Camp site is on Garrison Bay on the islands northwestern shore. Today the Union Jack still flies there, being raised and lowered daily by park rangers, making it one of the few places without diplomatic status where US government employees hoist the flag of another country.
Surviving buildings from the British occupation include a commissary, barracks and hospital. The American Camp site is on the islands southernmost peninsula, overlaps the original Hudson's Bay Company farm; the park property includes the original site of San Juan village on the north shore of the peninsula, abandoned after the dispute ended and was burned in 1890. The camp site includes two surviving buildings from the American military occupation: an officers' quarters, the house and working quarters of the camp laundress. National Park Service's San Juan Island National Historical Park website