The 1986 World Exposition on Transportation and Communication, or Expo 86, was a World's Fair held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada from Friday, May 2 until Monday, October 13, 1986. The fair, the theme of, "Transportation and Communication: World in Motion - World in Touch", coincided with Vancouver's centennial and was held on the north shore of False Creek, it was the second time that Canada held the first being Expo 67 in Montreal. It was the third World's Fair to be held in the Pacific Northwest in the previous 24 years as of 1986 and as of 2019 it still stands as the last World's Fair to be held in North America; the logo of three interlocking rings to make the 86 in the logo stood for the three main modes of transportation. Up until the late 1970s, the 173 acre site on False Creek, where Expo was staged, was a former CPR rail yard and an industrial wasteland. In 1978, Sam Bawlf proposed an exposition to celebrate Vancouver's centennial year; the proposal was submitted in June 1979, for a fair, to be called "Transpo 86."
In 1980, the British Columbia Legislature passed the Transpo 86 Corporation Act, paving the way for the fair. The transportation theme reflected the city's role in connecting Canada by rail, its status as a major port and transportation hub, the role of transportation in communications; the initial idea was to have "...a modest $80 million transportation exposition that would mark Vancouver's 100th anniversary." It soon blossomed into a full exposition thanks to the help of the Vancouver Exposition Commissioner-General at that time, Patrick Reid. The theme of Transportation and Communication led to the conglomeration of many different exhibits of transportation networks; this included a monorail. Other ground transports included the "SkyTrain", a High Speed Surface Transport from Japan, a French "People Mover." The transport of the sky was a boxcar hovering high in the air. The water taxis moved along four different ports on the site; the fair was awarded to Vancouver by the Bureau International des Expositions in November 1980.
However, once it became clear that the event would be a world exposition, the name was changed to "Expo 86" by Ambassador and Commissioner General Patrick Reid in October 1981, and, by the end of the year, Expo 86 Corporation was established as a nonprofit agency responsible in the planning and operation of the fair. Local business tycoon Jim Pattison was appointed as CEO, would also become the president of the corporation; the chief architect selected was Bruno Freschi, the Creative Director was Ron Woodall, Bob Smith was responsible for the production and design. Construction started in October 1983, when Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, started a concrete mixer on the future site of the Canada Pavilion, offered the "invitation to the world." However, work was disrupted by labour disputes for five months. Still, Expo Centre opened May 1985, as a preview centre for the fair; the fair was budgeted for a modest CAN$78 million. However, final expenditures for the expanded event totalled $802 million, with a deficit of CAN$311 million.
As the city prepared to welcome an influx of visitors, more than a thousand low-income residents of Vancouver's Downtown Eastside were evicted from their long-term homes in single room occupancy hotels, sometimes with as little as a single day's notice. Because tenants were subject to British Columbia's Innkeeper's Act rather than the laws governing typical landlords and renters, the SRO owners were not required to give significant notice, or written notice, of an eviction. Mike Harcourt, the city's mayor at the time, hoped provincial laws might be changed to protect these residents, but the provincial government refused; the Patricia Hotel was among those establishments that evicted most or all of its residents, including a Norwegian man named Olaf Solheim. Solheim, who had lived at the Patricia Hotel for decades, was well known in the community but was evicted with just a week's notice. Although he was found a new home, he became despondent, stopped eating, died within a month. Vancouver's chief medical health officer at the time, John Batherwick, publicly asserted that the sudden eviction could be the cause of Solheim's death: "He'd been moved from where he was to a place he didn't want to be, he lost his will to live and he died."
Expo 86 was opened by Charles, Prince of Wales, Princess of Wales, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney on Friday, May 2, 1986. It featured pavilions from numerous corporations. Expo's participants were given the opportunity to design their own pavilion or opt for the less expensive Expo module; each module was two-and-a-half stories high and had the floor space equal to a third of a city block. The design was such that any number of the square modules could be placed together in a variety of shapes; the roof design allowed the interior exhibit space to be uninterrupted by pillars. This World's Fair was categorized as a "Class II," or "specialized exhibition," reflecting its specific emphases on transportation and communications. Not pictured: • Nova Scotia • Ontario • Prince Edward Island • Saskatchewan Not pictured: • Barbados • Côte d'Ivoire • Hungary • Kenya • South Korea • Malaysia • Spain • Yugoslavia Air Canada BCTV set up a functional broadcast studio on the Expo site; the BCTV pavilion allowed visitors to see, participate, in every step of how a television station operates, to see how newscasts and television shows were produced.
The pavilion was used by the station for coverage of the Ex
The Georgia Viaduct is a twinned bridge that acts as a flyover-like overpass in Vancouver, British Columbia. It passes between Rogers Arena and BC Place Stadium and connects Downtown Vancouver with Main Street and Strathcona; the first Georgia Street Viaduct was built between 1913 and 1915. The narrow structure included streetcar tracks. At one point, every second lamppost was removed to reduce weight, it was replaced in 1972 by the current viaduct, structurally separated. The current Georgia Viaduct was envisioned in the early 1970s as forming part of an extensive freeway system for Vancouver. However, communities were opposed to the idea of demolishing structures to build the freeway system and the plan was scrapped; the freeways would have required demolishing buildings in neighborhoods including Strathcona, the Downtown Eastside and Chinatown. A predominantly Black Canadian community called; the viaduct's eastbound traffic is fed from Georgia Street and leads vehicles to Prior Street and Main Street.
The viaduct's westbound lanes—often referred to as Dunsmuir Viaduct because they connect to Dunsmuir Street—pass to the north of Rogers Arena. The westbound traffic comes from Prior Street and Main Street, carries vehicles and pedestrians to Dunsmuir Street, downtown which feeds into Melville Street and Pender Street. In April 2015, the viaduct was closed for two weeks to allow filming of the movie Deadpool, released in February 2016. On October 27, 2015, Vancouver City Council voted to demolish the twin viaducts. A new six-lane road configuration that merges Expo and Pacific boulevards is in the planning stages. Georgia Street List of bridges in Canada
A tram is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets. The lines or networks operated by tramcars are called tramways; the term electric street railways was used in the United States. In the United States, the term tram has sometimes been used for rubber-tyred trackless trains, which are unrelated to other kinds of trams. Tram vehicles are lighter and shorter than main line and rapid transit trains. Today, most trams use electrical power fed by a pantograph sliding on an overhead line. In some cases by a contact shoe on a third rail is used. If necessary, they may have dual power systems—electricity in city streets, diesel in more rural environments. Trams carry freight. Trams are now included in the wider term "light rail", which includes grade-separated systems; some trams, known as tram-trains, may have segments that run on mainline railway tracks, similar to interurban systems. The differences between these modes of rail transport are indistinct, a given system may combine multiple features.
One of the advantages over earlier forms of transit was the low rolling resistance of metal wheels on steel rails, allowing the trams to haul a greater load for a given effort. Problems included the fact that any given animal could only work so many hours on a given day, had to be housed, groomed and cared for day in and day out, produced prodigious amounts of manure, which the streetcar company was charged with disposing of. Electric trams replaced animal power in the late 19th and early 20th century. Improvements in other forms of road transport such as buses led to decline of trams in mid 20th century. Trams have seen resurgence in recent years; the English terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram, referring to a type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran. The word tram derived from Middle Flemish trame; the identical word la trame with the meaning "crossbeam" is used in the French language. Etymologists believe that the word tram refers to the wooden beams the railway tracks were made of before the railroad pioneers switched to the much more wear-resistant tracks made of iron and steel.
The word Tram-car is attested from 1873. Although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English; the term streetcar is first recorded in 1840, referred to horsecars. When electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or trolleys. A held belief holds the word to derive from the troller, a four-wheeled device, dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wires. "Trolley" and variants refer to the verb troll, meaning "roll" and derived from Old French, cognate uses of the word were well established for handcarts and horse drayage, as well as for nautical uses. The alternative North American term'trolley' may speaking be considered incorrect, as the term can be applied to cable cars, or conduit cars that instead draw power from an underground supply. Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US.
Furthering confusion, the term tram has instead been applied to open-sided, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires used to ferry tourists short distances, for example on the Universal Studios backlot tour and, in many countries, as tourist transport to major destinations. The term may apply to an aerial ropeway, e.g. the Roosevelt Island Tramway. Although the use of the term trolley for tram was not adopted in Europe, the term was associated with the trolleybus, a rubber-tyred vehicle running on hard pavement, which draws its power from pairs of overhead wires; these electric buses, which use twin trolley poles, are called trackless trolleys, or sometimes trolleys. The New South Wales, government has decided to use the term "light rail" for their trams; the history of trams, streetcars or trolley systems, began in early nineteenth century. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used; the world's first passenger train or tram was the Swansea and Mumbles Railway, in Wales, UK.
The Mumbles Railway Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1804, horse-drawn service started in 1807. The service was restarted in 1860, again using horses, it was worked by steam from 1877, from 1929, by large electric tramcars, until closure in 1961. The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was something of a one-off however, no street tramway would appear in Britain until 1860 when one was built in Birkenhead by the American George Francis Train. Street railways developed in America before Europe due to the poor paving of the streets in American cities which made them unsuitable for horsebuses, which were common on the well-paved streets of European cities. Running the horsecars on rails allowed for a much smoother ride. There are records of a street railway running in Baltimore as early as 1828, however the first authenticated streetcar in America, was the New York and Harle
Precast concrete is a construction product produced by casting concrete in a reusable mold or "form", cured in a controlled environment, transported to the construction site and lifted into place. In contrast, standard concrete is cured on site. Precast stone is distinguished from precast concrete using a fine aggregate in the mixture, so the final product approaches the appearance of occurring rock or stone. More expanded polystyrene is being used as the cores to precast wall panels; this has better thermal insulation. Precast is used within interior walls. By producing precast concrete in a controlled environment, the precast concrete is afforded the opportunity to properly cure and be monitored by plant employees. Using a precast concrete system offers many potential advantages over onsite casting. Precast concrete production can performed on ground level, which helps with safety throughout a project. There is greater control over material quality and workmanship in a precast plant compared to a construction site.
The forms used in a precast plant can be reused hundreds to thousands of times before they have to be replaced making it cheaper than onsite casting when looking at the cost per unit of formwork. There are many different types of precast concrete forming systems for architectural applications, differing in size and cost. Precast architectural panels are used to clad all or part of a building facades or free-standing walls used for landscaping and security walls, some can be prestressed concrete structural elements. Stormwater drainage and sewage pipes, tunnels make use of precast concrete units. To complete the look of the four precast wall panel types — sandwich, plastered sandwich, inner layer and cladding panels — many surface finishes are available. Standard cement is grey, though different colors can be added with pigments or paints; the color and size of aggregate can affect the appearance and texture of concrete surfaces. The shape and surface of the precast concrete molds have an effect on the look: The mold can be made of timber, plastic, rubber or fiberglass, each material giving a unique finish.
Ancient Roman builders made use of concrete and soon poured the material into moulds to build their complex network of aqueducts and tunnels. Modern uses for pre-cast technology include a variety of architectural and structural applications — including individual parts, or entire building systems. In the modern world, precast panelled buildings were pioneered in Liverpool, England, in 1905; the process was invented by city engineer John Alexander Brodie, a creative genius who invented the idea of the football goal net. The tram stables at Walton in Liverpool followed in 1906; the idea was not taken up extensively in Britain. However, it was adopted all over the world in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia. In the US, precast concrete has evolved as two sub-industries, each represented by a major association; the precast concrete products industry focuses on utility and other non-prestressed products, is represented by the National Precast Concrete Association. The precast concrete structures industry focuses on prestressed concrete elements and on other precast concrete elements used in above-ground structures such as buildings, parking structures, bridges.
This industry is represented by of the Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute. In Australia, The New South Wales Government Railways made extensive use of precast concrete construction for its stations and similar buildings. Between 1917 and 1932, they erected 145 such buildings. Beyond cladding panels and structural elements, entire buildings can be assembled from precast concrete. Precast assembly enables fast completion of commercial offices with minimal labor. For example, the Jim Bridger Building in Williston, North Dakota, was precast in Minnesota with air, electrical and fiber utilities preinstalled into the building panels; the panels were transported over 800 miles to the Bakken oilfields, the commercial building was assembled by three workers in minimal time. The building houses over 40,000 square feet of offices; the entire building was fabricated in Minnesota. Reinforcing concrete with steel improves strength and durability. On its own, concrete has good compressive strength, but lacks tension and shear strength and can be subject to cracking when bearing loads for long periods of time.
Steel offers high shear strength to make up for what concrete lacks. Steel behaves to concrete in changing environments, which means it will shrink and expand with concrete, helping avoid cracking. Rebar is the most common form of concrete reinforcement, it is made from steel, manufactured with ribbing to bond with concrete as it cures. Rebar assembled to support the shape of any concrete structure. Carbon steel is the most common rebar material. However, stainless steel, galvanized steel, epoxy coatings can prevent corrosion; the following is a sampling of the numerous products. While this is not a complete list, the majority of precast/prestressed products fall under one or Precast concrete products can withstand the most extreme weather conditions and will hold up for many decades of constant usage. Products include bunker silos, cattle feed bunks, cattle grid, agricultural fencing, H-bunks, J-bunks, livestock slats, livestock watering trough, feed troughs, concrete panels, slurry channels, more.
Prestressed concrete panels are used in
Symmetry in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance. In mathematics, "symmetry" has a more precise definition, that an object is invariant to any of various transformations. Although these two meanings of "symmetry" can sometimes be told apart, they are related, so in this article they are discussed together. Mathematical symmetry may be observed with respect to the passage of time; this article describes symmetry from three perspectives: in mathematics, including geometry, the most familiar type of symmetry for many people. The opposite of symmetry is asymmetry. A geometric shape or object is symmetric if it can be divided into two or more identical pieces that are arranged in an organized fashion; this means that an object is symmetric if there is a transformation that moves individual pieces of the object but doesn't change the overall shape. The type of symmetry is determined by the way the pieces are organized, or by the type of transformation: An object has reflectional symmetry if there is a line going through it which divides it into two pieces which are mirror images of each other.
An object has rotational symmetry if the object can be rotated about a fixed point without changing the overall shape. An object has translational symmetry. An object has helical symmetry if it can be translated and rotated in three-dimensional space along a line known as a screw axis. An object contracted. Fractals exhibit a form of scale symmetry, where small portions of the fractal are similar in shape to large portions. Other symmetries include glide reflection rotoreflection symmetry. A dyadic relation R is only if, whenever it's true that Rab, it's true that Rba. Thus, "is the same age as" is symmetrical, for if Paul is the same age as Mary Mary is the same age as Paul. Symmetric binary logical connectives are and, or, nand and nor. Generalizing from geometrical symmetry in the previous section, we say that a mathematical object is symmetric with respect to a given mathematical operation, if, when applied to the object, this operation preserves some property of the object; the set of operations that preserve a given property of the object form a group.
In general, every kind of structure in mathematics will have its own kind of symmetry. Examples include and odd functions in calculus. In statistics, it appears as symmetric probability distributions, as skewness, asymmetry of distributions. Symmetry in physics has been generalized to mean invariance—that is, lack of change—under any kind of transformation, for example arbitrary coordinate transformations; this concept has become one of the most powerful tools of theoretical physics, as it has become evident that all laws of nature originate in symmetries. In fact, this role inspired the Nobel laureate PW Anderson to write in his read 1972 article More is Different that "it is only overstating the case to say that physics is the study of symmetry." See Noether's theorem. Important symmetries in physics include discrete symmetries of spacetime. In biology, the notion of symmetry is used explicitly to describe body shapes. Bilateral animals, including humans, are more or less symmetric with respect to the sagittal plane which divides the body into left and right halves.
Animals that move in one direction have upper and lower sides and tail ends, therefore a left and a right. The head becomes specialized with a mouth and sense organs, the body becomes bilaterally symmetric for the purpose of movement, with symmetrical pairs of muscles and skeletal elements, though internal organs remain asymmetric. Plants and sessile animals such as sea anemones have radial or rotational symmetry, which suits them because food or threats may arrive from any direction. Fivefold symmetry is found in the echinoderms, the group that includes starfish, sea urchins, sea lilies. In biology, the notion of symmetry is used as in physics, to say to describe the properties of the objects studied, including their interactions. A remarkable property of biological evolution is the changes of symmetry corresponding to the appearance of new parts and dynamics. Symmetry is important to chemistry because it undergirds all specific interactions between molecules in nature; the control of the symmetry of molecules produced in modern chemical synthesis contributes to the ability of scientists to offer the
Cambie Street is a street in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. It is named for Henry John Cambie, chief surveyor of the Canadian Pacific Railway's western division. There are two distinct sections of the street. North of False Creek, the street runs on a northeast-southwest alignment; as such, the street runs perpendicular to the Cambie Bridge, there is no seamless connection between the two. Instead, Nelson Street carries southbound traffic onto the bridge, Smithe Street carries northbound traffic away from the bridge; the downtown section of Cambie Street runs from Water Street in Gastown in the north to Pacific Boulevard in Yaletown in the south and is a two-way street for its length. South of False Creek, the street is a major six-lane arterial road, runs as a two-way north-south thoroughfare according to the street grid for the rest of Vancouver; this section of the street was named Bridge Street, was first connected to Cambie Street after the first Cambie Bridge opened in 1891. Between King Edward Avenue West and Southwest Marine Drive, the street has a 10 metre wide boulevard with grass and many well established trees on it.
When proposals to build the SkyTrain Canada Line subway along Cambie Street first emerged, they were protested by residents and business owners who wanted to keep the street as a heritage boulevard. They argued in favour of using the existing Arbutus Street rail corridor instead. Once the decision was made to use the Cambie alignment for the Canada Line anyway, residents along the corridor persuaded authorities to put the rail line in a tunnel instead of running it as a surface route, to dig the tunnel using a tunnel boring machine. However, due to cost concerns, the winning bidder decided to use a cut-and-cover method to build the tunnel - which introduced disruption to traffic and business along the corridor during the construction; as such though it cost less than using a tunnel boring machine, the plan drew heavy criticism from area residents and businesses. Gregor Robertson, who became the mayor of Vancouver, was a strong supporter of Cambie Street merchants and spoke about hardships from the Canada Line construction.
He called the handling of the rail line construction an "injustice."On March 23, 2009 Robertson testified in a lawsuit brought by the Cambie Street merchant Susan Heyes, owner of Hazel & Co. in the B. C. Supreme Court regarding damage to her business from the construction, a lawsuit for which she was awarded $600,000 by the B. C. Supreme Court due in part to the fact that there was insufficient action to mitigate the effects of Canada Line construction on Cambie Street merchants; the award for damages was reversed at the British Columbia Court of Appeal, which determined that while the project had resulted in a legal nuisance to the claimant, the government had acted within its authority and was therefore not liable for damages. Leave for further appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada was subsequently denied. On the Canada Line opening day of August 17, 2009 Robertson said Greater Vancouver needed more rapid transit but the Canada Line was a "great start" and that he was a "Johnny-come-lately" to the project.
During the years 2006 to 2009 portions of the street south of False Creek were closed to traffic to allow for construction of the line. The cut-and-cover tunnel runs underneath the east side of the street for most of its route. South of West 63rd Avenue, the line emerges from the tunnel and runs on an elevated structure across the Fraser River; the Gastown steam clock, located at the street's northern end, at its intersection with Water Street Victory Square and cenotaph, located on the west side of the street between Hastings and Pender streets The downtown campus of Vancouver Community College, located at the intersection with Pender Street The Vancouver City Hall, located on the street between 10th Avenue and 12th Avenue The Park Theatre, at 18th Avenue, in "Cambie Village" Queen Elizabeth Park, located east of the street between 29th Avenue and 37th Avenue Oakridge Centre, shopping centre at 41st Avenue Langara College, a community college at 49th Avenue Cambie Street Grounds Cambie Seymour Hostel Cambie Street Directory GVTV Cambie Boulevard Cambie Village Business Association
The Burrard Street Bridge is a four-lane, Art Deco style, steel truss bridge constructed in 1930–1932 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The high, five part bridge on four piers spans False Creek, connecting downtown Vancouver with Kitsilano via connections to Burrard Street on both ends, it is one of three bridges crossing False Creek. The other two bridges are the Granville Bridge, three blocks or 0.5 km to the southeast, the Cambie Street Bridge, about 11 blocks or 2 km to the east. In addition to the vehicle deck, the Burrard Bridge has 2.6 m wide sidewalks and a dedicated cycling lane on both sides. The architect of the Burrard Street Bridge was George Lister Thornton Sharp, the engineer John R. Grant; the bridge's two close approach spans are Warren trusses placed below deck level, while its central span is a Pratt truss placed above deck level to allow greater clearance height for ships passing underneath. The central truss is hidden when crossing the bridge in either direction by vertical extensions of the bridge's masonry piers into imposing concrete towers, connected by overhead galleries, which are embellished with architectural and sculptural details that create a torch-like entrance of pylons.
Busts of Captain George Vancouver and Sir Harry Burrard-Neale in ship prows jut from the bridge’s superstructure. Unifying the long approaches and the distinctive central span are heavy concrete railings topped with decorative street lamps; these pierced handrails were designed as a kind of visual shutter, so that at a speed of 50 km/h motorists would see through them with an uninterrupted view of the harbour. The effect works at speeds from about 40 to 64 km/h; the Burrard Street Bridge, opened July 1, 1932, was built to provide a high-level crossing from Vancouver to the southwestern neighbourhoods in Kitsilano, by connecting Burrard Street to Cedar Street. After completion, Burrard was extended through to the base of downtown and Cedar Street disappeared. A snip of a pair of golden scissors in the hands of Mayor Louis D. Taylor, Vancouver's $3 million Burrard Street Bridge was opened to the public Friday afternoon, July 1... Hardly was the ribbon cut in front of the devouring eyes of movie cameras thousands of pedestrians and hundreds of cars surged across the magnificent white structure in a procession of triumph, celebrating another step in Vancouver's progress At the opening ceremony, entertainment was provided by two bands, the Kitsilano Boy's Band and the Fireman's Band.
An RCAF seaplane flew under the bridge and a sugar replica of the bridge was unveiled at the civic reception in the Hotel Vancouver. G. L. Thornton Sharp, of Sharp and Thompson, was the architect responsible for the distinctive towers on the bridge and its middle galleries. "Both central piers," Sharp told a reporter, "were designed and connected with an overhead gallery across the road. This helped to mask the network of steel in the truss from the two approaches, has been treated as an entrance gateway to the city." Along their other axis, the full height of the piers above the water serve to frame a sea entrance gateway, notably for pleasure craft: "by sea and land we prosper". The piers have provision for a rapid transit vertical lift span beneath the highway deck, never installed. Burrard Street Bridge has been assessed by heritage consultants retained by the City of Vancouver as being in the top category of historic buildings in Vancouver; the bridge appeared on a stamp issued by Canada Post in 2011, in a series showcasing five notable Art Deco structures in Canada.
When constructed, the Burrard Street Bridge did not have dedicated lanes for cyclists, who shared the bridge's six vehicle lanes with motorists. As traffic volume grew and speed limits were increased on the bridge to 60 km/h, cyclists were directed to share the bridge's sidewalks with pedestrians. Over time, the volume of pedestrians and cyclists on the 2.6 m sidewalks created a dangerous situation, with several accidents occurring, which resulted in at least one successful lawsuit against the city. Since the mid-1990s, the city of Vancouver has investigated various options to rectify the situation; the two most prominent options were 1) to introduce bicycle lanes on the bridge's vehicle deck by reallocating one or more vehicle lanes, 2) to build horizontal extensions on the outside of the bridge to create additional sidewalk space. Other options have included building an new pedestrian and/or cyclist only bridge, building another deck on the bridge below the existing deck. Heritage advocates have been opposed to the construction of outside sidewalk extensions, which would alter the historical character of the bridge.
Fiscal conservatives have been opposed to high costs associated with this option. Many motorists and others have opposed reallocation of vehicle lanes to bicycle lanes, believing that the reduction in vehicle carrying capacity would create excessive traffic problems both on the bridge and on and around alternate crossings, such as the Granville Street Bridge. Beginning March 26, 1996, in a six-month trial by the City, one commuter lane was closed to automobile traffic and made into a temporary cyclist lane. However, after one week, the City was forced to revert the lane to its original purpose, due to outrage by some motorists. On May 31, 2005, a detailed engineering and planning report was presented to Council, reviewing the situation broadly, presenting alternatives, offering recommendations; that day Vancouve