Bayonne is a city and commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. It is located at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers in the northern part of the cultural region of the Basque Country, as well as the southern part of Gascony where the Aquitaine basin joins the beginning of the Pre-Pyrenees. Together with nearby Anglet, Saint-Jean-de-Luz, several smaller communes, Bayonne forms an urban area with 288,359 inhabitants at the 2012 census, 45,855 of whom lived in the city of Bayonne proper; the site on the left bank of the Nive and the Adour was occupied before ancient times as a fortified enclosure was attested in the 1st century at the time when the Tarbelli occupied the territory. Archaeological studies have confirmed the presence of a Roman castrum, a stronghold in Novempopulania at the end of the 4th century before the city was populated by the Vascones. In 1023 Bayonne was the capital of Labourd and, in the 12th century, extended to and beyond the Nive.
At that time the first bridge was built over the Adour. The city came under the domination of the English in 1152 through the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine: it became militarily and, above all, commercially important thanks to maritime trade, it was separated from the Viscount of Labourd in 1177 by Richard the Lion Heart. In 1451 the city was taken by the Crown of France after the Hundred Years' War; the loss of trade with the English and the silting up of the river as well as the movement of the city towards the north weakened it. The district of Saint-Esprit developed anyway thanks to the arrival of a Jewish population fleeing the Spanish Inquisition. From this community Bayonne gained its reputation for chocolate; the course of the Adour was changed in 1578 under the direction of Louis de Foix and the river returned to its former mouth, returning business lost to Bayonne for over a hundred years. In the 17th century the city was fortified by Vauban. In 1814 Bayonne and its surroundings were the scene of fighting between the Napoleonic troops and the Spanish-Anglo-Portuguese coalition led by the Duke of Wellington: the city underwent its final siege.
In 1951 the Lacq gas field was discovered whose extracted sulphur and associated oil are shipped from the port of Bayonne. During the second half of the 20th century many housing estates were built forming new districts on the periphery and the city was extended to form a conurbation with Anglet and Biarritz: this agglomeration became the heart of a vast Basque-Landes urban area. Bayonne was, in 2014, a commune with over 45,000 inhabitants, the heart of the urban area of Bayonne and of the Agglomeration Côte Basque-Adour which includes Anglet and Biarritz, it is an important part of the Basque Bayonne-San Sebastián Eurocity and it plays the role of economic capital of the Adour basin. Modern industry—metallurgy and chemicals—are established to take advantage of procurement opportunities and sea shipments through the harbour, it is now business services which today represent the largest source of employment. Bayonne is a cultural capital, a city with strong Basque and Gascon influences and a rich historical past.
Its heritage lies in its architecture, the diversity of collections in museums, its gastronomic specialties, traditional events such as the famous Fêtes de Bayonne. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Bayonnaises. Bayonne is located in the south-west of France on the western border between Basque Country and Gascony, it developed at the confluence of the Adour and tributary on the left bank, the Nive, 6 km from the Atlantic coast. The commune was part of the Basque province of Labourd. Bayonne occupies a territory characterized by a flat relief to the west and to the north towards the Landes forest, tending to raise towards the south and east; the city has developed at the confluence of the Nive 6 kilometres from the ocean. The meeting point of the two rivers coincides with a narrowing of the Adour valley. Above this the alluvial plain extends for nearly thirty kilometres towards both Tercis-les-Bains and Peyrehorade, is characterized by swampy meadows called barthes which are influenced by floods and high tides.
Downstream from this point the river has shaped a large bed in the sand dunes creating a significant bottleneck at the confluence. The occupation of the hill that dominates this narrowing of the valley developed through a gradual spread across the lowlands by building embankments and the aggradation from flood soil; the Nive has played a leading role in the development of the Bayonne river system in recent geological time by the formation of alluvial terraces that form the sub-soil of Bayonne beneath the surface accumulations of silt and aeolian sands. The drainage network of the western Pre-Pyrenees evolved from the Quaternary from south-east to northwest oriented east-west; the Adour was captured by the gaves and this system, together with the Nive, led to the emergence of a new alignment of the lower Adour and the Adour-Nive confluence. This capture has been dated to the early Quaternary. Before this capture the Nive had deposited pebbles from the Mindel glaciation of medium to large sizes that slowed erosion of the hills causing the bottleneck at Bayonne.
After the deposit of the lowest alluvial terrace, the course of the Adour became fixed in its lower reaches. Subsequent to these deposits there was a rise in sea level in the Holocene period which explains the invasion of the lower valleys with fine sand and mud with a thickness of m
Isaac Manuel Francisco Albéniz y Pascual was a Spanish virtuoso pianist and conductor. He is one of the foremost composers of the Post-Romantic era who had a significant influence on his contemporaries and younger composers, he is best known for his piano works based on Spanish folk music idioms. Transcriptions of many of his pieces, such as Asturias, Sevilla, Cadiz, Córdoba, Cataluña, the Tango in D, are important pieces for classical guitar, though he never composed for the guitar; the personal papers of Albéniz are preserved, among other institutions, in the Biblioteca de Catalunya. Born in Camprodon, province of Girona, to Ángel Albéniz and his wife, Dolors Pascual, Albéniz was a child prodigy who first performed at the age of four. At age seven, after taking lessons from Antoine François Marmontel, he passed the entrance examination for piano at the Conservatoire de Paris, but he was refused admission because he was believed to be too young. By the time he had reached 12, he had made many attempts to run away from home.
His concert career began at the age of nine when his father toured both Isaac and his sister, throughout northern Spain. A popular myth is, he found himself in Cuba to the United States, giving concerts in New York and San Francisco and travelled to Liverpool and Leipzig. By age 15, he had given concerts worldwide; this story is not false, Albéniz did travel the world as a performer. This can be attested by comparing Isaac's concert dates with his father's travel itinerary. In 1876, after a short stay at the Leipzig Conservatory, he went to study at the Royal Conservatory of Brussels after King Alfonso's personal secretary, Guillermo Morphy, obtained him a royal grant. Count Morphy thought of Albéniz, who would dedicate Sevilla to Morphy's wife when it premiered in Paris in January 1886. In 1880 Albéniz went to Budapest, Hungary, to study with Franz Liszt, only to find out that Liszt was in Weimar, Germany. In 1883 he met the teacher and composer Felip Pedrell, who inspired him to write Spanish music such as the Chants d'Espagne.
The first movement of that suite retitled after the composer's death as Asturias, is most famous today as part of the classical guitar repertoire though it was composed for piano. At the 1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition, the piano manufacturer Érard sponsored a series of 20 concerts featuring Albéniz's music; the apex of Albéniz's concert career is considered to be 1889 to 1892 when he had concert tours throughout Europe. During the 1890s Albéniz lived in Paris. For London he wrote some musical comedies which brought him to the attention of the wealthy Francis Money-Coutts, 5th Baron Latymer. Money-Coutts commissioned and provided him with librettos for the opera Henry Clifford and for a projected trilogy of Arthurian operas; the first of these, was thought to have been lost but has been reconstructed and performed. Albéniz never completed Lancelot, he never began Guinevere, the final part. In 1900 he returned to writing piano music. Between 1905 and 1908 he composed his final masterpiece, Iberia, a suite of twelve piano "impressions".
In 1883 the composer married his student Rosina Jordana. They had three children: Blanca and Alfonso. Two other children died in infancy, his great-granddaughter is former wife of Nicolas Sarkozy. Albéniz died from his kidney disease on 18 May 1909 at age 48 in Cambo-les-Bains, in Labourd, south-western France. Only a few weeks before his death, the government of France awarded Albéniz its highest honor, the Grand-Croix de la Légion d'honneur, he is buried at the Montjuïc Barcelona. Albéniz's early works were "salon style" music. Albéniz's first published composition, Marcha Militar, appeared in 1868. A number of works written before this are now lost, he continued composing in traditional styles ranging from Jean-Philippe Rameau, Johann Sebastian Bach, Ludwig van Beethoven, Frédéric Chopin and Franz Liszt until the mid-1880s. He wrote at least five zarzuelas, of which all but two are now lost; the best source on the works is Albéniz himself. He is quoted as commenting on his earlier period works as:There are among them a few things that are not worthless.
The music is a bit infantile, spirited. I believe that the people are right when they continue to be moved by Córdoba, Mallorca, by the copla of the Sevillanas, by the Serenata, Granada. In all of them I now note that there is less musical science, less of the grand idea, but more color, flavor of olives; that music of youth, with its little sins and absurdities that point out the sentimental affectation... appears to me like the carvings in the Alhambra, those peculiar arabesques that say nothing with their turns and shapes, but which are like the air, like the sun, like the blackbirds or like the nightingales of its gardens. They are more valuable than all else of Moorish Spain, which though we may not like it, is the true Spain. During the late 1880s, the strong influence of Spanish sty
Arbonne is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Arbonars Arbonne is located some 6 km south of Biarritz and 3 km east of Bidart, it is located in the former province of Labourd. Access to the commune is by road D255 from Biarritz in the north passing through the village and continuing south to Saint-Pée-sur-Nivelle; the D655 goes to Ahetze. The A63 autoroute has no access from the commune. In the south of the commune is the hamlet of Le Hameau d'Arbonne; the rest of the commune is farmland with patches of forest in the north. Located in the drainage basin of the Adour, the commune is traversed by the Uhabia, a small coastal river that flows into the ocean at Bidart, its tributaries: the Zirikolatzeko erreka and the Ruisseau d'Argelos; the Ruisseau de Pemartin flows through the commune and there is an extensive network of streams throughout the commune. The commune name in Basque is Arbona.
Brigitte Jobbé-Duval indicated that'Arbona meant "place of tree stumps". The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Origins: Bayonne: Cartulary of Bayonne or Livre d'Or Collations: Collations of the Diocese of Bayonne Chapter: Titles of the Chapter of Bayonne Intendance: Intendance of Pau The oldest lord of Arbonne whose names are known are from the Sault family, Viscounts of Labourd. At the end of the 14th century the lordship was owned by the Saint-Julien family and in 1408 to the Amezqueta family; the Act of 4 March 1790, which determined the new administrative landscape of France by creating departments and districts, created the Department of Basses-Pyrénées to bring together Béarn, the Gascon lands in Bayonne and Bidache, three French Basque provinces. For these three provinces three districts were created: Mauléon, Saint-Palais, Ustaritz which replaced the Bailiwick of Labourd.
The seat of Ustaritz was transferred immediately to Bayonne. Its Directorate pushed many municipalities into adopting new names conforming to the spirit of the Revolution. Arbonne was called Constante, Ustaritz became Marat-sur-Nive, Itxassou Union, Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry Thermopyles, Saint-Palais Mont-Bidouze, Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port Nive-Franche, Louhossoa Montagne-sur-Nive, Saint-Jean-de-Luz Chauvin-Dragon, Ainhoa Mendiarte, Souraïde Mendialde. List of Successive Mayors Mayors from 1943 Arbonne is part of nine inter-communal structures: the Agglomération Sud Pays Basque; the commune is part of the Eurocité basque Bayonne-San Sebastian. In 2009 the commune had 1,993 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The commune is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty.
According to the Map of the Seven Basque Provinces by Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte the basque dialect spoken in Arbonne is northern Upper Navarrese The commune has two buildings that are registered as historical monuments: The Church of Saint-Laurent. It is of a medium size with an arched Bell-gable characteristic of Labourd religious buildings; some old Hilarri are visible in the cemetery. The old Benoîterie d'Arbonne The Benoîterie was the residence of the Benoîte or guardian of the church and cemetery and is now the venue for exhibitions. HealthThe commune has a general practitioner, three nurses, a speech therapist, a physiotherapist, a dentist - all in the village centre. EducationArbonne has two primary schools, one public and one private Jean Borotra - called the Basque bondissant, born in 1898 at Biarritz and died in 1994 at Arbonne, a tennis player and French politician Bernard Béreau, born in 1940 at Arbonne and died in 2005, he was a French footballer Marie-Michèle Beaufils, born in 1949 at Arbonne, she is a contemporary writer Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Arbonne, Collective work under the direction of Hubert Lamant-Duhart, Ekaina, 1988 Arbonne official website ARBONA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Arbonne on Lion1906 Arbonne on Google Maps Arbonne on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Arbonne on the 1750 Cassini Map Arbonne on the INSEE website INSEE
French Basque Country
The French Basque Country, or Northern Basque Country is a region lying on the west of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques. Since 1 January 2017, it constitutes the Basque Municipal Community presided over by Jean-René Etchegaray, it includes three former historic French provinces in the north-east of the traditional Basque Country totalling 2,869 km2: Lower Navarre, until 1789 nominally Kingdom of Navarre, with 1,284 km2. The population included in the Basque Municipal Community amounts to 295,970 inhabitants distributed in 158 municipalities, it is delimited in the north by the department of Landes, in the west by the Bay of Biscay, in the south by the Southern Basque Country and in the east by Béarn, the eastern part of the department. Bayonne and Biarritz are its chief towns, included in the Basque Eurocity Bayonne-San Sebastián Euroregion, it is a popular tourist destination and is somewhat distinct from neighbouring parts of either France or the southern Basque Country, since it was not industrialized as Biscay or Gipuzkoa and remained agricultural and a beach destination.
The present-day territory was inhabited by the Tarbelli and the Sibulates, tribal divisions of the Aquitani. When Caesar conquered Gaul he found all the region south and west of the Garonne inhabited by a people known as the Aquitani, who were not Celtic and are modernly regarded as Basques. In the early Roman times, the region was first known as Aquitania, when the name Aquitania was extended until the Loire river, as Novempopulania or Aquitania Tertia. After the Basque rebellions against Roman feudalism in the late 4th and 5th century, the area formed part of the independent Duchy of Vasconia, a blur ethnic polity stretching south of the Garonne River that broke up from the 8th to 9th century following the Carolingian expansion, the pressure of Norman raids and feudalism; the County of Vasconia was created extending around the Adour River. In this period northern Basques participated in the successive battles of Roncevaux against the Franks, in 778, 812 and 824. Count Sans Sancion detached from the Franks and became the independent commander of Vasconia, but got involved in the Carolingian dynastic wars over succession after taking over Bordeaux, supporting the young Pepin II to the throne of Aquitaine.
He became Duke of Vasconia after submitting to Charles the Bald. At this point, Basque language was losing ground to vulgar and written Latin and was confined to the lands around the Pyrénées. Since 963, the town Saint-Sever is mentioned as "caput vasconiae", interpreted by some as "limit of Vasconia", while others take it as "prominence of Vasconia" on account of its location on a hill overlooking the plains of Vasconia; the lands to the south of the Adour became Labourd, encompassing a bigger region than the territory around the Nive and the coast. In 1020 Gascony ceded its jurisdiction over Labourd also including Lower Navarre, to Sancho the Great of Pamplona; this monarch made it a Viscounty in 1023. The area became disputed by the Angevin Dukes of Aquitaine until 1191 when Sancho the Wise and Richard Lionheart agreed to divide the country, Labourd remaining under Angevin sovereignty and Lower Navarre under Navarrese control. Meanwhile, Soule was constituted as an independent viscounty supported by Navarre against the pretensions of the Counts of Béarn, though at times it admitted a certain Angevin overlordship.
With the end of the Hundred Years' War and Soule passed to the Crown of France as autonomous provinces. After the conquest of Upper Navarre by Castile in 1512–21, the still independent north-Pyrenean part of Navarre took the lead of the Huguenot party in the French Wars of Religion. In this time the Bible was first translated into the Basque language. Henry III of Navarre became King of France but kept Navarre as a formally independent state, until in 1620–24 this separation was suppressed. In 1634, Axular gives in his literary work Gero a rough description of the extent of Basque at the time, with the language comprising all the provinces now known as Basque Country "and so many other places". After Axular's accomplished book, other Basque writing authors followed suit in Labourd, a district thriving on whale hunting. In 1579 an important handbook for navigation was published by Martin Oihartzabal, the Navigational pilot offering guidance and useful landmarks found in Newfoundland and other Basque traditional fisheries.
In 1677 it was translated to Basque by Pierre Etxeberri. However, during the 17 and 18th century that activity saw a gradual decline as the English took over from the Basques; the three Northern Basque provinces still enjoyed considerable autonomy until the French Revolution suppressed it radically, as it did elsewhere in France creating the department of Basses-Pyrénées, half Basque and half Gascon. Third estate representatives of the Basques provinces attending the Estates-General of 1789 and the following national assemblies in Paris rejected the imposition of an alien political-administrative design, regarding the events with a blend of disbelief and indignation; the brothers Garat, representatives of Labourd, defended against a hostile audience the specificity of their province a
Espelette is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. It lies in the traditional Basque province of Labourd; the town is attractive with a castle. The protected sixteenth century church, Saint-Etienne, has a Baroque altarpiece and its graveyard has many traditional Basque discoidal tombstones. There is the grave of local woman Agnès Souret the first woman chosen as Miss France in 1920, she died in Argentina aged 26 in 1928 and her body was repatriated to Espelette by her mother who sold most of her possessions to provide a resting place for her daughter. Espelette is known for its dried red peppers, used whole or ground to a hot powder, used in the production of Bayonne ham; the peppers are designated as Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée and are hung to dry outside many of the houses and shops in the village during the summer. The peppers are sold in the town's Wednesday covered market and are honoured in a festival on the last Sunday in October. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE commune file Ezpeleta in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa — Auñamendi Encyclopedia Piment d'Espelette, site dedicated to the pepper
Ciboure is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. It lies across the river Nivelle from the harbour of Saint-Jean-de-Luz. Ciboure is, like its neighbour, a pretty town with many buildings of the traditional Basque style of Lapurdi; the 16th-century church of St Vincent has an octagonal tower, Basque galleries and a Baroque altarpiece. Adjacent to Ciboure is the Fort of Socoa, a 15th-century fortress built by Louis XIII. Ciboure was the birthplace of: Maurice Ravel Martin de Hoyarçabal Anne Marie Palli Philippe Bergeroo Michel de SallaberryCiboure was the residential place of: American Time magazine journalists and authors Charles Wertenbaker and Lael Tucker Wertenbaker, their son Christian and daughter Timberlake Wertenbaker, who grew up in the Basque Country and were educated in France. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE commune file Mes Vacances à Ciboure - Socoa ZIBURU in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Information available in Spanish
Basque music refers to the music made in the Basque Country, reflecting traits related to its society/tradition, devised by people from that territory. While traditionally more associated to rural based and Basque language music, the growing diversification of its production during the last decades has tipped the scale in favour of a broad definition. Basque traditional music is a product of the region's historic development and strategic geographical position on the Atlantic arch at a crossroads between mountains and plains and inland, European continent and Iberian Peninsula, its culture and music has thus been exposed to a wide number of influences throughout history, ranging from British and northern European to Mediterranean to Arabic. For example, traditional overseas commerce with England, or international pilgrimage on the Way of St James added to leave an imprint in both instruments and tunes. Folk instruments widespread in Europe ceased to be used in some places at some point of history and only remained in specific areas, where they took hold and adopted features and a character associated with the region, e.g. the three-hole pipe or tabor pipe in widespread use in Europe resulted in two specific instruments in the Basque Country: the txistu and the xirula.
Accordingly, different instruments may have evolved out of one, such as Navarrese dulzaina and Souletin txanbela, with slight differences between them. Most instruments adopted in rural and folk circles do not go back more than six centuries, with some having been introduced as late as the 19th century, such as the trikiti, or the txistu, shaped in its present-day form during that period, despite the fact that it resulted from a long evolution. Most Basque instruments originated outside the Basque Country and became popular in the territory at some stage, but the txalaparta is not one of them; some traditional Basque instruments are the following: Alboka, a difficult double clarinet played in a circular breathing technique similar to that used for the Sardinian launeddas. Txalaparta, a wooden xylophone-like percussion instrument for two players. Kirikoketa, a wooden percussion device akin to the txalaparta associated with the cider making process. Toberak, a percussion instrument made of horizontal metal bars.
Txistu, a local pipe. Drum, called danbolin, accompanying the txistu. Atabal, a double sided, portable flat drum played together with aerophones. Xirula, a three-hole flute and more high-pitched than txistu. Ttun-ttun, a vertical stringed drum played together with the xirula. Trikiti or eskusoinua, a lively diatonic button accordion. Tambourine played together with the trikiti. Dulzaina, a Navarre-based pipe belonging to the shawm family. Blowing horn, an instrument made of ox horn; the Basque people are given to singing. Basque language has stuck to the oral tradition stronger than Romance languages, its literature was first recorded in writing in the 16th century. There are ballads dating from the 15th century that have been passed from parents to children by word of mouth, e.g. Ozaze Jaurgainian from Soule, which relates events six centuries ago and has come down to us in different versions, or Alostorrea, from Biscay; these ballads were crafted and spread by minstrels or bertsolaris, were kept in popular memory, were transmitted in the so-called kopla zaharrak, sets of poems with a characteristic rhythmic pattern that could be sung: this is similar to traditional practices elsewhere in Europe.
So, for example, the first work of literature in Basque Linguæ Vasconum Primitiæ by Bernard Etxepare shows long verses that, while deceptively fashioned in metres resembling those used in Romance poetry, follow an internal rhythmic pattern similar to a kopla, so they can be popularly sung. Today, it is not unusual to see groups of people marching around a town at some local festival singing and asking the neighbours for a food, drink or money donation, while the most famous celebrations following this pattern across the whole Basque Country may be those taking place on Christmas Eve and the Saint Agatha's Eve, with singers dressing up in traditional costumes, it follows that traditional singing is related to bertsolaris, improvising bards, who nowadays hold an important status in Basque culture. They voice the people's concerns by means of a formal tradition coming from the people, act as their spokespersons. A considerable corpus of traditional songs was gathered by Resurrección María de Azkue and Aita Donostia, two religious scholars interested in Basque folk culture, at the turn of the 20th century.
Cancionero Vasco. In the present day, the band Hiru Truku has chosen several ancient songs from all over the Basque Country, updated the music brilliantly and released them in a number of albums. Another current long-standing and renowned group who elaborate on traditional songs is Oskorri: The band set about singing traditional songs in public performances handing out to the audience a repertoire bill including the lyrics and encouraging them to sing along; the band has launched a couple of albums of this kind so far and performed on various tours to public acclaim, becoming popular with middle-aged parents. A key figure bridging the old singing tradition of Soule and the folk song revival of the 20th century is Pierre Bordazaharre, aka Etxahun Iruri. A xirula player and singer, he collected old songs and fashioned new ones, which eve