Cambodian riel

The riel is the currency of Cambodia. There have been two distinct riel, the first issued between 1953 and May 1975. Between 1975 and 1980, the country had no monetary system. A second currency named "riel", has been issued since March 20, 1980. Popular belief suggests that the name of the currency comes from the riel, it is more that the name derives from the high silver content Mexican real used by Malay and Chinese merchants in mid-19th-century Cambodia. In 1953, the Cambodia branch of the Institut d'Émission des États du Cambodge, du Laos et du Vietnam issued notes dual denominated in piastre and riel with the riel being at par with the piastre. At the same time, the two other branches of the Institut had similar arrangements with the đồng in South Vietnam and the kip in Laos; the piastre itself was derived from Spanish pieces of eight. The riel was at first subdivided into 100 centimes but this changed in 1959 to 100 sen. For the first few years, the riel and piastre circulated alongside each other.

The first riel banknotes were denominated in piastres. First issue, 1955–56: 1 riel, 5 riels, 10 riels, 50 riels. Second issue, 1956: 1 riel, 20 riels, 50 riels, 100 riels, 500 riels. Third issue, 1963: 5 riels, 10 riels, 100 riels. Fourth issue, 1972: 100 riels*, 500 riels, 1,000 riels*, 5,000 riels*; the 10, 20 and 50 centimes of 1953 and sen coins were minted in aluminium and were the same size as the corresponding att and xu coins of Laos and South Vietnam. A 1 riel coin about the size of a U. S. nickel was to be issued in 1970, as part of the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization's coin program, but was not released due to the overthrow of the government of Norodom Sihanouk by Lon Nol. Although the Khmer Rouge printed banknotes, these notes were not issued as money was abolished after the Khmer Rouge took control of the country. Fifth issue, 1975: 0.1 riel, 0.5 riel, 1 riel, 5 riels, 10 riels, 50 riels, 100 riels. In 1993 they printed a series of coloured banknotes for limited use on territories controlled by them.

After the Vietnamese invasion in 1978, the riel was re-established as Cambodia's national currency on April 1, 1980 at a value of 4 riels = 1 U. S. dollar. It is subdivided into 10 kak or 100 sen; because there was no money for it to replace and a disrupted economy, the central government gave away the new money to the populace in order to encourage its use. Sixth issue, 1979: 0.1 riel, 0.2 riel, 0.5 riel, 1 riel, 5 riels, 10 riels, 20 riels, 50 riels. Seventh issue, 1987: 5 riels, 10 riels. Eighth issue, 1990-92: 50 riels, 100 riels, 500 riels. Ninth issue, 1992-93: 200 riels, 1,000 riels*, 2,000 riels*. Tenth issue, 1995: 1,000 riels, 2,000 riels, 5,000 riels, 10,000 riels, 20,000 riels, 50,000 riels, 100,000 riels. Eleventh issue, 1995-99: 100 riels, 200 riels, 500 riels, 1,000 riels. Twelfth issue, 2001-07: 50 riels, 100 riels, 500 riels, 1,000 riels, 2,000 riels, 5,000 riels, 10,000 riels, 50,000 riels. Thirteenth issue. Fourteenth issue. Fifteenth issue. 100 riels 500 riels 1,000 riels 2,000 riels 5,000 riels 10,000 riels 20,000 riels 50,000 riels 100,000 riels The first coins were 5 sen pieces, minted in 1979 and made of aluminum.

No more coins were minted until 1994, when denominations of 50, 100, 200 and 500 riels were introduced. However, these are found in circulation. In rural areas the riel is used for all purchases and small. However, the United States dollar is used in urban Cambodia and tourist areas. In Battambang and other areas near the Thai border, like Pailin, the Thai baht is accepted. Dollarization started in the 1980s and continued to the early 90s when the United Nations contributed humanitarian aid, refugees began sending remittances home, inflation as high as 177% per year eroded confidence in the riel. From 1991-1993, the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia stationed 22,000 personnel throughout Cambodia, whose spending represented a large part of the Cambodian economy. Cambodian tical Cambodian franc Economy of Cambodia Cambodian Currency Collection - Depicts every banknote issued in Cambodia Historical banknotes of Cambodia

Jamaican Maroon Creole

Jamaican Maroon language, Maroon Spirit language, Jamaican Maroon Creole or Deep patwa is a ritual language and mother tongue of Jamaican Maroons. It is an English-based creole with a strong Akan component from the Fante dialect of the Central Region of Ghana, it is distinct from usual Jamaican Creole, being similar to the creoles of Sierra Leone and Suriname such as Sranan and Ndyuka. It is more purely Akan than regular Patois, with little to no contribution from other African languages. Today, the Maroon Spirit language is used by Jamaican Maroons while possessed by the spirits of ancestors during Kromanti ceremonies or when addressing those who are possessed; the term "Kromanti" is used by participants in such ceremonies in order to refer to the language spoken by ancestors in the distant past, prior to the creolization of Jamaican Maroon Creole. This term is used to refer to a language, "clearly not a form of Jamaican Creole and displays little English content". While Kromanti is not a functioning language, those possessed by ancestral spirits are attributed the ability to speak it.

More remote ancestors are compared with more recent ancestors on a gradient, such that increasing strength and ability in the use of the non-creolized Kromanti are attributed to remote ancestors. The language was brought along by the maroon population to Cudjoe's Town to Nova Scotia in 1796, where they were sent in exile, they traveled to Sierra Leone in 1800. Their creole language influenced the local creole language that evolved into present day Krio. Bilby discusses several phonological distinctions between Jamaican Creole and Jamaican Maroon Creole. Vowel epithesis: Some words in the Maroon Creole have a vowel in the final syllable, compared to Jamaican Creole; some examples are: fete "to fight" wudu "forest" mutu "mouth"Liquids: Many words that have a lateral liquid /l/ in Jamaican Creole have a trill /r/ in Maroon Creole. Some examples are: priis "pleased" braka "black" bere "belly"/ai/ to /e/: There are several instances where the "deep creole" uses /e/ while the "normal creole" uses /ai/.

Jamaican Maroon religion Spirit possession Krio West African Pidgin English Bilby, Kenneth. "How the "Older Heads" Talk: A Jamaican Maroon Spirit Possession Language and Its Relationship to the Creoles of Suriname and Sierra Leone". New West Indian Guide / Nieuwe West-Indische Gids. 57: 37–88. Doi:10.1163/13822373-90002097

Adele Anthony

Adele Anthony is an Australian-American violinist. In 1984, at age 13, she was the youngest winner of the ABC Vocal Competition, she is now based in the United States, where she lives with her husband Gil Shaham, tours and records. Adele Anthony was born in Singapore as the daughter of Alphonse Jivaras Anthony, the founding concertmaster of the Singapore Symphony Orchestra, she began to play the violin at the age of two and a half. She subsequently attended Dernancourt Primary School, South Australia, studied violin in Adelaide with Lyndall Hendrickson and Beryl Kimber. In her high school years, she attended Pembroke School and Saint Ignatius'College Athelstone. At age 13, in 1984, Anthony was the youngest winner of the ABC Instrumental and Vocal Competition, performing the Violin Concerto by Jean Sibelius with the Queensland Symphony Orchestra, she was the winner of the 1996 Carl Nielsen International Violin Competition. She subsequently studied with Dorothy DeLay at the Juilliard School in New York for eight years.

Her recordings include Philip Glass's Violin Concerto No. 1, Arvo Pärt's Tabula Rasa with Gil Shaham, Neeme Järvi and the Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra and Ross Edwards' Concerto for Violin and Orchestra, Maninyas / Sibelius's Violin Concerto in D minor with the Adelaide Symphony Orchestra conducted by Arvo Volmer. She is married to violinist Gil Shaham, they have three children. Philippe, Aspects of European Influences on Violin Playing & Teaching in Australia, M. Mus. Diss. 1988 Lyndall Hendrickson, A longitudinal Study of Precocity in Music, in Giftedness, a Continuing Worldwide Challenge, edited by A. J. Cropley, New York, Trillium Press, 1985, pp. 192–203 Brian Wise, Playing with fire, in «The Strad», vol. 120 n. 1436, pp. 26–30. Anthony biography from