St Day is a civil parish and village in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is situated between the town of Redruth; the electoral ward St Day and Lanner had a population at the 2011 census of 4,473. St Day is located in accrued considerable wealth from mining; the parish is at the heart of the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape, a World Heritage Site that includes St Agnes, Chapel Porth and Porthtowan. St Day was a centre for the richest and most famous copper mining district in the world from the 16th century to the 1830s; the population and activity in St Day declined from about 1870 onwards, today the population is smaller than in 1841. It is now a residential village; the Wheal Gorland mine is the type locality for the minerals: clinoclase and liroconite. A St Day mine site has been used for short-oval stock car racing for many years. Stock car drivers from Cornwall have won 11 World Championships; the population of St Day was 1,821 at the census 2011 The parish was a chapelry of Gwennap but became independent in 1835.
In the 13th century there was a chapel dedicated to the Holy Trinity and earlier there had been a chapel dedicated to St Day, a great centre of pilgrimage. The saint commemorated here is the Breton Saint Dei. St Day Civil Parish Council website Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for St Day GENUKI website.
Carn Brea, Redruth
Carn Brea is a civil parish and hilltop site in Cornwall, United Kingdom. The population of Carn Brea including Bosleake and Church Coombe was 8,013 at the 2011 census; the hilltop site is situated one mile southwest of Redruth. The settlements of Bosleake, Broad Lane, Carn Arthen, Carn Brea Village, Four Lanes, Illogan Highway, Penhallick, Pool, Tregajorran, Treskillard and West Tolgus are in the parish; the Neolithic settlement at Carn Brea was a tor enclosure occupied between around 3700 and 3400 BC. Roger Mercer directed archaeological excavations of the site in 1970. and 1972. A two-acre inner enclosure was surrounded by one of eleven acres; the ramparts consisted of stone walls with ditch. Traces of fourteen platforms on which would have stood Neolithic long houses have been found within its ramparts, along with pottery and flint artefacts; the settlement had an estimated population of 100 to 150. There is evidence that the occupants cleared the surrounding land for farming by burning away the undergrowth and removing stones although the acid soil obliterated any environmental evidence.
Nearby outcrops of rock suitable for making axes would have contributed to the village's economy. Edge grinding stones and incomplete and finished axes found on the site indicate the inhabitants were accomplished stoneworkers and traded their products. Pottery found on the site appears to have been made from gabbroic clay originating nearly 20 miles to the south in the present day parish of St Keverne suggesting a complex economic network in the area. Over 700 flint arrowheads were found scattered at the site. Despite nineteenth-century destruction, there was a concentration of arrow heads around a probable entrance to the enclosure, Mercer's site E; these arrows may have been used by a large group of archers in an organized assault upon a defended site. Every timber structure on the site had been burnt, charcoal was the only organic matter that survived the acid soils; the earthworks may have been deliberately damaged by invaders. In the Iron Age the site was reoccupied and minerals were mined from the hillside.
One hut floor was excavated, sherds of characteristically Iron Age types, including'cordoned ware', were found. The fortified gateway, Mercer's Site G, was of Iron Age form, Mercer suggests that although Site G produced no Iron Age artifacts, it is post-Neolithic; the crushed-rock road surface showed little sign of contemporary wear and could never have been subjected to a modicum of traffic. A hoard of Gallo-Belgic gold staters originating from northeastern Gaul and Kent were found in the 18th century; the Ravenna Cosmography, of around AD 700, refers to Purocoronavis,'a fort or walled settlement of the Cornovii'. Carn Brea CastleCarn Brea Castle stands near the top of the hill, it is built on the site of a chapel built in 1379 dedicated to St Michael. It was built in the 18th century by the Basset family as a hunting lodge, it is considered to be a folly built on the huge uncut boulders that make up part of its foundations, giving the impression of the building melting into the land. An East India trading ship named after Carn Brea Castle, was wrecked off the Isle of Wight in 1829 and involved in excise tax fraud.
In the 1980s the abandoned building was converted into a Middle Eastern cuisine restaurant. The stolen Ford Anglia featured in the Harry Potter films was found at the castle in 2006. 50°13′20.85″N 5°14′41.40″W Basset MonumentAt the highest point of the hill is a 90-feet high Celtic cross erected as a monument to Francis Basset, 1st Baron de Dunstanville and Basset. Basset, a mine owner, gained his titles for erecting earthworks to defend Plymouth from combined French and Spanish fleets in 1779, suppressing a miners' "food riot" in 1785. Along with others, he petitioned the House of Lords against slavery in 1828; the monument was erected by public subscription in 1836. It is inscribed "The County of Cornwall to the memory of Francis Lord de Dunstanville and Basset A. D. 1836." 50°13′16″N 5°14′56″W Cup and Saucer RockThe Cup and Saucer Rock next to the monument is a large flattish rock with several deep basins. The rock has been called "The Sacrificing Rock". 50°13′16″N 5°14′54″W Smugglers' Cave In a depression between the monument and the castle are the remains of the "Smugglers' Cave".
It was blocked with rocks by the council in the 1980s to stop children entering. The tunnel is rumoured to extend from the top of the carn into Redruth town, but it is an abandoned mine working, it may have been confused with another tunnel from the castle to St Uny's church, blocked for safety reasons around 1970 by the castle owners. 50°13′19″N 5°14′50″W Saint Euny's WellSaint Euny's Well is at the foot of Carn Brea below the castle near St Euny's Church. It has a plaque by Carn Brea Parish Trails reading "St Euny Well. Holy well of St Euny visited by the Celtic Missionary 500AD". Stories about its sacred use may be confused with St Euny's Well at Sancreed. At Easter Redruth Baptist Church erects a lit cross on the outcrop behind the Castle overlooking Redruth. For many years a Christian sunrise service has been held on Easter Sunday; the Midsummer Eve bonfire ceremony originated as a pagan ritual. Prayers are read in Cornish and the bonfire is lit, signalling other fires to be lit at Sennen, Sancreed Beacon, Carn Galver to the Tamar.
When only the embers remain, young people leap across them to drive away evil and bring lu
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area. In most cases, a conurbation is a polycentric urbanised area, in which transportation has developed to link areas to create a single urban labour market or travel to work area; the term "conurbation" was coined in 1915 by Patrick Geddes in his book Cities In Evolution. He drew attention to the ability of the new technology of electric power and motorised transport to allow cities to spread and agglomerate together, gave as examples "Midlandton" in England, the Ruhr in Germany, Randstad in the Netherlands and North Jersey in the United States; the term as described is used in Britain, whereas in the United States each polycentric "metropolitan area" may have its own common designation, such as San Francisco Bay Area or the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. Conurbation consists of adjacent metropolitan areas that are connected with one another by urbanization Internationally, the term "urban agglomeration" is used to convey a similar meaning to "conurbation."
A conurbation should be contrasted with a megalopolis, where the urban areas are close but not physically contiguous and where the merging of labour markets has not yet developed. The cities and towns of Port Louis, Beau Bassin-Rose Hill, Quatre Bornes, Vacoas-Phoenix and other urbanized villages form a large and central conurbation on the island of Mauritius. A large part of this conurbation is located in the district of Plaines Wilhems; this network of urban areas has a total population of 606,650 as of 2011. Rabat-Salé Lagos is a conurbation formed through the merged development of the initial Lagos city area with other cities and towns, such as Ikeja, along with various suburban communities like Agege, Ifako-Ijaiye, Mushin and Shomolu. Johannesburg and Tshwane are merging to form a region that has a population of 14.6 million. Greater Buenos Aires – Greater La Plata – Zárate / Campana The entire Rio–São Paulo area is sometimes considered a conurbation, plans are in the works to connect the cities with a high-speed rail.
Yet the government of Brazil does not consider this area a single unit for statistical purposes, population data may not be reliable. The "Golden Horseshoe" is a densely populated and industrialized region centred on the west end of Lake Ontario in Southern Ontario, Canada. Most of it is part of the Windsor-Quebec City corridor. With a population of 8.8 million people, the Golden Horseshoe makes up over a quarter of the population of Canada and contains 75% of Ontario's population, making it one of the largest population concentrations in North America. Although it is a geographically named sub-region of Southern Ontario, "Greater Golden Horseshoe" is more used today to describe the metropolitan regions that stretch across the area in totality; the largest cities in the region include Toronto, Oakville, Burlington, St. Catherines and Hamilton. Greater Montreal is Canada's 2nd largest conurbation, with Statistics Canada defining the Census Metropolitan Area as 4,258.31 square kilometres and a population of 3,824,221 as of 2011, which represents half of the population of the province of Quebec.
Smaller, there are 82 municipalities grouped under the Montreal Metropolitan Community to coordinate issues such as land planning and economic development. British Columbia's Lower Mainland is the most populated area in Western Canada, it consists of many mid-sized contiguous urban areas, including Vancouver, North Vancouver, Burnaby and Coquitlam. The Lower Mainland population is around 2.5 million and the area has one of the highest growth rates on the continent of up to 9.2 percent from the 2006 census. The National Capital Region is made up of the capital and neighbouring Gatineau, located across the Ottawa River; as Ottawa is in Ontario and Gatineau, this is a unique conurbation. Federal government buildings are located in both cities and many workers live in one city and work in the other; the National Capital Region consists of an area of 5,319 square kilometres that straddles the boundary between the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The area of the National Capital Region is similar to that of the Ottawa-Gatineau Census Metropolitan Area, although the National Capital Region contains a number of small neighbouring communities that are not contained within the CMA.
When all the communities are added, the population is around 1,500,000. Ottawa-Gatineau is the only CMA in the nation to fall within two provinces; the Caribbean area, not considered to be part of a continent geographically speaking, has a conurbation in Puerto Rico consisting of San Juan, Bayamón, Carolina, Canóvanas, Trujillo Alto, Toa Alta, Toa Baja, Cataño, Caguas. This area is colloquially known as the "Área Metropolitana", houses around 1.4 million inhabitants spread over an area of 396.61 square kilometers. Thus, making it the largest city in the Caribbean by area. One example of a conurbation is the expansive concept of the New York metropolitan area centered on New York City, including 30 counties spread among New York State, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, with an estimated population of 21,961,994 in 2007. One-fifteenth of all U. S. residents live in the Greater New York City area. This conurbation is the result of se
Redruth is a town and civil parish in Cornwall, United Kingdom. The population of Redruth was 14,018 at the 2011 census. In the same year the population of the Camborne-Redruth urban area, which includes Carn Brea and several satellite villages, stood at 55,400 making it the largest conurbation in Cornwall. Redruth lies at the junction of the A393 and A3047 roads, on the route of the old London to Land's End trunk road, is 9 miles west of Truro, 12 miles east of St Ives, 18 miles north east of Penzance and 11 miles north west of Falmouth. Camborne and Redruth together form the largest urban area in Cornwall and before local government reorganisation were an urban district; the name Redruth derives from its older Cornish name, Rhyd-ruth. It means Red Ford; the first syllable'red' means ford. The second'ruth' means red. Rhyd is the older form of'Res', a Cornish equivalent to a ford, a common Celtic word, it is the - ruth. Traditionally in the Penwith Hundred, the town has developed away from the original settlement, near where the present Churchtown district of Redruth stands today.
This location is a steeply wooded valley, with Carn Brea on one side and the now-called Bullers Hill on the other. The presence of shallow lodes of tin and copper lying east to west made it an advantageous site for extracting metals, tin and copper; the first settlers stayed by a crossing in the river and started extracting metal ores, this process turned the colour of the river red. Redruth was a small market town overshadowed by its neighbours until a boom in the demand for copper ore during the 18th century. Copper ore had been discarded by the Cornish tin-mining industry but was now needed to make brass, an essential metal in the Industrial Revolution. Surrounded by copper ore deposits, Redruth became one of the largest and richest mining areas in Britain and the town's population grew markedly, although most miners' families remained poor. In the 1880s and 1890s the town end of Clinton Road gained a number of institutions, notably a School of Mines and Art School in 1882–83, St. Andrew's Church in 1883 and, the Free Library, built in 1895.
The Mining Exchange was built in 1880 as a place for the trading of mineral stock. By the turn of the 20th century, Victoria Park had been laid out to commemorate the Golden Jubilee and this part of town had taken on its present appearance – a far cry from the jumble of mining activity that had taken place there in the early 19th century. Redruth was making its transition from a market town dominated by mines and industry to a residential centre. By the end of the 19th century, the Cornish mining industry was in decline and Britain was importing most of its copper ore. To find employment, many miners emigrated to the newer mining industries in the Americas, Mexico and South Africa. Cornwall's last operational mine, South Crofty at Pool between Redruth and Camborne, closed in March 1998. See Camborne#Governance. Redruth School, a Technology College, is a secondary school and sixth form college, for ages 11–18; the town used to have a coeducational independent school, Highfields Private School, but this closed in 2012.
Primary schools within the town include Pennoweth School, Treleigh School, Treloweth Community Primary School, Trewirgie Infant School and Trewirgie Junior School. The Curnow Community Special School caters for students with special needs; the Parish Church of St Uny, some distance from the town centre, is of Norman foundation but was rebuilt in 1756. The patron saint is honoured at Lelant; the tower is two centuries earlier and the whole church is built of granite. A chapel of ease was built in the town in 1828 but it is no longer in use. Other places of worship include the Wesleyan Church of 1826, the Free Methodist Church of 1864 and the Quaker Meeting House of 1833; the former post office in Alma Place is now known as the Cornish Studies Centre: housed there is the collection of Tregellas Tapestries which depict the history of Cornwall in embroidery. The Mining Exchange building is now used as a housing advice centre; the house now called Murdoch House in the middle of Cross Street was erected in the 1660s as a chapel and it afterwards became a prison.
William Murdoch lived in it from 1782 to 1798. During this time, he worked on local tin and copper mines, erecting engines on behalf of Boulton and Watt, he fitted the house out with gas lighting from coal gas – this was the first house in the world with this type of lighting. In the 19th century, the house was used as a tea room, run by a Mrs Knuckey. In 1931 Mr A. Pearce Jenkin, a leading citizen of Redruth purchased the house and gave it as a gift to the Society of Friends. Murdoch House has since been restored and is now used by the Redruth Old Cornwall Society, as well as the Cornish-American Connection and the Redruth Story Group. Next door are St. Rumon's Gardens. A bronze sculpture of a Cornish miner by artist David Annand standing at 6 feet 7 inches was erected in April 2008; the sculpture was commissioned by the Redruth Public Realm Working Party's Minin
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
Lanner is a village and civil parish in west Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is situated on the A393 about 2 miles south-east of Redruth. Lanner is in the St Day and Lanner ward which had a collective population of 5,438 in 2001; the population of Lanner civil parish was 2,493 in the 2001 census, increasing to 2,690 at the 2011 census. The village has Lanner School; the name "Lanner" comes from the Cornish "Lannergh", which means "a clearing". The village is a former tin and copper mining parish which grew in the 19th-century, but has been recorded as far back as 1542, with settlement traces back to the Bronze Age. Michael Loam erected his first man engine at Tresavean mine, Lanner, in 1842; the mine was, in its heyday, one of the most productive copper mines in Cornwall. The parish church, Christ Church, is in the Diocese of Truro and was consecrated on St Swithin's day, 1845, it is a small stuccoed building and was restored in 1883. The registers date from 1839; the foundation stone of the Anglican chapel in Lanner was laid on 20 April 1839.
The Times reported that "On Wednesday, the 20th ult. the first stone of a new chapel at Lanner, in Gwennap, was laid by the Venerable Archdeacon Sheepshanks". Until constituted a parish in 1844 Lanner was part of the parish of Gwennap. Lanner has a large Wesleyan Methodist chapel; the former Bible Christian chapel is now used as the Village Hall and the former Primitive Methodist chapel is now used as the silver band's rehearsal room. Lanner lies in a valley with Carn Marth hill rising 235 metres north of the village. Lanner Hill is west of the village and Tresavean Hill is to the south; the village straddles the A393 Redruth to Falmouth road. The village slopes down the valley; the village is well known for the "Lanner and District Silver Band", among the more prominent of the brass bands in Cornwall. The American countertenor Richard Jose was born in Lanner in 1862: he emigrated to the United States and died in 1941. Electronic musician Richard D. James grew up in Lanner. Lanner RFU are a rugby union club, founded in 2014.
They won promotion in their first season in league rugby and in 2016 came first in Cornwall 1 to win promotion to Tribute Cornwall/Devon. Schwartz and Parker, Roger Lanner - A Cornish Mining Parish, Devon, Halsgrove. 1998, ISBN 1-84114-019-8. Lanner Parish Council Lanner Village website - Historic Trail page
Carharrack is a civil parish and village in west Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is situated two miles east of Redruth in a former mining area; the parish is of a rural/residential character, albeit with an industrial past and relics of the past abound in the form of abandoned and broken down engine house buildings. The parish is comparatively small in area, is bounded to the north and northwest by St Day parish, to the east and southeast by Gwennap parish, to the southwest and west by Lanner parish; until 1985, Carharrack was part of the parish of Gwennap but it became a civil parish in its own right with the first meeting of Carharrack Parish Council on 28 May 1985. The derivation of the modern form of the name Carharrack is uncertain. Craig Wetherhill suggests. Eric Rabjohns, a locally based local-historian, while acknowledging this possibility advances another two contenders; the first is that the name refers to a dwelling of religious purpose, a meeting place for travellers, originating from Carharrack's proximity to the pilgrimage trail between Canterbury and St Michael's Mount, known to have passed through the nearby villages of St Day to the north and Lanner to the south.
The final option, again based on a corruption of the Cornish, this time of Car Harrack meaning a camp, enclosure, or settlement near the rock or Carn referring to the mass of Carn Marth whose granite bulk overshadows the village. Each derivative has a degree of evidence to support it. Earliest references to the area appear around 1290, but references to dwellings on the current site only date from the 1700s. Boom years for the village were in the first half of the nineteenth century, with the expansion of the local mines which at peak employed several thousand people: Carharrack was the closest settlement and provided plenty of space for building. By the 1860s the copper industry in Cornwall was in decline and many residents emigrated in search of work. During the latter part of the twentieth century the village suffered a progressive loss both of local employment and local facilities and although there have been various new housing developments around the village it now functions more as a dormitory village.
Carharrack is within a World Heritage Site. The site of the Consolidated Mines, formed in 1782 by the amalgamation of Carharrack Mine and several other local tin and copper mines, is east of the village; the mines were served by the Redruth and Chasewater Railway which connected them to quays at Devoran on Cornwall's south coast. The railway closed in 1915 and its course is now a long-distance footpath and cycleway, one of Cornwall's Mineral Tramway Trails. Carharrack is the type locality for the copper-arsenate mineral Olivenite, a crystalline lustrous rock which has a green or olive hue. Local electronic musician Aphex Twin made a remix of his own track "Ventolin" titled "Ventolin"; the remix was first released on Ventolin Remixes in 1995 and was included on the 1996 compilation 51/13 Aphex Singles Collection. The village has a brass band Carharrack and St Day which notably play for the St Day feast dances; the village has a football team, Carharrack AFC, in Cornwall Combination League. Media related to Carharrack at Wikimedia Commons