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Cambrian

The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, of the Phanerozoic Eon. The Cambrian lasted 55.6 million years from the end of the preceding Ediacaran Period 541 million years ago to the beginning of the Ordovician Period 485.4 mya. Its subdivisions, its base, are somewhat in flux; the period was established by Adam Sedgwick, who named it after Cambria, the Latin name of Wales, where Britain's Cambrian rocks are best exposed. The Cambrian is unique in its unusually high proportion of lagerstätte sedimentary deposits, sites of exceptional preservation where "soft" parts of organisms are preserved as well as their more resistant shells; as a result, our understanding of the Cambrian biology surpasses that of some periods. The Cambrian marked a profound change in life on Earth. Complex, multicellular organisms became more common in the millions of years preceding the Cambrian, but it was not until this period that mineralized—hence fossilized—organisms became common; the rapid diversification of life forms in the Cambrian, known as the Cambrian explosion, produced the first representatives of all modern animal phyla.

Phylogenetic analysis has supported the view that during the Cambrian radiation, metazoa evolved monophyletically from a single common ancestor: flagellated colonial protists similar to modern choanoflagellates. Although diverse life forms prospered in the oceans, the land is thought to have been comparatively barren—with nothing more complex than a microbial soil crust and a few molluscs that emerged to browse on the microbial biofilm. Most of the continents were dry and rocky due to a lack of vegetation. Shallow seas flanked the margins of several continents created during the breakup of the supercontinent Pannotia; the seas were warm, polar ice was absent for much of the period. The base of the Cambrian lies atop a complex assemblage of trace fossils known as the Treptichnus pedum assemblage; the use of Treptichnus pedum, a reference ichnofossil to mark the lower boundary of the Cambrian, is difficult since the occurrence of similar trace fossils belonging to the Treptichnids group are found well below the T. pedum in Namibia and Newfoundland, in the western USA.

The stratigraphic range of T. pedum overlaps the range of the Ediacaran fossils in Namibia, in Spain. The Cambrian Period was followed by the Ordovician Period; the Cambrian is divided into ten ages. Only three series and six stages are named and have a GSSP; because the international stratigraphic subdivision is not yet complete, many local subdivisions are still used. In some of these subdivisions the Cambrian is divided into three series with locally differing names – the Early Cambrian, Middle Cambrian and Furongian. Rocks of these epochs are referred to as belonging to Upper Cambrian. Trilobite zones allow biostratigraphic correlation in the Cambrian; each of the local series is divided into several stages. The Cambrian is divided into several regional faunal stages of which the Russian-Kazakhian system is most used in international parlance: *Most Russian paleontologists define the lower boundary of the Cambrian at the base of the Tommotian Stage, characterized by diversification and global distribution of organisms with mineral skeletons and the appearance of the first Archaeocyath bioherms.

The International Commission on Stratigraphy list the Cambrian period as beginning at 541 million years ago and ending at 485.4 million years ago. The lower boundary of the Cambrian was held to represent the first appearance of complex life, represented by trilobites; the recognition of small shelly fossils before the first trilobites, Ediacara biota earlier, led to calls for a more defined base to the Cambrian period. Despite the long recognition of its distinction from younger Ordovician rocks and older Precambrian rocks, it was not until 1994 that the Cambrian system/period was internationally ratified. After decades of careful consideration, a continuous sedimentary sequence at Fortune Head, Newfoundland was settled upon as a formal base of the Cambrian period, to be correlated worldwide by the earliest appearance of Treptichnus pedum. Discovery of this fossil a few metres below the GSSP led to the refinement of this statement, it is the T. pedum ichnofossil assemblage, now formally used to correlate the base of the Cambrian.

This formal designation allowed radiometric dates to be obtained from samples across the globe that corresponded to the base of the Cambrian. Early dates of 570 million years ago gained favour, though the methods used to obtain this number are now considered to be unsuitable and inaccurate. A more precise date using modern radiometric dating yield a date of 541 ± 0.3 million years ago. The ash horizon in Oman from which this date was recovered corresponds to a marked fall in the abundance of carbon-13 that correlates to equivalent excursions elsewhere in the world, to the disappearance of distinctive Ediacaran fossils. There are arguments that the dated horizon in Oman does not correspond to the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary, but represents a facies change from marine to evaporite-dominated s

James Fox-Lane

James Fox-Lane, known as James Fox until 1773, was an English landed gentleman, who represented Horsham in Parliament for six years. He was the oldest son of Sackville Fox of East Horsley and his wife Ann Holloway, his father left him his estate in Surrey, worth about £ 1,300 per year. Educated at Marylebone School, he was admitted to Christ's College, Cambridge in 1771 and studied there until 1774. On 22 February 1773, he inherited the Bramham Park, Yorkshire estate of his paternal uncle George Fox-Lane, 1st Baron Bingley, subsequently took the name of Fox-Lane. Through extravagance as a youth he became indebted to the moneylender Robert Mackreth. Mackreth bought Fox-Lane's Surrey estate shortly after James came of age in 1777 and resold it for a handsome profit, he attempted to buy the Yorkshire estate as well, but the sale was cancelled by the Court of Chancery. Fox-Lane subsequently retained John Scott as counsel and sued Mackreth, alleging that Mackreth had defrauded him, that the transactions had begun while Fox-Lane was still a minor.

His suit was successful, he was awarded the purchase money of the Surrey estate with interest and costs, totaling about £20,000. Mackreth appealed, but the verdict was upheld by the Lord Chancellor and, in 1791, the House of Lords. On 23 July 1789, Fox-Lane married Hon. Marcia Lucy Pitt, the daughter of George Pitt, 1st Baron Rivers, they had four sons and one daughter: George Lane-Fox William Augustus Pitt Lane-Fox, Grenadier Guards, married Lady Caroline Douglas, sister of George Douglas, 17th Earl of Morton, had issue, including Augustus Pitt Rivers Sackville Lane-Fox Rev. Thomas Henry Lane-Fox, vicar of Sturminster Newton Marcia Bridget Lane-Fox, married Sir Edward Vavasour, 1st Baronet on 5 August 1815On 5 May 1790, Fox-Lane was commissioned a lieutenant in the Dorsetshire Militia, of which his father-in-law was colonel. Although he had joined Brooks's Club, famously a society of Whigs, Fox-Lane had little interest in politics. Frances, the Dowager Viscountess of Irvine, was one of his Yorkshire neighbours, in the 1796 election, returned him for one of the seats she controlled at Horsham.

No known speech or vote on his part survives, he did not stand at the 1802 election. He died on 7 April 1821, his health having declined for some time, left an estate worth £120,000

Titanic Days

Titanic Days is Kirsty MacColl's fourth studio album, released in 1993. Containing eleven tracks, Titanic Days was sometimes hard to get in years after its release, but it was remastered and re-released in 2005 by ZTT with a second CD of non-album tracks and some live recordings, including a version of "Miss Otis Regrets". In 2012, another remastered re-issue of the album was released by Salvo/ZTT, which again featured a second disc of bonus tracks. Following the release of her third studio album Electric Landlady in 1991, MacColl continued to write songs that would be recorded for her follow-up release Titanic Days. However, in 1992, when Virgin was sold to EMI, MacColl was dropped from the label, leaving her new material to be recorded without a record deal. Much of the album, including vocals and overdubs, was recorded in MacColl's small home studio at Ealing, due to the limited budget; the musicians who appeared on the recordings from MacColl's own live band, agreed to wait for payment for their contributions until a record deal was finalised.

MacColl and her band spent two days at Townhouse Studios in London, where all the backing tracks were recorded. The album was recorded over an approximate period of eighteen months. MacColl told Sunday Life in 1994: "In many ways this album was recorded back to front. I was writing songs, playing them live and knocking them into shape recording them for the album, when it would be the other way around."When the album was completed, ZTT Records agreed to release the album as a one-off release. In the United States, the album was released by I. R. S. Records, which MacColl signed to after being introduced to the head of the label, Jay Boberg, as he happened to be the husband of a childhood friend. During the time of writing and recording the album, MacColl's marriage to Steve Lillywhite was disintegrating; as such, much of album's material reflected MacColl's personal issues. She told Billboard in 1993: "There were big things happening in my life, every time you turned on the TV, there was a war going on and countries changing.

It was such a strange period, it was so huge, that's why we called the album "Titanic Days"." Both "Angel" and "Soho Square" were performed on Later... with Jools Holland in November 1992. "Can't Stop Killing You" was performed on Late Night with Conan O'Brien in November 1993 and "Bad" on Kenny Live in February 1994. Speaking to Gilbert Blecken in 1994, MacColl described "Last Day of Summer" as being "lyrically quite dark, but musically bright". "Tomorrow Never Comes" was recorded in a single day, with Nevin playing guitar and organ. In MacColl's The One and Only biography, Nevin described the song as his favourite on the album. Upon release, Andrew Boyd of Reading Evening Post felt the album had a "satisfying diversity of styles on offer" and was a "commercial and pleasingly varied effort which should cheer MacColl fans everywhere". Neil McKay of Sunday Life noted the album's "tales of domestic violence and strife, intercut with a neat turn of phrase and sense of humour". Billboard described the album as "a brew of pure pop sense and biting wit at least as satisfying as her previous work".

They picked "Can't Stop Killing You", "Soho Square", "Angel", "Bad", "Big Boy on a Saturday Night" and "Titanic Days" as the album's "high points". The Age picked Titanic Days as their "Album of the Week" and commented: "Titanic Days builds on the strengths of last effort - strong songs, memorable hooks and a gentle ebb and flow between acoustic and electric." All tracks composed by Mark E. Nevin.