Volcanic rock is a rock formed from magma erupted from a volcano. In other words, it differs from other igneous rock by being of volcanic origin. Like all rock types, the concept of volcanic rock is artificial, in nature volcanic rocks grade into hypabyssal and metamorphic rocks and constitute an important element of some sediments and sedimentary rocks. For these reasons, in geology and shallow hypabyssal rocks are not always treated as distinct. In the context of Precambrian shield geology, the term "volcanic" is applied to what are metavolcanic rocks. Volcanic rocks and sediment that form from magma erupted into the air are called "volcaniclastics," and these are technically sedimentary rocks. Volcanic rocks are among the most common rock types on Earth's surface in the oceans. On land, they are common at plate boundaries and in flood basalt provinces, it has been estimated. Lava Tephra Volcanic bomb Lapilli Volcanic ash Volcanic rocks are fine-grained or aphanitic to glass in texture, they contain clasts of other rocks and phenocrysts.
Phenocrysts are crystals that are identifiable with the unaided eye. Rhomb porphyry is an example with large rhomb shaped phenocrysts embedded in a fine grained matrix. Volcanic rocks have a vesicular texture caused by voids left by volatiles trapped in the molten lava. Pumice is a vesicular rock produced in explosive volcanic eruptions. Most modern petrologists classify igneous rocks, including volcanic rocks, by their chemistry when dealing with their origin; the fact that different mineralogies and textures may be developed from the same initial magmas has led petrologists to rely on chemistry to look at a volcanic rock's origin. The chemistry of volcanic rocks is dependent on two things: the initial composition of the primary magma and the subsequent differentiation. Differentiation of most volcanic rocks tends to increase the silica content by crystal fractionation; the initial composition of most volcanic rocks is basaltic, albeit small differences in initial compositions may result in multiple differentiation series.
The most common of these series are tholeiitic, calc-alkaline, alkaline. Most volcanic rocks share a number of common minerals. Differentiation of volcanic rocks tends to increase the silica content by fractional crystallization. Thus, more evolved volcanic rocks tend to be richer in minerals with a higher amount of silica such as phyllo and tectosilicates including the feldspars, quartz polymorphs and muscovite. While still dominated by silicates, more primitive volcanic rocks have mineral assemblages with less silica, such as olivine and the pyroxenes. Bowen's reaction series predicts the order of formation of the most common minerals in volcanic rocks. A magma may pick up crystals that crystallized from another magma. Diamonds found in kimberlites are well-known xenocrysts. Volcanic rocks are named according to both texture. Basalt is a common volcanic rock with low silica content. Rhyolite is a volcanic rock with high silica content. Rhyolite has silica content similar to that of granite while basalt is compositionally equal to gabbro.
Intermediate volcanic rocks include andesite, dacite and latite. Pyroclastic rocks are the product of explosive volcanism, they are felsic. Pyroclastic rocks are the result of volcanic debris, such as ash and tephra, other volcanic ejecta. Examples of pyroclastic rocks are ignimbrite. Shallow intrusions, which possess structure similar to volcanic rather than plutonic rocks, are considered to be volcanic, shading into subvolcanic; the terms lava stone and lava rock are more used by marketers than geologists, who would say "volcanic rock". "Lava stone" may describe anything from a friable silicic pumice to solid mafic flow basalt, is sometimes used to describe rocks that were never lava, but look as if they were. To convey anything about the physical or chemical properties of the rock, a more specific term should be used; the sub-family of rocks that form from volcanic lava are called igneous volcanic rocks. The lavas of different volcanoes, when cooled and hardened, differ much in their appearance and composition.
If a rhyolite lava-stream cools it can freeze into a black glassy substance called obsidian. When filled with bubbles of gas, the same lava may form the spongy appearing pumice. Allowed to cool it forms a light-colored, uniformly solid rock called rhyolite; the lavas, having cooled in contact with the air or water, are finely crystalline or have at least fine-grained ground-mass representing that part of the viscous semi-crystalline lava flow, still liquid at the moment of eruption. At this time they were exposed only to atmospheric pressure, the steam and other gases, which they contained in great quantity were free to escape; as crystal
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
The Brecon Beacons is a mountain range in South Wales. In a narrow sense, the name refers to the range of Old Red Sandstone peaks which lie to the south of Brecon. Sometimes referred to as "the central Beacons" they include South Wales' highest mountain, Pen y Fan; the range forms the central section of the Brecon Beacons National Park, a designation which encompasses ranges both to the east and the west of "the central Beacons". This much wider area is commonly referred to as "the Brecon Beacons", it includes the Black Mountains to the east as well as the named but quite distinct Black Mountain to the west; the highest peaks include Pen y Fan in the central part. They share the same basic geology as the central range, so exhibit many similar features, such as the north-facing escarpment and glacial features such as lakes and cwms below the escarpment, they all fall within the border of the national park. The Brecon Beacons range, in its narrower sense comprises six main peaks: from west to east these are: Corn Du, 873 metres, Pen y Fan, the highest peak, 886 metres, Cribyn, 795 metres, Fan y Big, 719 metres, Bwlch y Ddwyallt, 754 metres, Waun Rydd 769 metres.
These summits form a long ridge, the sections joining the first four form a horseshoe shape around the head of the Taf Fechan, which flows away to the southeast. To the northeast of the ridge, interspersed with long parallel spurs, are four cwms, four round-headed valleys or cirques; the Brecon Beacons are said to be named after the ancient practice of lighting signal fires on mountains to warn of attacks by invaders. The round of the Taf Fechan skyline forms a ridge walk known as the Beacons Horseshoe; the area was inhabited during the Neolithic and the succeeding Bronze Age, the most obvious legacy of the latter being the numerous burial cairns which adorn the hills of the centre and west of the National Park. There are good examples of round barrows on Fan Brycheiniog, Pen y Fan and Corn Du; the former was excavated in 2002–4 and the ashes in the central cist dated to about 2000 BC using radiocarbon dating. A wreath of meadowsweet was placed in the burial. Over twenty hillforts were established in the area during the Iron Age.
The largest, indeed the largest in South Wales, were the pair of forts atop y Garn Goch near Bethlehem, Carmarthenshire – y Gaer Fawr and y Gaer Fach – "the big fort" and "the little fort". The forts are thought to have once been political centres; when the Romans came to Wales in 43 AD, they stationed more than 600 soldiers in the area. Y Gaer, near the town of Brecon was their main base. During the Norman Conquest many castles were erected throughout the park. One of the most famous is Carreg Cennen Castle but there are many more. Brecon Castle is of Norman origin. There are many old tracks which were used over the centuries by drovers to take their cattle and geese to market in England; the drovers brought back gorse seed. The area played a significant role during the Industrial Revolution as various raw materials including limestone, silica sand and ironstone were quarried for transport southwards to the furnaces of the industrialising South Wales Valleys; the Brecon Beacons are one of four ranges of mountains and hills in South Wales which make up the Brecon Beacons National Park.
The National Park was established in 1957, the third of the three Welsh parks after Snowdonia in 1951 and the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park in 1952. Mountain rescue in south Wales is provided by five volunteer groups, with the police having overall command. In serious situations they are aided by RAF helicopters from RAF Valley; the five groups are: CBMRT – Central Beacons Mountain Rescue Team BMRT – Brecon Mountain Rescue Team LMRT – Longtown Mountain Rescue Team based in the east WBMSART – Western Beacons Mountain Search and Rescue Team SARDA South Wales – Search and Rescue Dog Association covering South and Mid WalesThe groups are funded by donations. Their work is not restricted to mountain rescue – they assist the police in their search for missing or vulnerable people in the community; the Brecon Beacons are used for training members of military reservists. The Army’s Infantry Battle School is located at Brecon, the Special Air Service use the area to test the fitness of applicants.
In July 2013 three soldiers died from heatstroke on an SAS selection exercise. An army captain had been found dead on Corn Du earlier in the year after training in freezing weather for the SAS. Brecon Mountain Railway Tourist Information Brecon Beacons Park, Official Brecon Beacons Tourism Association
Mudstone, a type of mudrock, is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. Grain size is up to 0.063 millimetres with individual grains too small to be distinguished without a microscope. With increased pressure over time, the platy clay minerals may become aligned, with the appearance of fissility or parallel layering; this finely bedded material that splits into thin layers is called shale, as distinct from mudstone. The lack of fissility or layering in mudstone may be due to either original texture or the disruption of layering by burrowing organisms in the sediment prior to lithification. Mud rocks such as mudstone and shale account for some 65% of all sedimentary rocks. Mudstone looks like hardened clay and, depending upon the circumstances under which it was formed, it may show cracks or fissures, like a sun-baked clay deposit. Mudstone can be separated into these categories: Siltstone — more than half of the composition is silt-sized particles. Claystone — more than half of the composition is clay-sized particles.
Mudstone — hardened mud. Mudstone can include: Shale -- exhibits fissility. Argillite — has undergone low-grade metamorphism. In the Dunham classification system of limestones, a mudstone is defined as a mud-supported carbonate rock that contains less than 10% grains. Most this definition has been clarified as a matrix-supported carbonate-dominated rock composed of more than 90% carbonate mud component. A recent study by Lokier and Al Junaibi has highlighted that the most common problems encountered when describing a mudstone is to incorrectly estimate the volume of'grains' in the sample - in consequence, misidentifying mudstone as wackestone and vice versa; the original Dunham classification defined the matrix as clay and fine-silt size sediment <20 μm in diameter. This definition was redefined by Embry & Klovan to a grain size of less than or equal to 30 μm. Wright proposed a further increase to the upper limit for the matrix size in order to bring it into line with the upper limit for silt.
On December 13, 2016, NASA reported further evidence supporting habitability on the planet Mars as the Curiosity rover climbed higher, studying younger layers, on Mount Sharp. Reported, the soluble element boron was detected for the first time on Mars. In June 2018, NASA reported that Curiosity had detected kerogen and other complex organic compounds from mudstone rocks 3.5 billion years old. Mudstone on planet Mars Aeolis quadrangle Composition of Mars Timeline of Mars Science Laboratory Tonstein – A hard, compact sedimentary rock, composed of kaolinite or, less other clay minerals
Walking in the United Kingdom
Walking is one of the most popular outdoor recreational activities in the United Kingdom, within England and Wales there is a comprehensive network of rights of way that permits access to the countryside. Furthermore, access to much uncultivated and unenclosed land has opened up since the enactment of the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000. In Scotland the ancient tradition of universal access to land was formally codified under the Land Reform Act 2003. However, there are other access to land in Northern Ireland. Walking is used in the United Kingdom to describe a range of activity, from a walk in the park to trekking in the Alps; the word "hiking" is used in the UK, but less than walking. Walking in mountainous areas in the UK is called hillwalking, or in Northern England, including the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales, from the dialect word fell, for high, uncultivated land. Mountain walking can sometimes involve scrambling; the idea of undertaking a walk through the countryside for pleasure developed in the 18th-century, arose because of changing attitudes to the landscape and nature, associated with the Romantic movement.
In earlier times walking indicated poverty and was associated with vagrancy. Thomas West, an English priest, popularised the idea of walking for pleasure in his guide to the Lake District of 1778. In the introduction he wrote that he aimed to encourage the taste of visiting the lakes by furnishing the traveller with a Guide. To this end he included various "stations" or viewpoints around the lakes, from which tourists would be encouraged to appreciate the views in terms of their aesthetic qualities. Published in 1778 the book was a major success. Another famous early exponent of walking for pleasure was the English poet William Wordsworth. In 1790 he embarked on an extended tour of France and Germany, a journey subsequently recorded in his long autobiographical poem The Prelude, his famous poem Tintern Abbey was inspired by a visit to the Wye Valley made during a walking tour of Wales in 1798 with his sister Dorothy Wordsworth. Wordsworth's friend Coleridge was another keen walker and in the autumn of 1799, he and Wordsworth undertook a three weeks tour of the Lake District.
John Keats, who belonged to the next generation of Romantic poets began, in June 1818, a walking tour of Scotland and the Lake District with his friend Charles Armitage Brown. More and more people undertook walking tours through the 19th-century, of which the most famous is Robert Louis Stevenson's journey through the Cévennes in France with a donkey, recorded in his Travels with a Donkey. Stevenson published in 1876 his famous essay "Walking Tours"; the subgenre of travel writing produced many classics in the subsequent 20th-century. An early American example of a book that describes an extended walking tour is naturalist John Muir's A Thousand Mile Walk to the Gulf, a posthumous published account of a long botanising walk, undertaken in 1867. Due to industrialisation in England, people began to migrate to the cities where living standards were cramped and unsanitary, they would escape the confines of the city by rambling about in the countryside. However, the land in England around the urban areas of Manchester and Sheffield, was owned and trespass was illegal.
Rambling clubs soon sprang up in the north and began politically campaigning for the legal'right to roam'. One of the first such clubs, was'Sunday Tramps' founded by Leslie White in 1879; the first national grouping, the Federation of Rambling Clubs, was formed in London in 1905 and was patronised by the peerage. Access to Mountains bills, that would have legislated the public's'right to roam' across some private land, were periodically presented to Parliament from 1884 to 1932 without success. In 1932, the Rambler's Right Movement organised a mass trespass on Kinder Scout in Derbyshire. Despite attempts on the part of the police to prevent the trespass from going ahead it was achieved due to massive publicity. However, the Mountain Access Bill, passed in 1939 was opposed by many walkers, including the organisation The Ramblers, who felt that it did not sufficiently protect their rights, it was repealed; the effort to improve access led after World War II to the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949, in 1951 to the creation of the first national park in the UK, the Peak District National Park.
The establishment of this and similar national parks helped to improve access for all outdoors enthusiasts. The Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000 extended the right to roam in England and Wales. A walking tour is an extended walk in the countryside, undertaken by an individual, or group for several days. Walking tours have their origin in the Romantic movement of the late early 19th-century, it has some similarities with backpacking and tramping in New Zealand, though it need not take place in remote places. In the late 20th-century, with proliferation of official and unofficial long distance walking routes, walkers now are more to follow a long distance way, than to plan their own walking tour; such tours are organised by commercial companies, can have a professional guide, or are self-guided. In England and Wales the public has a l
Llandovery is a market town and community in Carmarthenshire, Wales. It lies on the River Tywi and the junction of the A40 and A483 roads, around 25 miles northeast of Carmarthen and 27 miles north of Swansea. Llandovery's Welsh name is derived from Llan ymlith y dyfroedd, meaning "church enclosure amidst the waters" and referring to the town's position between the River Tywi and the Afon Brân just upstream of their confluence. A smaller watercourse, the Bawddwr, runs under the town; the town is served by Llandovery railway station, on the Heart of Wales line, with services to Swansea and Shrewsbury. Llandovery is twinned with Pluguffan in France; the Roman fort at Llanfair Hill to the northeast of the modern town around was known to the Romans as Alabum. It was built around AD 50 to 60 as part of their strategy for the conquest of Wales. A Roman road heads across Mynydd Bach Trecastell to the southeast of Llandovery bound for the fort of Brecon Gaer. Another heads down the Towy valley for Carmarthen whilst a third makes for the goldmines at Dolaucothi.
Attractions in the town include the remains of Llandovery Castle, built in 1110 and immediately captured by the Welsh, changing hands between Normans and Welsh until the reign of King Edward I of England. The castle was used by King Henry IV while on a sortie into Wales when he executed Llywelyn ap Gruffydd Fychan in the marketplace, it was attacked by the forces of Owain Glyndŵr in 1403. A 16-foot high stainless steel statue to Llywelyn ap Gruffydd Fychan was unveiled in 2001 on the north side of Llandovery Castle, overlooking the place of his execution six hundred years earlier, he had led the army of King Henry IV on'a wild goose chase' under the pretence of leading them to a secret rebel camp and an ambush of Glyndŵr's forces. King Henry lost patience with him, exposed the charade and had him half hanged, disembowelled in front of his own eyes and quartered – the quarters salted and dispatched to other Welsh towns for public display; the statue won a national competition to choose a suitable design, the winner being that of Toby and Gideon Petersen.
It was funded by the Arts Council of Wales. The Physicians of Myddfai practised in the area. Llandovery is the place where one of the first independent Welsh banks, The Black Ox, was established by a wealthy drover; the building is part of the King's Head inn, the home of The Bank of the Black Ox. In the town are a charity-run theatre, a heritage centre and Llandovery College. A tourist information and heritage centre is situated in the heart of the town, it houses exhibitions on the Tonn Press, the area's droving history and the nineteenth-century geologist Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, whose work in the area resulted in the assignment of the name "Llandovery" to rocks of a certain age across the entire world. The Llandovery Epoch is the earliest in the Silurian Period of geological time. In a small market place in the centre of Llandovery is Llandovery Town Hall by the architect Richard Kyke Penson. There is a courtroom over an open market, in an Italianate style; the building has two storeys with open arcades.
At the rear are police cells with iron grilles and entry to the courtroom under a clock tower. Many visitors use Llandovery as a touring base for the western part of the Brecon Beacons National Park which lies to the south of the town. For others it is a stop en route to West Wales. Large numbers of motorcyclists congregate at weekends, in the West End cafe on Broad Street, part of the A40; the twelfth-century grade I listed St Mary's Church to the north of the town is one of the largest medieval churches in Carmarthenshire. The Williams Pantycelyn Memorial Chapel in Stryd y Bont was built as a memorial to the hymn writer William Williams Pantycelyn. Llandovery is home to one of the leading Welsh Premiership rugby union teams, Llandovery RFC, nicknamed The Drovers, it has been active as a rugby club since at least 1877 and is one of the founder members of the Welsh Rugby Union. The club has successful junior and youth sections – with a number of former players going on to represent Wales in international rugby.
All its home games are played at the club's ground in Church Bank. Llandovery Junior Football Club has a membership of over 70 children from Llandovery and the surrounding area; the club aims to provide coaching and competitive opportunities for all children aged 6 to 16 years. The club has an Under 14 team playing in the Carmarthenshire Junior League, Under 11 and Under 8 teams playing in the Carmarthen Mini Football League. Llandovery Golf Club was founded in 1910; the club continued until the onset of WW2. An electoral ward with the same name exists; this ward covers Llandovery but stretches to the north. The total ward population taken at the 2011 Census was 2,689; the community is bordered by the communities of Llanfair-ar-y-bryn, Myddfai and Cilycwm, all being in Carmarthenshire. As of 2019, the mayor of Llandovery is Annabel Graham Paul. See Category:People from LlandoveryFamous people associated with Llandovery include outlaw Twm Siôn Cati and hymn writer William Williams Pantycelyn; the Dolaucothi Gold Mines are located 10 miles away near Pumpsaint on the A482, a road which follows the line of the original Roman road to Llanio fort.
Llandovery lies to the north of Brecon Beacons National Park and Fforest Fawr Geopark, an area whose geological heritage is celebrated. These designated landscapes are centred on Bannau Sir Gâr or the Carmarthen Fans, themselves a part of the Black Mou
Devil's Bridge, Ceredigion
Devil's Bridge is a village and community in Ceredigion, Wales. Above the River Mynach on the edge of the village is the unusual road bridge from which the village gets its English name; the village is on the A4120 road, about 10 miles east of Aberystwyth. The population of Pontarfynach community at the 2011 census was 455; the mid-2016 estimate suggests that the population had dropped to 429. The Devil's Bridge/Pontarfynach village is best known for the bridge that spans the Afon Mynach, a tributary of the Rheidol; the bridge is unusual in that three separate bridges are coexistent, each one built upon the previous bridge. The previous structures were not demolished; the most built, in 1901, is an iron bridge, erected above the older arches. The original bridge is medieval and the second one, a stone structure, built in 1753 and upgraded in 1777 and in 1814, was erected when the original bridge was thought to be unstable; the builders of the 1753 structure used the original bridge to support scaffolding during construction and added a second arch.
The 1901 structure eliminated the slope in the roadway. In 1971, the steelwork and railings were repaired and the bridge was strengthened; the structure was Grade II Listed on 21 January 1964, "as a remarkable succession of three superimposed bridges, one of the best known picturesque sites in Wales" and the listing was updated in 2005. The name in 1629 was Pont ar Pontarfynach, meaning Bridge over the Mynach; the word Mynach is Welsh for monk. The first mention of the structure using the English name Devil's Bridge, in historical records, is from 1734; the bridge is at a point where the River Mynach drops 90 metres in five steps down a steep and narrow ravine before it meets the River Rheidol. The set of stone steps, still open to tourists, leads down to the lowest bridge at the waterfall. According to legend, the original bridge was built after an old woman lost her cow and saw it grazing on the other side of the river; the Devil appeared and agreed to build a bridge in return for the soul of the first living thing to cross it.
When the bridge was finished, the old woman threw a crust of bread over the river, which her dog crossed the bridge to retrieve, thus becoming the first living thing to cross it. The devil was left with only the soul of the dog. Devil's Bridge has been a tourist attraction for centuries. Records indicate that tourists were coming to this area by the mid 1700s and that an inn or hotel has existed nearby since before 1796; the area was once part of the Hafod Estate, owned by Thomas Johnes who built a small hunting lodge on the estate, expanded into an inn. The building was rebuilt. Significant renovations were completed in the 1860s. After several expansions and upgrades, it has been operated as the Hafod Hotel, using this name since the 1860s. In 2017, new owners had arranged for a survey in preparation for a major renovation; some interior renovation work had been completed by September 2017. The artist J. M. W. Turner sketched the bridge, he produced two watercolors of the area in 1795. In 1824, William Wordsworth published a poem, To the Torrent at North Wales.
The celebrated English author George Borrow wrote Wild Wales, which includes a lively, humorous account of his visit to Pontarfynach. The George Borrow Hotel, a 17th-century inn where he reputedly stayed, is nearby. Between Devil's Bridge and Pontrhydygroeis Hafod Hafod where the hotel is located. Devil's Bridge is the location of Devil's Bridge railway station, the upper terminus of the historic narrow-gauge Vale of Rheidol Railway, which opened between Aberystwyth and Devil's Bridge in 1902. Tourism to the area increased after the bridge and the Hafod building were featured in the Hinterland, broadcast in numerous countries; some tourists enjoy the nearby nature trail and the historic steam railway. Other places of interest and attractions are located a short drive from the area, some in Aberystwyth; the address for the Devil's Bridge area is Woodlands, Devil's Bridge, Wales, SY23 3JW. The bridge is with sign posts providing guidance from the village centre. Devil's Bridge and the hotel building are featured prominently in the opening two episodes of the first series of the 2013 Welsh-language crime noir, Y Gwyll, shown on S4C and subsequently on BBC4 as Hinterland.
Both are featured again in series 3 of the programme. The three series are streamed on Netflix in Canada and the US and in Japan, India, South Africa, South America, Europe and New Zealand. Coed Rheidol National Nature Reserve Devil's Bridge for other bridges of the same name List of bridges in Wales Media related to Devil's Bridge, Ceredigion at Wikimedia Commons Devil's Bridge travel guide from Wikivoyage Devil's Bridge, famous thrice over. Photos of Devil's Bridge and surrounding area Video footage of the Devil's Bridge and Afon Mynach Gorge grid reference SN740770