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Cambridge, Massachusetts

Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County and part of the Boston metropolitan area. As of July 2014, it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, Worcester and Lowell. According to the 2010 Census, the city's population was 105,162, it is one of two de jure county seats of Middlesex County, although the county's government was abolished in 1997. Situated directly north of Boston, across the Charles River, it was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders. Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lesley University, Hult International Business School are in Cambridge, as was Radcliffe College before it merged with Harvard. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet" due to the high concentration of successful startups that have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. In December 1630, the site of what would become Cambridge was chosen because it was safely upriver from Boston Harbor, making it defensible from attacks by enemy ships.

Thomas Dudley, his daughter Anne Bradstreet, her husband Simon were among the town's first settlers. The first houses were built in the spring of 1631; the settlement was referred to as "the newe towne". Official Massachusetts records show the name rendered as Newe Towne by 1632, as Newtowne by 1638. Located at the first convenient Charles River crossing west of Boston, Newe Towne was one of a number of towns founded by the 700 original Puritan colonists of the Massachusetts Bay Colony under Governor John Winthrop, its first preacher was Thomas Hooker, who led many of its original inhabitants west in 1636 to found Hartford and the Connecticut Colony. The original village site is now within Harvard Square; the marketplace where farmers sold crops from surrounding towns at the edge of a salt marsh remains within a small park at the corner of John F. Kennedy and Winthrop Streets; the town comprised a much larger area than the present city, with various outlying parts becoming independent towns over the years: Cambridge Village in 1688, Cambridge Farms in 1712 or 1713, Little or South Cambridge and Menotomy or West Cambridge in 1807.

In the late 19th century, various schemes for annexing Cambridge to Boston were pursued and rejected. In 1636, the Newe College was founded by the Massachusetts Bay Colony to train ministers. According to Cotton Mather, Newe Towne was chosen for the site of the college by the Great and General Court for its proximity to the popular and respected Puritan preacher Thomas Shepard. In May 1638, the settlement's name was changed to Cambridge in honor of the university in Cambridge, England. Newtowne's ministers and Shepard, the college's first president, the college's major benefactor, the first schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton were all Cambridge alumni, as was the colony's governor John Winthrop. In 1629, Winthrop had led the signing of the founding document of the city of Boston, known as the Cambridge Agreement, after the university. In 1650, Governor Thomas Dudley signed the charter creating the corporation that still governs Harvard College. Cambridge grew as an agricultural village eight miles by road from Boston, the colony's capital.

By the American Revolution, most residents lived near the Common and Harvard College, with most of the town comprising farms and estates. Most inhabitants were descendants of the original Puritan colonists, but there was a small elite of Anglican "worthies" who were not involved in village life, made their livings from estates and trade, lived in mansions along "the Road to Watertown". Coming north from Virginia, George Washington took command of the volunteer American soldiers camped on Cambridge Common on July 3, 1775, now reckoned the birthplace of the U. S. Army. Most of the Tory estates were confiscated after the Revolution. On January 24, 1776, Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, which enabled Washington to drive the British army out of Boston. Between 1790 and 1840, Cambridge grew with the construction of the West Boston Bridge in 1792 connecting Cambridge directly to Boston, so that it was no longer necessary to travel eight miles through the Boston Neck and Brookline to cross the Charles River.

A second bridge, the Canal Bridge, opened in 1809 alongside the new Middlesex Canal. The new bridges and roads made what were estates and marshland into prime industrial and residential districts. In the mid-19th century, Cambridge was the center of a literary revolution, it was home to some of the famous Fireside Poets—so called because their poems would be read aloud by families in front of their evening fires. The Fireside Poets—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes—were popular and influential in their day. Soon after, turnpikes were built: the Cambridge and Concord Turnpike, the Middlesex Turnpike, what are today's Cambridge and Harvard Streets connected various areas of Cambridge to the bridges. In addition, the town was connected to the Boston & Maine Railroad, leading to the development of Porter Square as well as the creation of neighboring Somerville from the rural

Policy Planning Staff (France)

The Centre for Analysis and Strategy is a think tank within the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, tasked with making strategic recommendations to the Foreign Minister and ensuring a French presence in European and international debates and institutions. It is the French counterpart to the US State Department’s Policy Planning Staff, it is headed by historian Justin Vaïsse, appointed by Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius in March 2013. The director of the CAPS reports directly to the Minister and is considered a member of his cabinet; the CAPS is tasked with performing three tasks with complete independence of approach and expression: analysing the evolutions of international relations and the larger problems which weigh on them in the middle and in the long term, notably economic and demographic issues, all the while seeking to shed light on them from an approach combining multiple social sciences as well as foresight recommending to the Minister, either on his instructions or under its own steam, such action or strategic options as it deems necessary with regard to the development of the international situation in the long term ensuring that the relationship between the administration and the academic world is well oiled, by presenting administration officials with research relevant to their work and by emphasising the importance of French institutions abroad.

In spite of its small size, the Centre enjoys a solid reputation and has become known the world over for being a breeding ground of intellectual and diplomatic talent. Its PIPA program, established in 1989, which hosts about a hundred young leaders a year from some forty different countries, seeks to present the select few who are chosen with an unvarnished image of contemporary France and establish friendly ties with them; the CAPS is made quite unique by the diversity of its team: it is made up of civil servants from different ministries, most Defence and Finance, career diplomats and academics. Its specificity is marked in the manner with which its team handles topics: indeed, its officials assess situations by using data that originates out of the traditional diplomatic channels, whether in universities, think tanks or specialised services at home or abroad, it has the resources necessary to commission expert analyses from external sources. This makes it a source of independent and sometimes critical analyses vis-à-vis the administration’s policies.

Its mission is to present new options and ideas. It has a certain liberty of speech outside of the administration, its members publish and partake in conferences, activities which serve to heighten its status on the international scene; the Centre d’analyse et de prévision, as it was first called, was set up on 18 May 1974 by then-Foreign Minister Michel Jobert, who wanted to implement some institutionalised out-of-the-box thought. The decree establishing its existence states its purpose as “contributing to the preparation of decisions in foreign affairs” by “analysing current situations” and “conducting attempts at foreseeing future evolutions”. Despite having changed names several times since it has remained a constant source of doctrine for ministers; the CAPS has a history of either academics or career diplomats. Thierry de Montbrial Jean-Louis Gergorin Philippe Coste Jean-Marie Guéhenno Bruno Racine Gilles Andréani Michel Foucher Pierre Lévy Marie Mendras Joseph Maïla Justin Vaïsse

Saint-Jean-Port-Joli, Quebec

Saint-Jean-Port-Joli is a village in the Regional County Municipality of L'Islet within the Chaudière-Appalaches region of Quebec, Canada. It is the county seat; the village is located off the Trans-Canada Highway, Autoroute 20. Route 132 passes through the town, it is known for its craftspeople and artists in the fields of wood carving and sculpture. There are several well-reputed restaurants; the village takes its name from the seigneury of Port-Joly, established in 1677. The Parish of St-Jean-Port-Joli was canonically established in 1721; the church, on which construction began in 1779, houses many sculptures. The municipality was created in 1845 and became part of L'Islet County in 1847. In 1855, it became a parish municipality, in 1857 it was split into the municipalities of St-Jean-Port-Joli and Saint-Aubert. Like most other villages that lie in the Côte-du-Sud region between Rivière-Ouelle and Beaumont, most of its houses were burned down in September 1759. Under the orders of British general James Wolfe, the Fraser Highlanders regiment attacked the area during the Conquest of 1760 during the French and Indian War.

The tradition of wood carving began in the early 20th century with the Bourgault brothers, Médard, Jean-Julien and André. Despite its small population, the village is a active tourist stop in the region due to the abundance of artesian wood carvers and cultural events; the village includes a marina with access to the Saint Lawrence River at the site of the old wharf. St-Jean-Port-Joli was awarded with the title of cultural capital of Canada in 2005; this festival highlights many aspects of the village's maritime heritage and songs. Included in the weekend-long event is a dinner, literary contest, sailboat race, market and expositions; this is an annual festival of music that has taken place since 1998. Every year in the month of September, fiddlers play music from a wide variety of genres. In the month of February, the Trois-Bérets park invites ice sculptors from around the world to display their talent. Additionally, the festival contains activities for the family in the daytime, such as helicopter rides, concerts at night.

List of municipalities in Quebec Saint-Jean-Port-Joli website