Dr. Reddy's Laboratories
Dr. Reddy's Laboratories is an Indian multinational pharmaceutical company based in Hyderabad, India; the company was founded by Anji Reddy, who worked in the mentor institute Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Limited, of Hyderabad, India. Dr. Reddy's markets a wide range of pharmaceuticals in India and overseas; the company has over 190 medications, 60 active pharmaceutical ingredients for drug manufacture, diagnostic kits, critical care, biotechnology products. Dr. Reddy's began as a supplier to Indian drug manufacturers, but it soon started exporting to other less-regulated markets that had the advantage of not having to spend time and money on a manufacturing plant that would gain approval from a drug licensing body such as the U. S. Food and Drug Administration. By the early 1990s, the expanded scale and profitability from these unregulated markets enabled the company to begin focusing on getting approval from drug regulators for their formulations and bulk drug manufacturing plants in more-developed economies.
This allowed their movement into regulated markets such as the Europe. In 2014, Dr. Reddy Laboratories was listed among 1200 of India's most trusted brands according to the Brand Trust Report 2014, a study conducted by Trust Research Advisory, a brand analytics company. By 2007, Dr. Reddy's had seven FDA plants producing active pharmaceutical ingredients in India and seven FDA-inspected and ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 certified plants making patient-ready medications – five of them in India and two in the UK. In 2010, the family-controlled Dr Reddy's denied that it was in talks to sell its generics business in India to US pharmaceutical giant Pfizer, suing the company for alleged patent infringement after Dr Reddy's announced that it intended to produce a generic version of atorvastatin, marketed by Pfizer as Lipitor, an anti-cholesterol medication. Reddy's was linked to UK pharmaceuticals multinational Glaxo Smithkline. Dr. Reddy's launched in 1984 producing active pharmaceutical ingredients. In 1986, Reddy's started operations on branded formulations.
Within a year Reddy's had launched the company's first recognized brand in India. Soon, Dr. Reddy's obtained another success with Omez, its branded omeprazole – ulcer and reflux oesophagitis medication – launched at half the price of other brands on the Indian market at that time; this is now branched in Hyderabad Within a year, Reddy's became the first Indian company to export the active ingredients for pharmaceuticals to Europe. In 1987, Reddy's started to transform itself from a supplier of pharmaceutical ingredients to other manufacturers into a manufacturer of pharmaceutical products; the company's first international move took it to Russia in 1992. There, Dr. Reddy's formed a joint venture with the country's biggest pharmaceuticals producer, Biomed, they pulled out in 1995 amid accusations of scandal, involving "a significant material loss due to the activities of Moscow's branch of Reddy's Labs with the help of Biomed's chief executive". Reddy's sold the joint venture to the Kremlin-friendly Sistema group.
In 1993, Reddy's entered into a joint venture in the Middle East and created two formulation units there and in Russia. Reddy's exported bulk drugs to these formulation units, which converted them into finished products. In 1994, Reddy's started targeting the US generic market by building state of art manufacturing facility. Reddy's path into new drug discovery involved targeting speciality generics products in western markets to create a foundation for drug discovery. Development of speciality generics was an important step for the company's growing interest in the development of new chemical entities; the elements involved in creating a speciality generic, such as innovation in the laboratory, developing the compound, sending the sales team to the market, are stages in the development of a new specialty drug. Starting with speciality generics allowed the company to gain experience with those steps before moving on to creating brand-new drugs. Reddy's invested in establishing R&D labs and is the only Indian company to have significant R&D being undertaken overseas.
Dr. Reddy's Research Foundation was established in 1992 and in order to do research in the area of new drug discovery. At first, the foundation's drug research strategy revolved around searching for analogues. Focus has since changed to innovative R&D, hiring new scientists Indian students studying abroad on doctoral and post-doctoral courses. In 2000, the Foundation set up an American laboratory in Atlanta, dedicated to discovery and design of novel therapeutics; the laboratory is called Reddy US Therapeutics Inc and its main aim is the discovery of next-generation drugs using genomics and proteomics. Reddy's research thrust focused on large niche areas in western markets – anti-cancer, anti-diabetes and anti-infection drugs. Reddy's international marketing successes were built on a strong manufacturing base which itself was a result of inorganic growth through acquisition of international and national facilities. Reddy's merged Cheminor Drug Limited with the primary aim of supplying active pharmaceutical ingredients to the technically demanding markets of North America and Europe.
This merger gave Reddy's an entry into the value-added generics business in the regulated markets of APIs. <APIs in medicine/> By 1997, Reddy's made the transition from being an API and bulk drug supplier to regulated markets like the US and the UK, a branded formulations supplier in unregulated markets like India and Russia, into producing generics, by filing an Abbreviated New Drug Application in the USA. The same year, Reddy's out-licensed a molecule for clinical
Bidwells LLP is a multi-disciplined firm of property and agribusiness consultants offering property services and consultancy in the U. K. Bidwells has 13 offices throughout the U. K, 9 of which are located in England and 4 in Scotland. Property Week ranks Bidwells in its Top 20 Property Consultants, making it the largest independent property consultancy outside London. 1839 Charles Muriel Bidwell commences business in Ely. 1866 Charles Bidwell Jnr joins the firm. 1874 Charles Bidwell Snr dies. 1880 Cambridge office in Mill Lane opens. 1905 Charles Bidwell Jnr becomes President of the RICS. 1920 Norman Hodgkinson becomes a Partner – The firm moves into commercial work. 1921 Charles retires from the business and is succeeded by his two sons and Philip. 1922 Charles Bidwell dies. 1935 Purchase of Trimley Estate for Trinity College. 1939 Francis Pemberton joins the firm. 1940 Francis Pemberton manages the Trimley Estate. 1941 Francis Pemberton moves to Cambridge. 1955 The firm moves to Kings Parade. 1968 New office opened at Trumpington.
1976 Francis Pemberton knighted. 1981 Tim Lawson becomes Senior Partner. 1985 London Office opens. 1987 Jas W. King acquired at Perth. 1988 Stone Cross Office opens. 1989 John Tweddle becomes Senior Partner. Norwich Office opens. 1990 Ipswich Office opens. 1992 Inverness Office opens. 1994 James Buxton becomes Managing Partner. 1995 Anthony Hart becomes Managing Partner in Scotland. Northampton Office opens. 1999 The Professional Services Division is formed. London Office moves to Pollen Street. Partnership Structure is changed. 2000 James Buxton becomes Senior Partner. West Highlands Estates Office joins Bidwells 2003 Acquisition of Drake and Partners Opening of Milton Keynes Office 2004 Acquisition of Carpenter Planning Consultancy New offices open in Chelmsford and Saffron Walden 2005 Acquisition of TCC Architects & Bret Hallworth & Co Ltd 2008 Acquisition of rural surveying practice Faulkners. Building Consultancy win two commended David Urwin Awards 2009 Bidwells convert to Limited Liability Partnership.
Bidwells' Planning team maintained position within the Top 20 Planning Consultancies in the UK. The Firm received Property Adviser of the Year in the Eastern Region Award from the Estates Gazette 2010 Patrick McMahon takes over as Senior Partner. Finlay Clark takes over as Managing Partner of Scotland. 2011 Milton Keynes Office moves to John Ormond House. Oxford Office opens. Sir Francis Pemberton dies at 95. Sir Francis had a huge influence on the early years of Bidwells including working with Trinity College on the creation of the Cambridge Science Park. Investment & Acquisitions Sales, Letting Consultancy Residential, Commercial & Rural Property & Estate Management Valuation Fund Management Building Consultancy Planning Services Agribusiness Consultancy Strutt & Parker King Sturge Savills Knight Frank Carter Jonas
Bayer AG is a German multinational pharmaceutical and life sciences company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world. Headquartered in Leverkusen, where its illuminated corporate logo, the Bayer cross, is a landmark, Bayer's areas of business include human and veterinary pharmaceuticals; the company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. Werner Baumann has been CEO since 2016. Founded in Barmen in 1863 as a dyestuffs factory, Bayer's first and best-known product was aspirin. In 1898 Bayer trademarked the name heroin for the drug diacetylmorphine and marketed it as a cough suppressant and non-addictive substitute for morphine until 1910. Bayer introduced phenobarbital. In 1925 Bayer was one of six chemical companies that merged to form IG Farben, the world's largest chemical and pharmaceutical company; the Allied Control Council seized IG Farben after World War II, because of its role in the Nazi war effort and involvement in the Holocaust, which included using slave labour from concentration camps.
It was split into its six constituent companies in 1951 split again into three: BASF, Bayer and Hoechst. Bayer played a key role in the Wirtschaftswunder in post-war West Germany regaining its position as one of the world's largest chemical and pharmaceutical corporations. In 2006 the company acquired Schering, in 2014 it acquired Merck & Co.'s consumer business, with brands such as Claritin, Coppertone and Dr. Scholl's, in 2018 it acquired Monsanto, a leading producer of genetically engineered crops, for $63 billion. Bayer CropScience develops genetically modified pesticides. Bayer AG was founded as a dyestuffs factory in 1863 in Barmen, Germany, by Friedrich Bayer and his partner, Johann Friedrich Weskott, a master dyer. Bayer was responsible for the commercial tasks. Fuchsine and aniline became; the headquarters and most production facilities moved from Barmen to a larger area in Elberfeld in 1866. Friedrich Bayer, son of the company's founder, was a chemist and joined the company in 1873. After the death of his father in 1880, the company became a joint-stock company, Farbenfabriken vorm.
Friedr. Bayern & Co known as Elberfelder Farbenfabriken. A further expansion in Elberfeld was impossible, so the company moved to the village Wiesdorf at Rhein and settled in the area of the alizarin producer Leverkus and Sons. A new city, was founded there in 1930 and became home to Bayer AG's headquarters; the company's corporate logo, the Bayer cross, was introduced in 1904, consisting of the word BAYER written vertically and horizontally, sharing the Y and enclosed in a circle. An illuminated version of the logo is a landmark in Leverkusen. Bayer's first major product was acetylsalicylic acid—first described by French chemist Charles Frederic Gerhardt in 1853—a modification of salicylic acid or salicin, a folk remedy found in the bark of the willow plant. By 1899 Bayer's trademark Aspirin was registered worldwide for Bayer's brand of acetylsalicylic acid, but it lost its trademark status in the United States and the United Kingdom after the confiscation of Bayer's US assets and trademarks during World War I by the United States, because of the subsequent widespread usage of the word.
The term aspirin continued to be used in the US, UK and France for all brands of the drug, but it is still a registered trademark of Bayer in over 80 countries, including Canada, Mexico and Switzerland. As of 2011 40,000 tons of aspirin were produced each year and 10–20 billion tablets consumed in the United States alone for prevention of cardiovascular events, it is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system. There is an unresolved controversy over the roles played by Bayer scientists in the development of aspirin. Arthur Eichengrün, a Bayer chemist, said he was the first to discover an aspirin formulation that did not have the unpleasant side effects of nausea and gastric pain, he said he had invented the name aspirin and was the first person to use the new formulation to test its safety and efficacy. Bayer contends. Various sources support the conflicting claims. Most mainstream historians attribute the invention of aspirin to Hoffmann and/or Eichengrün.
Heroin, now illegal as an addictive drug, was introduced as a non-addictive substitute for morphine, trademarked and marketed by Bayer from 1898 to 1910 as a cough suppressant and over-the-counter treatment for other common ailments, including pneumonia and tuberculosis. Bayer scientists were not the first to make heroin, but the company led the way in commercializing it. Heroin was a Bayer trademark until after World War I. In 1903 Bayer licensed the patent for the hypnotic drug diethylbarbituric acid from its inventors Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering, it was marketed under the trade name Veronal as a sleep aid beginning in 1904. Systematic investigations of the effect of structural changes on potency and duration of action at Bayer led to the discovery of phenobarbital in 1911 and the discovery of its potent anti-epileptic activity in 1912. Phenobarbital was among the most used drugs for the treatment of epilepsy through the 1970s, as of 2014 it remains on the World Health Organization's list of essential medications.
During World War I, Bayer's assets, including the rights to
Amgen Inc. is an American multinational biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Thousand Oaks, California. In 2013, the company's largest selling product lines were Neulasta/Neupogen, two related drugs used to prevent infections in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. Other products include Epogen, Sensipar/Mimpara, Vectibix, Prolia and XGEVA. Amgen, one of the world's largest biotechnology companies, was established in Newbury Park, California in 1980, where its world headquarters are located, it had 5,125 employees in Thousand Oaks as of 2017, which made up 7.5% of the city's total employment. It is the largest employer in Ventura County. Amgen has attracted hundreds of scientists to the Newbury Park area. Focused on the cutting edge of molecular biology and biochemistry, its goal is to provide a healthcare business based on recombinant DNA technology; the word AMGen is a portmanteau of the company's original name, Applied Molecular Genetics, which became the official name of the company in 1983.
The company's first chief executive officer, from 1980, was co-founder George B. Rathmann, followed by Gordon M. Binder in 1988, followed by Kevin W. Sharer in 2000. Robert A. Bradway became Amgen’s president and chief executive officer in May 2012 following Sharer's retirement; the company has made at least five major corporate acquisitions. 1980. William Bowes from Cetus Corporation recruits Winston Salser from UCLA to start Amgen with a scientific advisory board consisting of Normam Davidson, Leroy Hood, Arnold Berk, John Carbon, Robert Schimke, Arno Motulsky, Marvin H. Caruthers, Dave Gibson. 1989. Amgen received approval for the first recombinant human erythropoetin product, for the treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney failure. Epogen would be approved for anemia due to cancer chemotherapy, anemia due to treatment with certain HIV drugs, for the reduction of the need for transfusions associated with surgery. 1991. In February 1991, Amgen received FDA approval for Neupogen for the prevention of infections in patients whose immune systems are suppressed due to cancer chemotherapy.
A 2002 meta-analysis found that Neupogen treatment reduced the risk of febrile neutropenia by 38%, reduced the risk of documented infection by 49%, reduced the risk of infection-related mortality by 40%. 1998. In November 1998, Immunex, a future acquisition of Amgen, received approval for Enbrel, the first rheumatoid arthritis drug targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha. A 2006 assessment by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence of the United Kingdom concluded that etanercept and related rheumatoid arthritis drugs introduced by competitors "are effective treatments compared with placebo for RA patients who are not well controlled by conventional DMARDs, improving control of symptoms, improving physical function, slowing radiographic changes in joints." A more recent study demonstrated that compared to traditional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, treatment with etanercept improved survival, reduced cardiovascular events and reduced the incidence of hematological cancers. 2010. On June 6, 2010 Amgen received FDA approval for Prolia, a protein drug for the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis.
In clinical trials, Prolia reduced the rate of vertebral fractures by 61% and the risk of hip fractures by 40%. 2010 In November 2010 the FDA approved Xgeva for the prevention of complications of bone metastases in patients with solid tumors. The clinical trials enrolled patients with breast or prostate cancer. 2012. Illegal marketing practices; the Los Angeles Times reported on December 18, 2012, that AMGEN pleaded guilty and agreed to pay $150 million in criminal penalty and $612 million to resolve 11 related whistleblower complaints. Federal prosecutors accused the company of pursuing profits while putting patients at risk. Larry Husten, a contributor at Forbes.com elaborates on AMGEN's illegal marketing practices in this case, namely that the "government accused Amgen of marketing Aranesp for indications not approved by the FDA and other illegal marketing practices". One of the drugs mentioned in the lawsuit had sales of $492 million in the third quarter of 2012, down 17% from the same quarter the previous year due to "reimbursement problems and label changes".
2013. Lawmakers inserted text into the fiscal cliff bill that will allow the drugmaker to sell a class of drugs that includes Sensipar without government controls for an additional two years; the New York Times estimated that the paragraph in the fiscal cliff bill will cost taxpayers an estimated $500 million but other assessments concluded that the change would protect seniors in rural areas and reduce overall Medicare spending. 2015. In September the company announced; the same day the company announced a collaboration with Xencor on 6 early stage immuno-oncology and inflammation programmes. As part of the deal Amgen will pay $45 million upfront, with the deal being worth up to another $1.7 billion. 2016. In September, the company announced it would purchase the rights to Boehringer Ingelheims Phase I bispecific T-cell engager compound for use in the treatment of multiple myeloma. 2017. Cash returned to shareholders totaled a record $6.5 billion through dividends and share repurchases. 2018. Amgen was ranked 123 on the Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by revenue.
The following is an illustration of the comp
A14 road (England)
The A14 is a trunk road in England, running 127 miles from the Port of Felixstowe, Suffolk to its western end at the Catthorpe Interchange. The road forms part of the unsigned Euroroutes E24 and E30. From the Port of Felixstowe the road heads west, bypassing Ipswich to the south via the Orwell Bridge and to Stowmarket, Bury St Edmunds and Cambridge where it meets the M11 past St Ives and the junction with the A1, from there through Kettering, ending at junction 19 of the M1 and the start of the M6; the road is a dual carriageway, most with two lanes each way, but there are two dual three-lane sections: on the Newmarket bypass where it runs concurrent with the A11, a short stretch between the Girton Interchange and Bar Hill. There are three at-grade junctions: with the B663 at Bythorn in Cambridgeshire; the current A14 includes parts of the former A45 between Felixstowe and Cambridge, the A604 between Cambridge and Kettering, a short stretch of the former A6 west of Kettering, plus a new link road, constructed in the early 1990s between there and the M1/M6 interchange at Catthorpe, Leicestershire.
Prior to the current A14, the main route from Birmingham to the Haven ports followed the M6, M1, the A428 and A45 road via Coventry, Northampton, Bedford, St Neots and through all the towns on the A14 to Felixstowe. Prior to its use for the current route the A14 designation had been used for a section of road between the A10 at Royston and the A1 at Alconbury following part of the route of Ermine Street which now, in most parts, is designated the A1198; the M45 motorway was constructed in 1959 parallel to part of the old A45 in the Midlands. It was soon one of the busiest sections of motorway; the M6 opened in the late 1960s and early 1970s, after which more traffic to the ports used the route from junction 1 of the M6 via the A427 to Market Harborough followed by a short section of the A6 to Kettering and the A604 to Cambridge before joining the old A45 to the ports as above. The M45 now carries little traffic; the sections from Huntingdon east to the ports were upgraded first, starting with the Huntingdon bypass in 1973, followed by the Girton to Bar Hill section in 1975/76 and the Cambridge northern bypass and Cambridge/Newmarket section in 1976/77.
The Bar Hill to Huntington section opened in 1979 prior to the M11, opened in 1980. The Ipswich southern bypass including the Orwell Bridge opened in 1982; the M1-A1 link road was constructed between 1989 and 1991 following a lengthy period of consultation. The first inquiry was in 1974 and a series of inquiries for sections of the preferred route from September 1984 until June 1985, during which objections came from some 1,130 sources. Subsequent public inquiries were held regarding Supplementary Orders; the route close to the site of the Battle of Naseby was difficult and was taken to the High Court. The link was opened by John MacGregor, Transport Secretary on 15 July 1994. Work to create a compact grade-separated junction and to re-align a 2-mile stretch of carriageway was completed in 2006. Vehicles over 7.5 tonnes traveling east were banned from using the outside lane on a dual 2-lane section on a 2-mile steep climb to Welford summit close to Junction 1 from spring 2007. The bans are active between 6am and 8pm and are intended to reduce delays to other traffic from lorries attempting to pass on these climbs.
Between 2007 and 2008 a new section of two-lane dual carriageway was constructed at the Haughley Bends, one of Suffolk's most notorious accident blackspots, to rationalise access using a new grade-separated junction. The road opened in the summer of 2008 with some associated local works being completed early in 2009. Variable Message Signs, traffic queue detection loops and closed circuit TV were installed at a cost of 58m euros during 2009 to 2010 Both carriageways between Junction 52 and Junction 55 were refurbished during 2010 at a cost of £9 million. Work was being carried out a year earlier than scheduled as part of a UK government’s fiscal stimulus package; the Cambridgeshire Guided Busway connecting Cambridge, Huntingdon and St Ives, which opened in 2011 was intended to remove 5.6% of traffic using that section of the A14, although as other traffic re-routes to the freed-up road space from other parts of the local road network, the net reduction is predicted to be 2.3%. The Felixstowe and Nuneaton freight capacity scheme, designed to take more lorry traffic off the A14 between the Port and the Midlands by increasing rail capacity and allowing the carriage of larger'Hi-cube' shipping containers by widening to the W10 loading gauge, opened in 2011.
Junction 55 to the south of Ipswich was signalisation in 2011, along with lengthening the off-slip from the A1214. The section around Kettering between Junctions 7 and 9 was widened to three lanes between November 2013 and April 2015 at a cost of £42m. After being shelved in 2010, th
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Anthony Donald Cornell was a British parapsychologist and prominent figure in the investigations of ghosts and other paranormal activity across the United Kingdom during the part of the twentieth century. He appeared in numerous TV documentaries and television debates, was the subject of magazine and news articles concerning ghosts and paranormal investigations. Cornell was a leading British expert in parapsychology. With his fellow researchers he attempted to record and measure paranormal events using equipment made for the purpose, incorporating off-the-shelf computing and audio/visual capture devices long before the digital era. Cornell and his associates at the Society for Psychical Research pioneered the study of paranormal activities in the UK and paved the way for subsequent investigations. Tony Cornell was born in Histon, Cambridgeshire in 1924 and educated at The Perse School and Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge Fitzwilliam House, from which he graduated in 1949. Tony joined the SPR in 1952, was elected to Council in 1962 and became Vice-President in 1992.
Elected Treasurer in 1980, he resigned in 2003. During this time he focused on investigating hauntings and mediums. With Alan Gauld and Howard Wilkinson he created SPIDER. Many cases were monitored and electronically, but little significant evidence was obtained in twenty years of its use. In 1971, he visited Russian parapsychologists in Leningrad and Moscow to discuss their telepathy experiments. Interested in apparitions and mediums, Cornell acquired a reputation for trying to get to the bottom of what was going on in a measured and unemotional way, a far cry from the current sensationalistic approach apparent in current media offerings which seem more geared towards entertainment than fact finding. Cornell was a member of CUSPR and was appointed Research Officer in 1958 and President in 1968; as the SPR Treasurer and ongoing CUSPR President, he served on the organising committee for the SPR Centenary Conference, held at Trinity College in 1982. Cornell was the author of numerous papers on ghosts and poltergeists and expressed some cautious opinions on the Scole, SORRAT Min-lab and Enfield cases.
He co-authored Poltergeists with Alan Gauld and his last major work was Investigating the Paranormal. By far his most pressing concern was the continued lack of any new knowledge gained about their cause in recent investigations, which have been conducted in an identical way for the last 125 years. Cornell was an amateur antiquarian and helped ensure the preservation of a number of old, timber-framed buildings opposite the Round Church in central Cambridge. Despite the focus of his career, Cornell's most enduring legacy may well be the Cambridge Science Park, which he proposed in the late sixties. Cornell retired from active paranormal investigations after suffering a stroke in 2004, he died peacefully at home in the company of Martin, his second son and Alison, his third wife, on Saturday 10 April 2010. A memorial service was held in the chapel of Fitzwilliam College on 20 June and his ashes scattered in Histon pond during the late evening of 22 June 2010. Cornell spent over 50 years investigating the paranormal and came to the conclusion that most paranormal cases turn out to have natural explanations such as the result of fraud and misidentification.
He believed that many sightings of ghosts and poltergeists are products of the human mind. Cornell estimated that of the 800 cases that he investigated, only twenty percent were difficult to explain and only a handful were paranormal. Cornell wrote that there is no evidence for the spiritualist hypothesis and most séance room phenomena can be explained by unconscious and deliberate fraud, he wrote that discarnate spirits in trance mediumship are secondary personalities from the mediums subconscious and that all physical mediumship such as ectoplasm is the result of fraud and trickery, however, he believed psychokinesis and telepathy to be real. According to Cornell "without the presence of a living person, none of the alleged paranormal effects occur." Throughout his career as a parapsychologist Cornell exposed a number of fraudulent mediums including Rita Goold and Alec Harris. The psychologist and skeptic Richard Wiseman has noted that Cornell conducted a "great deal of fascinating work", he investigated the reliability of eyewitness testimony for ghosts by dressing up as a fake spirit in several locations in Cambridge.
Cornell discovered that the eyewitness reports were far from accurate and unreliable. However, Cornell was not just another debunker, but understood and remarked that ghosts and paranormal activity had been recorded throughout human history and so there was something else going on that we did not understand and which known science could not explain, thus requiring careful, level-headed and dispassionate investigation. Poltergeists Investigating the Paranormal. I take the view that the most nonsensical aspect of much of the physical phenomena in the seance room is the implicit notion that the discarnate resort to such ludicrous and facile physical effects to prove that there is life after death. If, as claimed, life in the next world is more advanced than that on earth, one might be forgiven to expect proof of a more intelligent type than what appears acceptable to both the dead and the living, night after night, in the seance room; the shaking of tables and banging of tambourines, the