Cambyses II

Cambyses II was the second King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 530 to 522 BC. He was the son and successor of Cyrus the Great and his mother was Cassandane. Before his accession, Cambyses had served as the governor of northern Babylonia under his father from April 539 BC to December 538 BC. Afterwards, he continued to roam in the Babylonian cities of Babylon and Sippar, before being appointed by his father as co-ruler in 530 BC, who set off to mount an expedition against the Massagetae of Central Asia, where he met his end. Cambyses thus became the sole ruler of the vast Achaemenid Empire, his brief reign was marked by his conquests in Africa, notably Egypt, which he conquered after his victory over the Egyptian pharaoh Psamtik III at the battle of Pelusium in 525 BC. After having established himself in Egypt, he expanded his holdings in Africa further, such as his conquest of Cyrenaica. In the spring of 522 BC, Cambyses hurriedly left Egypt to deal with a rebellion in Persia. While en route in Syria, he received a wound to the thigh, soon affected by gangrene.

Cambyses died three weeks at a location called Agbatana, most the modern city of Hama. He died childless, was thus succeeded by his younger brother Bardiya, who ruled for a short period before being overthrown by Darius the Great, who went on to increase the power of the Achaemenids further; the origins of the name of "Cambyses" is disputed in scholarship. The name of Cambyses is known in other languages as. Cambyses was the eldest son of Cassandane. Cambyses had a younger brother named Bardiya, three sisters named Artystone and Roxane. Cambyses' paternal grandfather was his namesake Cambyses I, the king of Persis from 600 to 559 BC; the family was descended from a line of rulers of Persian tribes, who starting with Cyrus, expanded their reach over Persis, subjugating the Median Empire, the Neo-Babylonian Empire and Central Asia, thus establishing the Achaemenid Empire, In April 539 BC, Cambyses was appointed by his father as the governor of the northern part of Babylonia, including its city Babylon, whilst the central and southern part continued to be directly supervised by Cyrus and his bureaucrats.

Before his appointment, Cambyses had taken part in the ritual, arbitrary for the king at the regular New Year festival on 27 March 538 BC, where he received the royal sceptre in Esagila, a temple dedicated to the god Marduk. His governorship, lasted only 9 months, when Cyrus had dismissed him from the post in December 538 BC for unknown reasons. After his dismissal, Cambyses continued to reside in the Babylonian cities of Babylon and Sippar the majority of his time. According to Babylonian records, both Cambyses and Cyrus carried the title of "King of Babylon, King of the lands" in late 530 BC, which indicates that Cyrus had appointed him as co-ruler before campaign against the Massagetae. Cyrus' younger son, was given his own powerful realm in Central Asia, exempted to pay tribute. Cambyses took part in the expedition against the Massagetae, but due to being the heir of the throne, he was sent back to Persia, before Cyrus fell to the Massagetae. Cambyses had his father's body carried to Pasargadae in Persis, where he was buried in a tomb, prepared for him earlier.

Cambyses' accession to the Achaemenid throne was smooth. Ruling over a vast but young empire, Cambyses was to preserve his authority over the subjugated lands, but expand his dominion over Egypt, the last prominent power in the Near East. According to the French Iranologist Pierre Briant, "this must not be seen as a more or less irrational and uncontrollable desire to take over the entire inhabited world." On the contrary, Cambyses' plan was in reality planned by his father, who wanted to unify Babylonia with the lands of the Trans-Euphrates. This meant that it would demand the conquest of the lands, situated between the Euphrates and the Nile river, therefore made it necessary for conflict with Egypt, a kingdom, that had prior, lately, shown aspirations in the area; the incumbent pharaoh of Egypt was Amasis II, ruling since 570. His ally, Polycrates, a Greek ruler of Samos, posed a considerable threat to the Achaemenids, launching several raids that jeopardized Achaemenid authority. However, Polycrates forsook his Egyptian allies, reached out to Cambyses, whose plans he was well acquainted with.

His sudden change of alliances was undoubtly due to his uneasy position, with the Spartans raising a force against him, the rising hostility of some of the Samian aristocrats, who preferred partnership with Egypt. Another former ally of Amasis II, the Carian military leader Phanes of Halicarnassus, had joined Cambyses after escaping assassins sent by the pharaoh. Cambyses, before starting his expedition into Egypt, had seized Cyprus from Amasis II, a heavy blow to the latter. By 526 BC, Amasis II had died, his son Psamtik III had succeeded him, thus weakening Egypt's position. In the meantime, Cambyses had made substantial preparations for his army, he had laid the foundations to the Persian navy, crucial to his ambitions to conquer Egypt. The navy was created by men and equipment from Asia Minor. During his march to Egypt, Cambyses is a SaaS web data integration platform, which allows people to convert unstructured web data into a structured format by extracting and integrating web data for consumption in analytic platforms or used in business, sales or marketing applications. provides a visual environment for automating the workflow of extracting and transforming web data. After specifying the target website url, the web data extraction module provides a visual environment for designing automated workflows for harvesting data, going beyond HTML parsing of static content to automate end user interactions yielding data that would otherwise not be visible. Once extracted, the software provides full data preparation capabilities that are used for harmonizing and cleansing the web data and offers a library of spreadsheet-like functions enabling the end user to build custom formulas that can be used to enrich the dataset. For consuming the results, provides several options. It has its own visualization and dashboarding module to help business analysts gain the insights that they need, it provides APIs that offer full access to everything that can be done on their platform, allowing web data to be integrated directly into their own applications.

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A touchpad or trackpad is a pointing device featuring a tactile sensor, a specialized surface that can translate the motion and position of a user's fingers to a relative position on the operating system, made output to the screen. Touchpads are a common feature of laptop computers as opposed to using a mouse on a desktop, are used as a substitute for a mouse where desk space is scarce; because they vary in size, they can be found on personal digital assistants and some portable media players. Wireless touchpads are available as detached accessories. Touchpads operate in one including capacitive sensing and resistive touchscreen; the most common technology used in the 2010s senses the change of capacitance where a finger touches the pad. Capacitance-based touchpads will not sense the tip of a pencil or other similar ungrounded or non-conducting implement. Fingers insulated by a glove may be problematic. While touchpads, like touchscreens, are able to sense absolute position, resolution is limited by their size.

For common use as a pointer device, the dragging motion of a finger is translated into a finer, relative motion of the cursor on the output to the display on the operating system, analogous to the handling of a mouse, lifted and put back on a surface. Hardware buttons equivalent to a standard mouse's left and right buttons are positioned adjacent to the touchpad; some touchpads and associated device driver software may interpret tapping the pad as a mouse click, a tap followed by a continuous pointing motion can indicate dragging. Tactile touchpads allow for clicking and dragging by incorporating button functionality into the surface of the touchpad itself. To select, one presses down on the touchpad instead of a physical button. To drag, instead of performing the "click-and-a-half" technique, the user presses down while on the object, drags without releasing pressure, lets go when done. Touchpad drivers can allow the use of multiple fingers to emulate the other mouse buttons. Touchpads are called clickpads if it does not have physical buttons, but instead relies on "software buttons".

Physically the whole clickpad formed a button, logically the driver interpret a click as left or right button click depending on the placement of fingers. Some touchpads have locations on the touchpad used for functionality beyond a mouse. For example, on certain touchpads, moving the finger along an edge of the touch pad will act as a scroll wheel, controlling the scrollbar and scrolling the window that has the focus, vertically or horizontally. Many touchpads use two-finger dragging for scrolling; some touchpad drivers support tap zones, regions where a tap will execute a function, for example, pausing a media player or launching an application. All of these functions are implemented in the touchpad device driver software, can be disabled. By 1982, Apollo desktop computers were equipped with a touchpad on the right side of the keyboard. Introduced a year in 1983, the first battery powered clamshell laptop, the Gavilan SC included a touchpad, mounted above its keyboard, rather than below, which became the norm.

In in 1989 a touchpad was developed for Psion's MC 200/400/600/WORD Series. Laptops with touchpads were launched by Olivetti and Triumph-Adler in 1992. Cirque introduced the first available touchpad, branded as GlidePoint, in 1994. Apple Inc introduced touchpads to the modern laptop in the PowerBook series in 1994, using Cirque's GlidePoint technology. Another early adopter of the GlidePoint pointing device was Sharp. Synaptics introduced their touchpad into the marketplace, branded the TouchPad. Epson was an early adopter of this product; as touchpads began to be introduced in laptops in the 1990s, there was confusion as to what the product should be called. No consistent term was used, references varied, such as: glidepoint, touch sensitive input device, touchpad and pointing device. Users were presented the option to purchase a pointing stick, touchpad, or trackball. Combinations of the devices were common, though touchpads and trackballs were included together. Since the early 2000s, touchpads have become the dominant laptop pointing device as most laptops produced during this period beyond include only touchpads, displacing the pointing stick.

Touchpads are used in self-contained portable laptop computers and do not require a flat surface near the machine. The touchpad is close to the keyboard, only short finger movements are required to move the cursor across the display screen. Touchpads exist for desktop computers as an external peripheral, albeit seen. Touchpads are sometimes integrated in some desktop computer keyboards keyboards oriented for HTPC use. One-dimensional touchpads are the primary control interface for menu navigation on second-generation and iPod Classic portable music players, where they are referred to as "click wheels", since they only sense motion along one axis, wrapped around like a wheel. Creative Labs uses a touchpad for their Zen line of MP3 players, beginning with the Zen Touch; the second-generation Microsoft Zune product line uses touch for the Zune Pad. Apple's PowerBook 500 series was its first laptop to carry such a device, which Apple refers to as a "trackpad"; when introduced in May 1994, it replaced the trackball of previous PowerBook models.

In late 2008 Apple's revisions of the MacBook and MacBook Pro incorporated a "Ta