Camellia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Theaceae. They are found from the Himalayas east to Japan and Indonesia. There are 100 -- 300. There are around 3,000 hybrids; the genus was named by Linnaeus after the Jesuit botanist Georg Joseph Kamel, who worked in the Philippines and described a species of camellia. Camellias are famous throughout East Asia. Of economic importance in East Asia, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, leaves of C. sinensis are processed to create the popular beverage tea. The ornamental C. japonica, C. sasanqua and their hybrids are the source of hundreds of garden cultivars. C. oleifera produces tea seed oil, used in cooking and cosmetics. Camellias are small trees up to 20 m tall, their leaves are alternately arranged, thick and glossy. Their flowers are large and conspicuous, one to 12 cm in diameter, with five to nine petals in occurring species of camellias; the colors of the flowers vary from white through pink colors to red. Tea varieties are always white-flowered.
Camellia flowers throughout the genus are characterized by a dense bouquet of conspicuous yellow stamens contrasting with the petal colors. The so-called "fruit" of camellia plants is a dry capsule, sometimes subdivided in up to five compartments, each compartment containing up to eight seeds; the various species of camellia plants are well-adapted to acid soils rich in humus, most species do not grow well on chalky soil or other calcium-rich soils. Most species of camellias require a large amount of water, either from natural rainfall or from irrigation, the plants will not tolerate droughts. However, some of the more unusual camellias – species from karst soils in Vietnam – can grow without too much water. Camellia plants have a rapid growth rate, they will grow about 30 cm per year until mature – though this does vary depending on their variety and geographical location. Camellia plants are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species. Leaves of the Japanese camellia are susceptible to the fungal parasite Mycelia sterile.
Camellia sinensis, the tea plant, is of major commercial importance because tea is made from its leaves. The species C. sinensis is the product of many generations of selective breeding in order to bring out qualities considered desirable for tea. However, many other camellias can be used to produce a similar beverage. For example, in some parts of Japan, tea made from C. sasanqua leaves is popular. Tea oil is a sweet seasoning and cooking oil made by pressing the seeds of C. oleifera, C. japonica, to a lesser extent other species such as C. crapnelliana, C. reticulata, C. sasanqua and C. sinensis. Little-known outside East Asia, it is the most important cooking oil for hundreds of millions of people in southern China. Camellia oil is used to clean and protect the blades of cutting instruments. Camellia oil pressed from seeds of C. japonica called tsubaki oil or tsubaki-abura in Japanese, has been traditionally used in Japan for hair care. The camellia parasite mycelia sterile PF1022 produces a metabolite named PF1022A.
This is used to produce an anthelmintic drug. Due to habitat destruction, several camellias have become quite rare in their natural range. One of these is the aforementioned C. reticulata, grown commercially in thousands for horticulture and oil production, but rare enough in its natural range to be considered a threatened species. The earliest fossil record of Camellia are the leaves of †C. abensis from the upper Eocene of Japan, †C. abchasica from the lower Oligocene of Bulgaria and †C. multiforma from the lower Oligocene of Washington, United States. Camellias were cultivated in the gardens of China and Japan for centuries before they were seen in Europe; the German botanist Engelbert Kaempfer reported that the "Japan Rose", as he called it, grew wild in woodland and hedgerow, but that many superior varieties had been selected for gardens. He was told. Europeans' earliest views of camellias must have been their representations in Chinese painted wallpapers, where they were represented growing in porcelain pots.
The first living camellias seen in England were a single red and a single white and flowered in his garden at Thorndon Hall, Essex, by Robert James, Lord Petre, among the keenest gardeners of his generation, in 1739. His gardener James Gordon was the first to introduce camellias to commerce, from the nurseries he established after Lord Petre's untimely death in 1743, at Mile End, near London. With the expansion of the tea trade in the 18th century, new varieties began to be seen in England, imported through the British East India Company; the Company's John Slater was responsible for the first of the new camellias, double ones, in white and a striped red, imported in 1792. Further camellias imported in the East Indiamen were associated with the patrons whose gardeners grew them: a double red for Sir Robert Preston in 1794 and the pale pink named "Lady Hume's Blush" for Amelia, the lady of Sir Abraham Hume of Wormleybury, Hertfordshire; the camellia was imported from England to America in 1797 when Colonel John Stevens brought the flower as part of an effort to
The Sheffield District Rail Rationalisation Plan was a series of linked railway civil engineering projects and line closures and train route changes that took place in and around Sheffield, South Yorkshire. The majority of these changes took place in the 1960s and early 1970s, however the plan, by now much modified in the face of dwindling freight traffic, was not realised until the 1980s. In the 1960s, the Sheffield area was one of the busiest areas in the country for rail traffic, in particular for freight traffic: a British Rail Board report showed that 10% of the country's rail freight emanated from the Sheffield area; the facilities that existed, were built by competing railway companies in the 19th century and were cramped and outmoded. In an era of central government economic planning this was seen as constraint on Britain's economic growth. At the same time, passenger facilities in Sheffield were to be made more convenient, representing the need for faster and more frequent trains on fewer routes stopping at fewer intermediate stations, but allowing more convenient changing between trains for the remaining local and long-distance express trains.
The major part of the rationalisation plan involved: The concentration of passenger services on Sheffield Midland and the closure of Sheffield Victoria. The closure of Rotherham Central and the concentration of services on Rotherham Masborough; the concentration of parcels traffic and goods transshipment on a new'Sheffield Freight Terminal' built on a site adjacent to the former Midland Railway locomotive sheds at Grimesthorpe. The construction of a new marshalling yard at Tinsley to replace many small yards around South Yorkshire; the construction of a Freightliner depot on the site of the former Masborough Sorting Sidings in Rotherham. The upgrading of signalling to multiple-aspect signalling or MAS. In 1965, Sheffield Midland station's exterior was cleaned for the first time 95 years. At the same time, Sheaf House, new home of British Rail Sheffield Division headquarters were opened. Sheaf House stood on the site of the former Pond Street Goods station closed in 1963. Midland Main Line services South were improved with hourly workings from 1966 with departure times scheduled just past the hour.
Cross-country passenger services from the North-East to the South-West were transformed with services running via Sheffield Victoria station rerouted to Sheffield Midland. Services via Retford and the ECML to London King's Cross were stopped and all London trains routed via the Midland Main Line to London St Pancras; the Master Cutler lost its Pullman cars. Stopping trains to Derby and Nottingham were taken off and Heeley and Beauchief stations were closed in June 1968. Stopping trains on the former Midland main line north of Rotherham were axed in January 1968 and many South Yorkshire stations closed: all Leeds-bound stopping services were diverted to run via Chapeltown and Barnsley replacing the short distance Sheffield-Barnsley and Barnsley-Wakefield stopping trains on this line; the Nunnery Curve built in 1870 was upgraded and brought into passenger use, allowing trains arriving in Sheffield from the East over former Great Central lines to access Sheffield Midland. Passenger services to Lincoln, Hull and Cleethorpes were moved from Sheffield Victoria to Midland.
It had been suggested that after the closure of Victoria the electrification be extended to Sheffield Midland from the Woodhead Line, but this was dismissed as being too expensive and the Woodhead became a freight only line under the 1984 Trunk Route Plan. All Manchester services were diverted to the Hope Valley Line. After closure the Sheffield to Huddersfield service continued to pass through Victoria by reversing at Woodburn Junction; this service was diverted via Barnsley in 1983 by an initiative of the SYPTE who agreed to subsidise the diversion. The operation was a success and the diverted service was kept, resulting in subsequent station re-openings at Silkstone and Dodworth, which had both closed in 1959. Victoria station was demolished in 1989. Pond Street Goods station closed on 7 October 1961, Queens Road Goods station on 11 May 1963 and Park Goods station in October 1963. Work on Sheffield freight terminal at Grimesthorpe began at the end of 1963. A third Western entrance to Tinsley Yard over Shepcote Lane was opened in summer 1964 and was electrified.
Followed the opening of Grimesthorpe in summer 1965. In order to allow goods trains reach the new Tinsley Marshalling Yard from the north a scissors junction, Aldwarke Junction, was constructed near Parkgate, North of Rotherham; this enabled passenger trains to reach Sheffield Midland station from the Great Central route following the closure of the Swinton Curve. New lines were constructed from the Great Central in the Attercliffe/Broughton Lane area to reach the Sheffield District Railway and access to Tinsley Marshalling yard. Dr Beeching opened both complexes on 29 October. Between 1961 and 1965 the fleet of steam locomotives in the Sheffield area was withdrawn and replaced with new diesel locomotives and multiple units. Millhouse's engine shed. Grimesthorpe lost its steam locomotives but became the temporary home to the new diesel locomotive fleet pending the opening of the new shed at Tinsley; this new depot, which could service both diesel and electric locomotives op
In food preparation, maceration is softening or breaking into pieces using a liquid. Raw, dried or preserved fruit or vegetables are soaked in a liquid to soften the food and/or absorb the flavor of the liquid into the food. In the case of fresh fruit soft fruit such as strawberries and raspberries, they are just sprinkled with sugar and left to sit and release their own juices; this process makes the food easier to chew and digest. Maceration is confused with marination, the process of soaking foods in a seasoned acidic, liquid before cooking; some herbal preparations call for maceration, as it is one way to extract delicate or volatile herbal essences "cold" and thus preserve their signature more accurately. Sometimes a cooking oil is used as the liquid for maceration – olive or some other vegetable oil. Maceration is the chief means of producing a flavored alcoholic beverage, such as cordials and liqueurs. Maceration of byproducts from food processing plants and other organic byproducts such as cooking oil, wood chips or manure can involve the use of a chopper pump to create a slurry which can be used for to create compost or co-digestion feedstock in biogas plants.
Rita Atria was a witness of justice in a major Mafia investigation in Sicily. She committed suicide in July 1992, a week after the Mafia killed the prosecutor Paolo Borsellino, with whom she had been working. Rita was born into a Mafia family in Sicily. In 1985, at the age of 11, she lost her father, Vito, a shepherd, shot dead by a hit man from a rival Mafia family. Atria’s brother, vowed to avenge his father and knew who the murderer was. After her father's death, Rita became closer to his wife, Piera Aiello. Since her brother was a Mafioso, Rita was privy to detailed information on the doings of the Mafia in Partanna, she dated a boy who moved in the criminal underworld. In June 1991, the Mafia killed Nicola Atria. A month her brother’s widow, Piera Aiello, went to the police and talked – deciding to collaborate with the judicial authorities. At 17 years of age, Rita decided in November 1991 to follow in her sister-in-law's footsteps, hoping to obtain justice for these murders from the legal system.
The first person to receive her testimony was the magistrate Paolo Borsellino, to whom she bonded as a father. She named the heads of the most powerful families and told Borsellino about the war between the Mafia families of Partanna, in which 30 people died, she named the men who had killed her father and her brother. Her mother threw Rita out of the house when she found out that her daughter was collaborating with the police, she did not care. Rita was relocated to a safe house in a seventh-floor flat on the outskirts of Rome, where the only people she knew were her police guards. Borsellino became her lifeline; the evidence given by Rita and Piera, together with other testimony, led to the arrest of various Mafiosi and to the launch of an enquiry into the politician Vincenzo Culicchia, mayor of Partanna for thirty years. Evidence from another woman, Rosalba Triolo, from the rival Mafia factions in Partanna, independently confirmed the testimonies of Rita and Piera. Abandoned by friends and family, both Rita and Piera Aiello had turned to Borsellino for emotional support.
They phoned him whenever they needed him. He visited them whenever he was in Rome after they had finished their depositions. Borsellino used to pinch Rita on the cheek and poked fun at her tough, streetwise behaviour, calling her a "mafiosa with a skirt."On 19 July 1992, a Mafia bomb killed Borsellino, less than two months after his colleague Giovanni Falcone had been killed. Rita wrote in her diary: "You have died for what you believed in, but without you, I too am dead." A week on 26 July, Rita locked herself into the apartment and wrote a note, which said: "I am devastated by the killing of Judge Borsellino. Now there's no one to protect me, I'm scared and I can't take it any more." She threw herself out of the window. Many people regard Rita as a heroine because of her willingness to sacrifice everything, including the affection of her mother in order to pursue justice, she grew from a desire for revenge for her losses to one for justice. Like Piera, Rita was not a Mafia penitent; because of this, she is referred to as a "witness of justice", a title, recognised in Italy by the law of 13/2/2001 n.
45. Rita wrote in her diary: "Before fighting the Mafia you must first examine your own conscience, after you have defeated the Mafia inside yourself, you can fight the Mafia that's in your circle of friends. We ourselves and our mistaken way of behaving are the Mafia."On 25 July 2008, Piera Aiello was nominated as the president of the anti-mafia association called "Rita Atria". Rita’s story was the subject of a 1997 documentary, One Girl Against the Mafia: Diary of a Sicilian Rebel, directed by Marco Amenta. In 2007, Amenta reworked the documentary into the film The Sicilian Girl with Veronica D'Agostino as Rita. Rita's family has condemned the film. Rita’s niece, Vita Maria Atria, the Rita Atria Anti-Mafia Association, complained that faces and voices in the 1997 documentary were not sufficiently altered as agreed, endangering her and her mother. In addition Amenta had not returned family footage "entrusted to him in good faith" for the documentary, according to Rita's niece. Vita Maria Atria, in hiding since 1992, said she was tired of "seeing speculation about her aunt's memory."
She said: "I don't believe that any of this helps to commemorate my aunt, but only serves economic ends which I do not consider appropriate." List of victims of the Sicilian Mafia Pickering-Iazzi, Robin. Mafia and Outlaw Stories from Italian Life and Literature, Toronto: University of Toronto Press ISBN 0-8020-9561-5 Stille, Alexander. Excellent Cadavers; the Mafia and the Death of the First Italian Republic, New York: Vintage ISBN 0-09-959491-9 Official site of the Antimafia association Rita Atria
The Stack is a colloquialism used to describe the symmetrical, four-level stack interchange in Downtown Phoenix in the U. S. state of Arizona that facilitates movements between Interstate 17/U. S. Route 60 and Interstate 10. In 2006, the Stack interchange saw an average of 235,000 cars pass through it daily on Interstate 10 eastbound and westbound; the interchange constitutes exit 200A on Interstate 17 and exits 143A and 143B on Interstate 10. Access is provided in all directions and there are no direct HOV lane connections. Interstate 17 has two frontage roads running both southbound and northbound through the interchange known as Black Canyon Highway. US 60 runs concurrently with I-17 throughout this interchange; the stack was the Phoenix Metropolitan Area and Arizona's first four-level stack interchange upon its completion in 1990 and one of the last portions of I-10 in Arizona to be completed. In a 2007 study by Forbes, the Stack ranked number twelve in the United States in terms of delays with 16 million hours of delays each year.
Euphyes bayensis, the byssus skipper or bunchgrass skipper, is a butterfly of the family Hesperiidae. It is found along the Atlantic coastal plain of North America, from North Carolina south to Florida and the Gulf States and from northern Indiana west to Iowa and south to Missouri and Kansas; the wingspan is 37–46 mm. The upperside is a black bar at the end of the cell; the underside of the hindwings is orange in females. Both sexes have a band of pale spots. Adults feed on the nectar including pickerelweed; the larvae feed on Tripsacum dactyloides. Problema byssus byssus Problema byssus kumskaka