Camelot is a castle and court associated with the legendary King Arthur. Absent in the early Arthurian material, Camelot first appeared in 12th-century French romances and, after the Lancelot-Grail cycle came to be described as the fantastic capital of Arthur's realm and a symbol of the Arthurian world; the stories locate it somewhere in Great Britain and sometimes associate it with real cities, though more its precise location is not revealed. Most scholars regard it as being fictional, its unspecified geography being perfect for chivalric romance writers. Arguments about the location of the "real Camelot" have occurred since the 15th century and continue to rage today in popular works and for tourism purposes; the name's derivation is uncertain. It has numerous different spellings in medieval French Arthurian romances, including Camaalot, Chamalot, Camaaloth, Camahaloth, Kamaalot, Kaamalot, Kameloth, Kamelot, Cameloth and Gamalaot. Arthurian scholar Ernst Brugger suggested that it was a corruption of the site of Arthur's final battle, the Battle of Camlann, in Welsh tradition.
Roger Sherman Loomis believed it was derived from Cavalon, a place name that he suggested was a corruption of Avalon. He further suggested that Cavalon became Arthur's capital due to confusion with Arthur's other traditional court at Carlion. Others have suggested a derivation from the British Iron Age and Romano-British place name Camulodunum, one of the first capitals of Roman Britain and which would have significance in Romano-British culture. Indeed, John Morris, the English historian who specialized in the study of the institutions of the Roman Empire and the history of Sub-Roman Britain, suggested in his book The Age of Arthur that as the descendants of Romanized Britons looked back to a golden age of peace and prosperity under Rome, the name "Camelot" of Arthurian legend may have referred to the capital of Britannia in Roman times, it is unclear, where Chrétien de Troyes would have encountered the name Camulodunum, or why he would render it as Camaalot, though Urban T. Holmes argued in 1929 that Chrétien had access to Book 2 of Pliny's Natural History, where it is rendered as Camaloduno.
Given Chrétien's known tendency to create new stories and characters, being the first to mention the hero Lancelot's love affair with Queen Guinevere for example, the name might be invented. Arthur's court at Camelot is mentioned for the first time in Chrétien's poem Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart, dating to the 1170s, though it does not appear in all the manuscripts. In the C manuscript, which might in fact contain the proper reading of Chretien's original text, instead of the place name we find the Old French phrase con lui plot, meaning "as he pleased"; the other manuscripts spell the name variously as Chamalot, Camehelot and Camalot. In the tale, the court is mentioned only in passing and is not described: A un jor d'une Acenssion / Fu venuz de vers Carlion / Li rois Artus et tenu ot / Cort molt riche a Camaalot, / Si riche com au jor estut. King Arthur, one Ascension Day, had left Caerleon and held a most magnificent court at Camelot with all the splendour appropriate to the day. Nothing in Chrétien's poem suggests the level of importance Camelot would have in romances.
For Chrétien, Arthur's chief court was in Caerleon in Wales. Chrétien depicts Arthur, like a typical medieval monarch, holding court at a number of cities and castles, it is not until the 13th-century French prose romances, including the Lancelot-Grail and the Post-Vulgate cycles, that Camelot began to supersede Caerleon, then, many descriptive details applied to Camelot derive from Geoffrey's earlier grand depiction of the Welsh town. Most Arthurian romances of this period produced in English or Welsh did not follow this trend. One exception is Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, which locates Arthur's court at "Camelot"; the Lancelot-Grail Cycle and the texts it influenced depict the city of Camelot as standing along a river, downstream from Astolat. It is surrounded by plains and forests, its magnificent cathedral, St. Stephen's established by Josephus, the son of Joseph of Arimathea, is the religious centre for Arthur's Knights of the Round Table. There and Guinevere are married and there are the tombs of many kings and knights.
In a mighty castle stands the Round Table, created by Merlin and Uther Pendragon. Jousts are held in a meadow outside the city, its imprecise geography serves the romances well, as Camelot becomes less a literal place than a powerful symbol of Arthur's court and universe. There is a Kamaalot featured as the home of Percival's mother in the romance Perlesvaus. In Palamedes and some other works, including the Post-Vulgate cycle, the castle is razed to the ground by the treacherous King Mark of Cornwall in his invasion of Logres after the Battle of Camlann
Mark Sanchez is an American politician in San Francisco, California. He was on the San Francisco Board of Education from 2001 to 2009, served as president of the board from 2007 to 2009. Sanchez lost a 2008 election for the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in District 9, he was again elected to the San Francisco Board of Education in 2016. He was elected President of the Board in 2020, having been Vice President since 2018. Mark Sanchez was a long-time teacher in San Francisco, he founded Teachers for Change and Teachers for Social Justice before running for the Board of Education in 2000. In 2000, he became the first Green Party member and the second openly-gay Commissioner on the Board of Education. Sanchez represented the opposition to then-Superintendent Arlene Ackerman; the San Francisco Chronicle blamed Sanchez in part for the tense relationship the Board had with the superintendent: What doesn't need is sniping and second-guessing from elected officials whose job is to set broad policies, not micromanage the superintendent's daily conduct.
Tensions between school board members and superintendents come with the territory. But in San Francisco, those tensions had gone far beyond the limits of acceptability. Three board members in particular—Eric Mar, Sarah Lipson and Mark Sanchez—need to start working with Ackerman, not fighting with her on a daily basis. At a September 2003 meeting of the Board of Education, Sanchez was among "three board members with whom Ackerman has locked horns said they remain steadfast in their objections to her management of the district, which they characterize as autocratic and unyielding to differing views." Ackerman resigned in 2005. Reported the San Francisco Chronicle, "Mayor Newsom said he was saddened but not surprised by Ackerman's resignation considering the ongoing bickering that has gone on between her and a faction of the school board, he said it was a shame to be losing the architect of the improvements within city schools."In January, 2007, Mark Sanchez was unanimously elected as the President of the Board of Education.
His tenure as President included the hiring of new SFUSD Superintendent Carlos Garcia, the shortening of the Board of Education's regular meetings, the debate over San Francisco's popular JROTC program and a resolution for Lennar Corporation to halt construction in Hunters Point Naval Shipyard because of health concerns. In 2003, commissioners Sanchez and Mar sponsored an anti-war resolution. "The original resolution called for promoting a district-wide anti-war rally and creating a curriculum culled from the resources of anti-war groups to be used from kindergarten on up." However, other board members objected to the resolution, calling it one-sided and for taking students out of school to participate in the rally. "The proposal failed but a watered-down version that passed the board called for a day of on-campus public discussion about the possibility of a war in Iraq.". In 2006, the Board of Education voted to eliminate its Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps program as an anti-war statement.
Commissioners Sanchez, Mar and Lipson voted to eliminate the program, with Commissioners Jill Wynns and Norman Yee voting for keeping the 120-year-old program. Commissioner Eddie Chin was absent. "Opponents said the armed forces should have no place in public schools, the military's discriminatory stance on gays makes the presence of JROTC unacceptable." One supporter of the program argued. AsianWeek magazine criticized the schoolboard for closing down the Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps in San Francisco high schools: "Supporters of JROTC acknowledge problems with the U. S. military and gays, but say Mar and Yee are discounting the tremendous benefit JROTC has provided to minorities and low-income students."In December 2007, during Sanchez' presidency, the Board voted 5-2 to postpone the elimination of JROTC because a replacement program had not been created. Sánchez and Mar were the only commissioners to vote for immediate elimination. In June, 2008 the board discontinued the awarding of physical education credit due to the threat of a lawsuit.
In 2008, San Francisco voters overruled the Board of Education and passed Proposition V, which urged the San Francisco Board of Education to reverse its elimination of the JROTC program. The proposition passed 55 to 45 percent. In 2008, Sanchez ran for supervisor in District 9, he received the endorsement of the San Francisco Chronicle He lost the race with only 29 percent of the vote. In 2009, the San Francisco school board waived its own rules and offered Sanchez a one-year interim position as principal of Horace Mann Middle School. In order to give Sanchez the position, board members suspended a 30-year-old policy that prohibited the district from hiring or contracting with former board members within two years of the end of their term. In March 2010, Horace Mann Middle School was put on California's 5 percent lowest-achieving schools list. Schools on the list were required to be closed, converted to charter schools, or subjected to a complete staff overhaul, including the principal. However, Sanchez was not replaced because regulations allow schools to keep principals who have been on the job two years or less.
In July 2010, Horace Mann Middle School appeared on the state Board of Education's list of 1,000 schools deemed so bad that parents have the right to transfer their children to a better school in their district or any other district. In August 2010, a charter high school, Metropolitan Arts and Technology, began sharing the Horace Mann Middle School campus; the school was built to hold some 600 students, but enrollment in Horace Mann Middle School had dwindled to 330. Some middle school parents were uneasy about their children sharing the campus with older high school st
Aviator Nation is a owned lifestyle brand of contemporary casual wear founded by Paige Mycoskie in 2006. The line consists of apparel for men and children with most styles unisex; the brand's pieces are signified for their natural stitching, worn-in feel, vintage essence. Notably, the brand uses single needle stitch-work, hand drawn graphics to give garments a one-of-a-kind effect resulting in each piece being unlike any other; the brand carries apparel and surfboards. The company is named after Mycoskie's love for aviator-style sunglasses' timeless and versatile appeal. All Aviator Nation products are manufactured in Southern California, remaining authentic to the brand's key source of inspiration. Mycoskie's personal style is that of color-fused with 70s nostalgia. After failing to find clothes that fit her aesthetic, she began creating garments for herself, out of her home garage in Venice, LA in 2006. Mycoskie sold her handmade designs at a local street fair, witnessed the business potential after selling out of every style her white hoodie, now known as the "Signature Hoodie," one of most successful garments for the brand.
In 2009, she opened the first Aviator Nation retail store in Venice, on Abbot Kinney Blvd, drawing locals and tourists alike. The brand is a true reflection of Mycoskie's passion for an active lifestyle, Southern California and surf culture; the company has grown into a global lifestyle brand with an online boutique, destination retail locations: Abbot Kinney/ Venice, CA, Manhattan Beach, CA, Malibu, CA, Haight-Ashbury, San Francisco, CA, Laguna Beach, CA, Aspen, CO, Austin, TX. All Aviator Nation designs adhere to style trends of their inspired era, favoring inks and dye treatments popular in the 70s. Fabrics are broken down to extreme vintage softness and are intentionally distressed to a degree of perfect imperfection; the brand uses natural fabric deconstruction, hand drawn graphics, handmade stitch-work, appliqués, uses sewing machines popular in the 70s to maintain authenticity. Along with the "Signature Hoodie," Aviator Nation has various noteworthy collections including "Pray for Surf" and "Rock and Roll."
Iconic trademark graphics include the surfer graphic and rainbow stripes stitched in the hood of garments. The rainbow stripe designs stitched across the chest of T-shirts and hoodies in both four and five stripe combinations are the brand's best sellers. Aviator Nation's prints include drawings from Mycoskie's earliest sketches, she still hand draws some of the icons found on her clothing from lightning bolts to psychedelic maidens; the use of rainbows and bright colors found in Aviator Nation clothing, that has now become the brand's niche, comes from her mother Pam Mycoskie's preference of decorating and dressing Mycoskie in bold colors and rainbows prints. Aviator Nation surfboards debuted in early 2016, airbrushed by hand. Aviator Nation has a main focus in connecting fashion with music festivals, raising funds for philanthropies, generating a greater awareness of our collective consciousness. In 2012, Aviator Nation launched a partnership with The Austin City Limits Music Festival. Mycoskie curated a signature Aviator Nation experience in the artist's lounge inspired by the iconic energy surrounding Woodstock.
She designed and installed a rainbow tepee for musicians to relax and play vintage instruments, which organically evolved into impromptu shows. She designed ACL x Aviator Nation merchandise that sold out both weekends of the festival. Today, the partnership continues with the merchandise still selling out year after year. Mycoskie collaborated with John Mayer, designing his "Born and Raised" tour merchandise. Aviator Nation is a partner of the Global Citizen Festival, a music festival that shares the brand's personal mission of, "empowerment through music"; the brand creates festival merchandize with proceeds aiding in the festival's ongoing campaign to end poverty. In 2015, Aviator Nation-designed merchandise for the festival was featured during New York Fashion Week. Aviator Nation will continue its collaborations with ACL, Firefly Music Festival and Global Citizen in 2017. In 2013, GQ Magazine named Mycoskie as Best New Menswear Designers in America. With this recognition, she was asked to create a capsule collection for GQ x GAP.
The collection debuted at GAP stores domestically and internationally selling out globally in the first 24 hours. GQ Magazine refers to Aviator Nation as "…a brand with a point of view – cohesive, vibrant – that extends from its clothes to its sun-bronzed designer." Http://articles.latimes.com/2013/may/19/image/la-ig-paige-mycoskie-20130519 Aviator Nation http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2442067/Making-worn-clothes-skip-thrift-store-Paige-Mycoskie-sister-TOMS-founder-looks-70s-award-winning-fashion-label.html https://www.gq.com/story/announcing-the-2013-gq-best-new-menswear-designers-in-america http://hoodline.com/2016/01/with-clothes-concerts-aviator-nation-makes-a-home-in-the-haight
Nina Meredith Springle is an Australian politician. She was a Greens member of the Victorian Legislative Council, having represented South Eastern Metropolitan Region from 2014 to 2018. In 2014 Springle became the first Greens MP to represent the South Eastern Metropolitan Region in Victoria’s Parliament. Springle has worked as a consultant in the education sectors. During her term of office, Springle was the Victorian Greens spokesperson for Families and Children, Multicultural Affairs, Health, Youth Justice, Prevention of Family Violence, Older People, Industrial Relations, Industry & Trade, Small Business, Digital Rights and Waste Management. Nina Springle initiated the "Plastic Free Sea" campaign, which aims to stop marine plastic pollution in Victoria, has worked on developing a container deposit scheme to reduce plastic and metal litter. Springle was appointed the first Deputy Leader of the Victorian Greens on 12 October 2017, a role she retained until losing her seat at the 2018 state election.
She resigned from the party after the election, citing dissatisfaction with the "party establishment" and its response to the loss of seats. Parliamentary voting record of Nina Springle at Victorian Parliament Tracker
Human subject research legislation in the United States can be traced to the early 20th century. Human subject research in the United States was unregulated until the 20th century, as it was throughout the world, until the establishment of various governmental and professional regulations and codes of ethics. Notable – and in some cases, notorious – human subject experiments performed in the US include the Tuskegee syphilis experiment, human radiation experiments, the Milgram obedience experiment and Stanford prison experiments and Project MKULTRA. With growing public awareness of such experimentation, the evolution of professional ethical standards, such research became regulated by various legislation, most notably, those that introduced and empowered the institutional review boards. Aside from the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 and the Harrison Act of 1914 banning the sale of some narcotic drugs, there was no federal regulatory control ensuring the safety of new drugs, thus the early calls for regulation of human experimentation concerned medicine, in particular, testing of new pharmaceutical drugs and their release on the market.
In 1937, a drug known as Elixir Sulfanilamide was released without any clinical trials. Reports in the press about lethal side effects led to a public outcry. Investigation by the American Medical Association showed that a poisonous compound, diethylene glycol, was present in the drug; the AMA concluded that the drug caused more than a hundred deaths – yet the contemporary law did not require the company that released it to test it. A new legislation was proposed by the Secretary of Agriculture to address the issue but was weakened after opposition from business interests, it was included in the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act of 1938. In the aftermath of World War II, what became recognized as unethical human experimentation carried out by the Nazis, the Nuremberg Code – ethical principles governing international human experimentation – were founded; the code highlighted 3 key elements which became the foundation for further human research regulations. However, neither the Nuremberg Code nor the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act of 1938 prevented the "thalidomide tragedy" of the early 1960s.
Thalidomide was introduced in 1958, there were reports of it being unsafe for certain groups, such as pregnant women and young children. This led to the abuse of approved drug testing as the means to further a promotional marketing strategy; this was addressed by the Drug Amendments legislation of 1962, which introduced a requirement for a series of animal tests before proceeding with human experimentation, a total of three phases of human clinical trials before a drug can be approved for the market. The inadequacy of the 1938 and 1962 acts was exposed by revelations in the 1970s. Another milestone came with Henry K. Beecher's 1966 study as published in the New England Journal of Medicine, his study became instrumental in the implementation of federal rules on human experimentation and informed consent. Beecher's study listed over 20 cases of mainstream research where subjects were subject to experimentation without being informed of their status as research subjects, without knowledge of the risks of such participation in the research.
Some of the research subjects were permanently crippled as a result of that research. One of the cases analyzed was the Willowbrook State School Case, in which mentally defective children were deliberately infected with hepatitis, under disguise of a vaccination program. Beecher's findings were not alone. Evidence emerged that soon after the introduction of nuclear weapons and civilians were subjected to dangerous levels of radiation – without consent – to test its health effects. While most major controversies about unethical research were focused on biomedical sciences, there were controversies involving behavioral and sociological experiments such as: the Milgram obedience experiment, Stanford prison experiment, Tearoom Trade study, others. There were ethical issues related to the CIA's Project MKULTRA; the Tuskegee syphilis experiment is the most infamous case of unethical medical experimentation in the United States. Starting in 1932, investigators recruited 399 impoverished African-American sharecroppers with syphilis for research related to the natural progression of the untreated disease, in hopes of justifying treatment programs for blacks.
By 1947, penicillin had become the standard treatment for syphilis, but the Tuskegee scientists decided to withhold penicillin from the patients. The study continued under numerous supervisors until 1972, when a leak to the press resulted in its termination. Victims included a number of men who died of syphilis, their wives who contracted the disease, some children who were born with syphilis; when the results were made public, the initial reaction of the medical scientific community was to exonerate the study and criticize the popular press for interfering with the research. In 1976, the National Institutes of Health Office for Protection of Research Subjects was created, issued its Policies for the Protection of Human Subjects which recommended establishing independent review bodies, late
Noctcaelador is a psychological construct, introduced by the psychologist William E. Kelly in 2003 to describe an "emotional attachment to, or adoration of, the night sky". According to Kelly, "noctcaelador has been associated with higher openness to experience and artistic vocational interests, sensation-seeking, a rational, cognitive approach to problem solving and need for cognition, a propensity to engage in fantasy, a tendency to become involved and attentive to stimuli of interest, a willingness to consider unusual ideas and possibilities". In a series of lectures in the United States, the philosopher George Santayana used the appearance of the night sky as an example of what is attractive to the human mind: an intricacy delicately poised between unfathomable complexity and uninteresting simplicity; because of the absence of light pollution in antiquity, stars of the sixth apparent magnitude were more visible by the naked eye. American philosopher Holmes Rolston III juxtaposed the ancient aesthetics of the night sky and the modern one: "Today, we are amused at the way the ancients fancied various constellations there.
At night, we no longer admire the Orion as a hunter, any more than by day do we admire a cumulus cloud as a basket of washing". Isaac Asimov in his short story Nightfall tackled the first experience of the night sky by describing an eclipse on a fictitious inhabited planet with six suns. Dark-sky movement National Dark-Sky Week International Dark-Sky Association