The Brandenburg Gate is an 18th-century neoclassical monument in Berlin, built on the orders of Prussian king Frederick William II after the successful restoration of order during the early Batavian Revolution. One of the best-known landmarks of Germany, it was built on the site of a former city gate that marked the start of the road from Berlin to the town of Brandenburg an der Havel, which used to be capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, it is located in the western part of the city centre of Berlin within Mitte, at the junction of Unter den Linden and Ebertstraße west of the Pariser Platz. One block to the north stands the Reichstag building; the gate is the monumental entry to Unter den Linden, the renowned boulevard of linden trees, which led directly to the royal City Palace of the Prussian monarchs. Throughout its existence, the Brandenburg Gate was a site for major historical events and is today considered not only as a symbol of the tumultuous history of Europe and Germany, but of European unity and peace.
In the time of Frederick William, shortly after the Thirty Years' War and a century before the gate was constructed, Berlin was a small walled city within a star fort with several named gates: Spandauer Tor, St. Georgen Tor, Stralower Tor, Cöpenicker Tor, Neues Tor, Leipziger Tor. Relative peace, a policy of religious tolerance, status as capital of the Kingdom of Prussia facilitated the growth of the city; the Brandenburg Gate was not part of the old Berlin Fortress, but one of eighteen gates within the Berlin Customs Wall, erected in the 1730s, including the old fortified city and many of its suburbs. The new gate was commissioned by Frederick William II of Prussia to represent peace; the Gate was designed by Carl Gotthard Langhans, the Court Superintendent of Buildings, built between 1788 and 1791, replacing the earlier simple guardhouses which flanked the original gate in the Customs Wall. The gate consists of six to each side, forming five passageways. Citizens were allowed to use only the outermost two on each side.
Atop the gate is a Quadriga, a chariot drawn by four horses, sculpted by Johann Gottfried Schadow. The new gate was named the Peace Gate and the goddess is Victoria, the goddess of victory; the gate's design is based upon the Propylaea, the gateway to the Acropolis in Athens, is consistent with Berlin's history of architectural classicism. The gate was the first element of "Athens on the River Spree" by architect Langhans; the Brandenburg Gate has played different political roles in German history. After the 1806 Prussian defeat at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, Napoleon was the first to use the Brandenburg Gate for a triumphal procession, took its Quadriga to Paris. After Napoleon's defeat in 1814 and the Prussian occupation of Paris by General Ernst von Pfuel, the Quadriga was restored to Berlin, it was now redesigned by Karl Friedrich Schinkel for the new role of the Brandenburg Gate as a Prussian triumphal arch. The Quadriga faces east, as it did when it was installed in 1793. Only the royal family was allowed to pass through the central archway, as well as members of the Pfuel family, from 1814 to 1919.
The Kaiser granted this honour to the family in gratitude to Ernst von Pfuel, who had overseen the return of the Quadriga to the top of the gate. In addition, the central archway was used by the coaches of ambassadors on the single occasion of their presenting their letters of credence to council; when the Nazis ascended to power, they used the gate as a party symbol. The gate survived World War II and was one of the damaged structures still standing in the Pariser Platz ruins in 1945; the gate was badly damaged with holes in the columns from nearby explosions. One horse's head from the original quadriga survived, is today kept in the collection of the Märkisches Museum. Following Germany's surrender and the end of the war, the governments of East Berlin and West Berlin restored it in a joint effort; the holes were visible for many years following the war. Vehicles and pedestrians could travel through the gate, located in East Berlin, until the Berlin Wall was built, 13 August 1961. Brandenburg Gate border crossing was closed on 14 August 1961.
West Berliners gathered on the western side of the gate to demonstrate against the Berlin Wall, among them West Berlin's governing Mayor Willy Brandt, who had spontaneously returned from a federal election campaigning tour in West Germany earlier on the same day. It was closed throughout the Berlin Wall period until 22 December 1989; when the Revolutions of 1989 occurred and the wall was demolished, the gate symbolized freedom and the desire to unify the city of Berlin. Thousands of people gathered at the wall to celebrate its fall on 9 November 1989. On 22 December 1989, the Brandenburg Gate border crossing was reopened when Helmut Kohl, the West German chancellor, walked through to be greeted by Hans Modrow, the East German prime minister. Demolition of the rest of the wall around the area took place the following year. During 1990, the quadriga was removed from the gate as part of renovation work carried out by the East German authorities following the fall of the wall in November 1989. Germany was reunified in October 1990.
The Brandenburg Gate was refurbished on 21 December 2000, at a cost of six million euros. It was once again opened on
Video production is the process of producing video content. It is the equivalent of filmmaking, but with images recorded digitally instead of on film stock. There are three stages of video production: pre-production and post-production. Pre-production involves all of the planning aspects of the video production process before filming begins; this includes scriptwriting, scheduling and other administrative duties. Production is the phase of video production which captures the video content and involves filming the subject of the video. Post-production is the action of selectively combining those video clips through video editing into a finished product that tells a story or communicates a message in either a live event setting, or after an event has occurred; the majority of video content is captured through electronic media like an SD card for consumer grade cameras, or on solid state storage and flash storage for professional grade cameras. Video content, distributed digitally appears in common formats such as the Moving Picture Experts Group format, QuickTime, Audio Video Interleave, Windows Media Video, DivX.
There are many different types of video production. The most common include film and TV production, television commercials, web commercials, corporate videos, product videos, customer testimonial videos, marketing videos, event videos, wedding videos; the term "Video Production" is reserved only for content creation, taken through all phases of production and created with a specific audience in mind. A person filming a concert, or their child's band recital with a smartphone or video camera for the sole purpose of capturing the memory would fall under the category of "home video" not video production. Production scale is determined by crew size and not the location of the production, or the type of content captured. Crew size in most cases will determine a projects quality and is not a limitation of what kind of content can be captured. There are feature films that have been captured by a crew of just 2 people, corporate videos that leverage teams of 10 or more; some examples of production scale include: A solo camera operator with a professional video camera in a single-camera setup.
A small crew of 2 people, one for operating the camera and one for capturing audio. A multiple-camera setup shoot with a small crew with support staff. A larger scale production with a crew of 5 or more people and a trailer or production truck The same shooting styles used in filmmaking can be used in video production. There is not a singular type of style, used for every kind of video content captured. Instead, style changes depending on the type of video being created, the desired tone and message of the video. Tripods for a stable shots Hand-held for a more energetic and jittery feel - used to depict natural movement Non-leveled camera angles see Dutch angle Whip pan and Whip zoom. Steadicam for smooth movement and tracking shots at slower speeds such as moving through rooms or following actors and action. 3-axis stabilized gimbal for smooth motion shots at any speed. The gimbal compensates for the camera operators movements much like a steadicam but through electronic motors instead of through inertia.
The gimbal allows for operators to move much more than a steadicam because of the smaller amount of weight used in a gimbal setup. Gimbals can access many places that would be impossible for a steadicam because of this added portability. Corporate video production is scripted and covers a wide range of purposes from corporate Communication and Education, videotaping conferences and conventions and services, sales; the most common type of corporate video is the "Corporate Overview Video," which introduces the company's executive team and puts a name and face to the people incharge. This video is used as a way to communicate a company's core beliefs and values as well as their overall mission statement; this video is called the "foundation" of a company's video content as it sets the tone and communication style for all of their other video content. Corporate event videos occur at conventions or trade shows and cover the multiple-day event including speakers, break-out sessions, awards ceremonies and local recreational activities in which the conventioneers participate.
An on-site editor creates a short video presentation, shown before the close of the convention. Many national or international companies take advantage of the convention venue to gather interviews of their key employees or customers to speak on the company's behalf as it is much easier to film everyone at a central location. Product videos are created with the main purpose of selling a product and offer an opportunity to communicate all of the highlights and features of a product which are written on the product page in text but with the added bonus of showcasing glamour shots of the product; the most effective product videos are between 2 to 3 minutes in duration, balancing the amount of information provided while keeping the audience engaged. Two styles of producing video are ENG and EFP. Television broadcast productions include television commercials, newscasts, entertainment shows, news magazines and reality shows, among others. Shows can be distribu
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
Open Here is the seventh studio album by English band Field Music. It was released in February 2018 under Memphis Industries
A film crew is a group of people, hired by a production company, for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture. The crew is distinguished from the cast as the cast are understood to be the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film; the crew is separate from the producers as the producers are the ones who own a portion of either the film company or the film's intellectual property rights. A film crew is divided into different departments, each of which specializes in a specific aspect of the production. Film crew positions have evolved over the years, spurred by technological change, but many traditional jobs date from the early 20th century and are common across jurisdictions and film-making cultures. Motion picture projects have three discrete stages: development and distribution. Within the production stage there are three defined sequential phases — pre-production, principal photography and post-production — and many film crew positions are associated with only one or two of the phases.
Distinctions are made between above-the-line personnel who begin their involvement during the project's development stage, the below-the-line "technical" crew involved only with the production stage. A film director is a person; the director most has the highest authority on a film set. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfillment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of film-making. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, film editors or actors.
Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely. Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners; some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. Production is not considered a department as such, but rather as a series of functional groups; these include the film's producers and executive producers and production office staff such as the production manager, the production coordinator, their assistants. Producer A film producer creates the conditions for film-making; the producer initiates, coordinates and controls matters such as fund raising, hiring key personnel, arranging for distributors. The producer is involved throughout all phases of the film making process from development to completion of a project.
There may be several producers on a film who may take a role in a number of areas, such as development, financing or production. Executive producer An executive producer is a producer, not involved in the technical aspects of the film-making process in the original definition, but has played a financial or creative role in ensuring that the project goes into production. Today, the title has become ambiguous in feature films. Since the 1980s, it has become common for the line producer to be given the title of executive producer, while the initiating producer takes the "produced by" credit. On other projects, the reverse happens, with the line producer taking the "produced by" credit. So the two credits have become interchangeable, with no precise definition. Line producer The line producer is the liaison between the studio or producer and the production manager, responsible for managing the production budget; the title is associated with the idea that they are the person, "on the line" on a day-to-day basis, responsible for lining up the resources needed.
Production assistant Production assistants, referred to as PAs, assist in the production office or in various departments with general tasks, such as assisting the first assistant director with set operations. Production manager The production manager supervises the physical aspects of the production including personnel, technology and scheduling, it is the production manager's responsibility to make sure the filming stays on schedule and within its budget. The PM helps manage the day-to-day budget by managing operating costs such as salaries, production costs, everyday equipment rental costs; the PM works under the supervision of a line producer and directly supervises the production coordinator. Assistant production manager The assistant production manager is the assistant to the production manager and carries out various jobs for the PM. Only big budget Hollywood feature films have an assistant PM. Unit manager The unit manager fulfils the same role as the production manager but for secondary "unit" shooting.
In some functional structures, the unit manager subsumes the role of the transport coordinator. Production coordinator The production coordinator is the information nexus of the production, responsible for organizing all the logistics from hiring crew, renting equipment, booking talent; the PC is an int
United States Department of Labor
The United States Department of Labor is a cabinet-level department of the U. S. federal government responsible for occupational safety and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, reemployment services, some economic statistics. S. states have such departments. The department is headed by the U. S. Secretary of Labor; the purpose of the Department of Labor is to foster and develop the wellbeing of the wage earners, job seekers, retirees of the United States. In carrying out this mission, the Department of Labor administers and enforces more than 180 federal laws and thousands of federal regulations; these mandates and the regulations that implement them cover many workplace activities for about 10 million employers and 125 million workers. The department's headquarters is housed in the Frances Perkins Building, named in honor of Frances Perkins, the Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945. In 1884 the U. S. Congress first established a Bureau of Labor Statistics with the Bureau of Labor Act, to collect information about labor and employment.
This bureau was under the Department of the Interior. The Bureau started collecting economic data in 1884, published their first report in 1886. In 1888, the Bureau of Labor became an independent Department of Labor, but lacked executive rank. In February 1903, it became a bureau again when the Department of Commerce and Labor was established. United States President William Howard Taft signed the March 4, 1913 bill, establishing the Department of Labor as a cabinet-level department. William B. Wilson was appointed as the first Secretary of Labor on March 5, 1913, by President Wilson. In October 1919, Secretary Wilson chaired the first meeting of the International Labour Organization though the U. S. was not yet a member. In September 1916, the Federal Employees' Compensation Act introduced benefits to workers who are injured or contract illnesses in the workplace; the act established an agency responsible for federal workers’ compensation, transferred to the Labor Department in the 1940s and has become known as the Office of Workers' Compensation Programs.
Frances Perkins, the first female cabinet member, was appointed to be Secretary of Labor by President Roosevelt on March 4, 1933. Perkins served for 12 years, became the longest-serving Secretary of Labor. During the John F. Kennedy Administration, planning was undertaken to consolidate most of the department's offices scattered around more than 20 locations. In the mid‑1960s construction on the "New Labor Building" began and finished in 1975. In 1980 it was named in honor of Frances Perkins. President Lyndon Johnson asked Congress to consider the idea of reuniting Labor, he argued that the two departments had similar goals and that they would have more efficient channels of communication in a single department. However, Congress never acted on it. In the 1970s, following the civil rights movement, the Labor Department under Secretary George P. Shultz made a concerted effort to promote racial diversity in unions. In 1978, the Department of Labor created the Philip Arnow Award, intended to recognize outstanding career employees such as the eponymous Philip Arnow.
During 2010 a local of the American Federation of Government Employees stated their unhappiness that a longstanding flextime program reduced under the George W. Bush administration had not been restored under the Obama administration. Department officials said the program was modern and fair and that it was part of ongoing contract negotiations with the local. In August 2010, the Partnership for Public Service ranked the Department of Labor 23rd out of 31 large agencies in its annual "Best Places to Work in the Federal Government" list. In December 2010, then-Department of Labor Secretary Hilda Solis was named the Chair of the U. S. Interagency Council on Homelessness, of which Labor has been a member since its beginnings in 1987. In July 2011, the department was rocked by the resignation of Ray Jefferson, Assistant Secretary for VETS, in a contracting scandal. In March 2013, the department began commemorating its centennial. In July 2013, Tom Perez was confirmed as Secretary of Labor. According to remarks by Perez at his swearing-in ceremony, "Boiled down to its essence, the Department of Labor is the department of opportunity."
In the latest Center for Effective Government analysis of 15 federal agencies which receive the most Freedom of Information Act requests, published in 2015, the Labor Department earned a D by scoring 63 out of a possible 100 points, i.e. did not earn a satisfactory overall grade. Title 20 of the Code of Federal Regulations Equal Employment Opportunity Commission National Labor Relations Board Occupational Information Network Ticket to Work USA.gov USAFacts Lombardi, John. Labor's Voice in the Cabinet: A History of the Department of Labor from Its Origins to 1921. New York: Columbia University Press. Official website U. S. Department of Labor in the Federal Register