Time in Australia
Australia uses three main time zones: Australian Western Standard Time, Australian Central Standard Time, Australian Eastern Standard Time. Time is regulated by the individual state governments. Australia's external territories observe different time zones. Standard time was introduced in the 1890s. Before the switch to standard time zones, each local city or town was free to determine its local time, called local mean time. Now, Western Australia uses Western Standard Time. Daylight saving time is used in states in the south and south-east - South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and the ACT, it is not used in Western Australia, the Northern Territory or Queensland. The standardisation of time in Australia began in 1892, when surveyors from the six colonies in Australia met in Melbourne for the Intercolonial Conference of Surveyors; the delegates accepted the recommendation of the 1884 International Meridian Conference to adopt Greenwich Mean Time as the basis for standard time. The colonies enacted time zone legislation, which took effect in February 1895.
The clocks were set ahead of GMT by 8 hours in Western Australia. The three time zones became known as Western Standard Time, Central Standard Time, Eastern Standard Time. Broken Hill in the far west of New South Wales adopted Central Standard Time due to it being connected by rail to Adelaide but not Sydney at the time. On 1 May 1899 at 12:00AM local time, South Australia advanced Central Standard Time by thirty minutes after lobbying by businesses who wanted to be closer to Melbourne time and cricketers and footballers who wanted more daylight to practice in the evenings disregarding the common international practice of setting one-hour intervals between adjacent time zones. Attempts to correct these oddities in 1986 and 1994 were rejected; when the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia and placed under the jurisdiction of the Federal Government, that Territory kept Central Standard Time. When the ACT was broken off from New South Wales, it retained Eastern Standard Time. Since 1899, the only major changes in Australian time zones have been the setting of clocks to one-half hour earlier than Eastern time on the territory of Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island changing from UTC+11:30 to UTC+11:00 on 4 October 2015.
When abbreviating "Australian Central Time" and "Australian Eastern Time", in domestic contexts the leading "Australian" may be omitted. Though the governments of the states and territories have the power to legislate variations in time, the standard time within each of these is set related to Coordinated Universal Time as determined by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures and set by section 8AA of the National Measurement Act of 1960 of the Commonwealth. Australia has kept a version of the UTC atomic time scale since the 1990s, but Greenwich Mean Time remained the formal basis for the standard times of all of the states until 2005. In November 2004, the state and territory attorneys-general endorsed a proposal from the Australian National Measurement Institute to adopt UTC as the standard of all Australian standard times, thereby eliminating the effects of slight variations in the rate of rotation of the Earth that are inherent in mean solar time. All states have adopted the UTC standard, starting on 1 September 2005.
In Victoria, South Australia and the ACT, the starting and ending dates of daylight saving times are determined by proclamations, declarations, or regulation made by the State Governor or by the responsible minister. Such instruments may be valid for only the current year, so this section only refers to the legislation. In New South Wales and Western Australia, the starting and ending dates, if any, are to be set by legislation. Western Standard Time – UTC+08:00 Western Australia – Standard Time Act 2005Central Standard Time – UTC+09:30 South Australia – Standard Time Act 2009 and the Daylight Saving Act 1971 Northern Territory – Standard Time Act 2005Eastern Standard Time – UTC+10:00 Queensland – Standard Time Act 1894 New South Wales – Standard Time Act 1987 No 149 Australian Capital Territory – Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972 Victoria – Summer Time Act 1972 Tasmania – Standard Time Act 1895 and the Daylight Saving Act 2007 The choice of whether to use DST is a matter for the governments of the individual states and territories.
However, during World War I and World War II all states and territories used daylight saving time. In 1968 Tasmania became the first state in peacetime to use DST, followed in 1971 by New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, the Australian Capital Territory. Western Australia and the Northern Territory did not adopt it. Queensland abandoned DST in 1972. Queensland and Western Australia have used DST during the past 40 years during trial periods; the main DST zones are the following: Central Daylight Saving Time – UTC+10:30, in South Australia Eastern Daylight Saving Time – UTC+11:00, in New South Wales, the ACT, TasmaniaDuring the usual
Hungerford is a outback town in the Shire of Bulloo and a locality in the Shire of Bulloo and Shire of Paroo, South West Queensland, Australia. It is north of the border with New South Wales and the Dingo fence. At the 2016 census and the surrounding area within Queensland had a population of 23; the locality of Hungerford on the New South Wales side of the border had a population of 15. The locality is split between the Shire of Paroo; the town is located in the Shire of Bulloo north of the border between Queensland and New South Wales. Surrounding the town is the Currawinya National Park. Hungerford was in Badjiri territory; the town is named after Thomas Hungerford. The town developed from a border customs post on a stock route alongside the Paroo River. In 1874, the first hotel opened and the following year the town was gazetted. For a number of years, before a proper survey was conducted the town was thought to be located in New South Wales. Hungerford Post Office opened on 1 October 1880, was replaced by a New South Wales office in 1881, reopened in 1886 and closed by 1907, replaced the New South Wales office in 1941 and closed by 1985.
In 1892-3, Henry Lawson wrote a short story named after it. In the story he wrote: The town is right on the Queensland border, an inter-provincial rabbit-proof fence -- with rabbits on both sides of it -- runs across the main street.... Hungerford consists of two houses and a humpy in New South Wales, five houses in Queensland. Characteristically enough, both the pubs are in Queensland. We got a glass of sour yeast at one and paid six pence for it -- we had asked for English ale. A Cobb & Co coach service to the town was stopped in 1904. Hungerford Provisional School opened in 1892, becoming Hungerford State School in 1909, it closed in 1918, due to low attendance. It reopened in 1928, but low attendances caused it to close again in 1930, it was reopened a final time, this time located in the Bulloo Shire Hall, between 30 January and 11 December 1981. Hungerford will be the site of a total solar eclipse on 22 July 2028. Hungerford has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Archernar Street: Royal Mail Hotel Media related to Hungerford, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons Hungerford travel guide from Wikivoyage Town map of Hungerford, 1963
Poeppel Corner at latitude 26° S and longitude 138° E is a corner of state boundaries in Australia, where the state of Queensland meets South Australia and the Northern Territory. As with the other three corners it is a destination for four-wheel-drive tourists. Poeppel Corner is about 174 km west in the middle of the Simpson Desert. Augustus Poeppel, after whom the point is named, conducted a survey in the mid-1880s to find the exact location of the central Australian colonial borders, his team used camels to drag a coolibah post to mark the intersection. The point was located in a salt lake, but it was found that the measuring chain used was a few centimetres too long. Another survey was conducted by Lawrence Wells. New Year's Eve occurs three times each year at thirty minute intervals in Poeppel Corner, because it is at the intersection of three time zones; the Poeppel Corner Survey Marker is a heritage-listed site, having been added to the Queensland Heritage Register in 2012. Cameron Corner Haddon Corner Geography of Australia Media related to Poeppel Corner at Wikimedia Commons
The Outback is the vast, remote interior of Australia. "The Outback" is more remote than those areas named "the bush", any location outside the main urban areas. While envisaged as being arid, the Outback regions extend from the northern to southern Australian coastlines, encompass a number of climatic zones. Geographically, the Outback is unified by a combination of factors, most notably a low human population density, a intact natural environment and, in many places, low-intensity land uses such as pastoralism in which production is reliant on the natural environment. Culturally, the Outback is ingrained in Australian heritage and folklore. In 2009 as part of the Q150 celebrations, the Queensland Outback was announced as one of the Q150 Icons of Queensland for its role as a "natural attraction". Indigenous Australians have lived in the Outback for 50,000 years and occupied all Outback regions, including the driest deserts, when Europeans first entered central Australia in the 1800s. Many Indigenous Australians retain strong physical and cultural links to their traditional country and are recognised as the Traditional Owners of large parts of the Outback under Commonwealth Native Title legislation.
Early European exploration of inland Australia was sporadic. More focus was on the more fertile coastal areas; the first party to cross the Blue Mountains just outside Sydney was led by Gregory Blaxland in 1813, 25 years after the colony was established. People starting with John Oxley in 1817, 1818 and 1821, followed by Charles Sturt in 1829–1830 attempted to follow the westward-flowing rivers to find an "inland sea", but these were found to all flow into the Murray River and Darling River which turn south. Over the period 1858 to 1861, John McDouall Stuart led six expeditions north from Adelaide into the outback, culminating in reaching the north coast of Australia and returning, without the loss of any of the party's members' lives; this contrasts with the ill-fated Burke and Wills expedition in 1860–61, much better funded, but resulted in the deaths of three of the members of the transcontinental party. The Overland Telegraph line was constructed in the 1870s along the route identified by Stuart.
In 1865 the surveyor George Goyder, using changes in vegetation patterns, mapped a line in South Australia, north of which he considered rainfall to be too unreliable to support agriculture. Exploration of the outback continued in the 1950s when Len Beadell explored and built many roads in support of the nuclear weapons tests at Emu Field and Maralinga and rocket testing on the Woomera Prohibited Area. Mineral exploration continues as new mineral deposits are developed. While the early explorers used horses to cross the outback, the first woman to make the journey riding a horse was Anna Hingley, who rode from Broome to Cairns in 2006; the paucity of industrial land use has led to the Outback being recognised globally as one of the largest remaining intact natural areas on Earth. Global "Human Footprint" and wilderness reviews highlight the importance of Outback Australia as one of the world's large natural areas, along with the Boreal forests and Tundra regions in North America, the Sahara and Gobi deserts and the tropical forests of the Amazon and Congo Basins.
The savanna of northern Australia are intact savanna regions in the world. In the south, the Great Western Woodlands, which occupy 16,000,000 hectares, an area larger than all of England and Wales, are the largest remaining temperate woodland left on Earth. Reflecting the wide climatic and geological variation, the Outback contains a wealth of distinctive and ecologically-rich ecosystems. Major land types include: the Kimberley and Pilbara regions in northern Western Australia, sub-tropical savanna landscape of the Top End, ephemeral water courses of the Channel Country in western Queensland, the ten deserts in central and western Australia, the Inland Ranges, such as the MacDonnell Ranges, which provide topographic variation across the flat plains, the flat Nullarbor Plain north of the Great Australian Bight, the Great Western Woodlands in southern Western Australia; the Australian Outback is full of important well-adapted wildlife, although much of it may not be visible to the casual observer.
Many animals, such as red kangaroos and dingoes, hide in bushes to rest and keep cool during the heat of the day. Birdlife is prolific, most seen at waterholes at dawn and dusk. Huge flocks of budgerigars, cockatoos and galahs are sighted. On bare ground or roads during the winter, various species of snakes and lizards bask in the sun, but they are seen during the summer months. Feral animals such as camels thrive in central Australia, brought to Australia by pastoralists and explorers, along with the early Afghan drivers. Feral horses known as ` brumbies' are station horses. Feral pigs, foxes and rabbits are other imported animals degrading the environment, so time and money is spent eradicating them in an attempt to help protect fragile rangelands; the Outback is home to a diverse set of animal species, such as the kangaroo and dingo. The Dingo Fence was built to restrict movements of dingoes and wild dogs into agricultural areas towards the south east of the continent; the marginally fertile parts are utilised as rangelands and have been traditionally used for sheep or cattle grazing, on cattle stations which are leased from the Federal Government.
While small areas of the outback consist of c
Sturt National Park
The Sturt National Park is a protected national park, located in the arid far north-western corner of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The 325,329-hectare national park is situated 1,060 kilometres northwest of Sydney and the nearest town is Tibooburra, 6 kilometres away. Established in 1972, the park is named in honour of a colonial explorer; the park features typical outback scenery of reddish-brown landscapes. It was resumed from five pastoral properties; the Sturt National Park was featured in British documentary called Planet Earth. The Dingo Fence was built along the national park's northern boundary. Flora consists of mulga bushland and arid shrubland Saltbush. After good rain the harsh landscape is transformed by the growth of wildflowers including Sturt's desert pea. At least 31 species of mammal have been recorded in the park; the most obvious to visitors include the red kangaroo, western grey kangaroo, eastern grey kangaroo and Euro. Other terrestrial mammals found at Sturt NP include the dingo, stripe-faced dunnart, paucident planigale, narrow-nosed planigale, dusky hopping mouse and desert mouse.
Nine species of bat have been recorded in the park, including the eastern long-eared bat, little broad-nosed bat, yellow-bellied sheath-tailed bat, inland forest bat and little pied bat. Several introduced pest species occur, including the European fox, European rabbit, feral cat, feral goat and feral pig. Several mammal species that occurred prior to the arrival of Europeans are being reintroduced into the park; these include the Crest-tailed Mulgara, Greater Bilby, Western barred bandicoot, Burrowing bettong, Greater stick-nest rat, Golden bandicoot and Western quoll. At least 67 species of reptile have been recorded in the park. Found species include the central bearded dragon, tree dtella and Bynoe's gecko; the Gould’s goanna, ringed brown snake, whip snake and mulga snake are common, but less to be seen. Several cryptic species inhabit the park, such as the Interior blind snake and woma python. Several frog species can be found in the park, including the desert tree frog, common around the residential and accommodation areas, the burrowing frog and the water-holding frog.
At least 197 bird species have been recorded in the park, with the most obvious to visitors being the emu. Significant ground-nesting birds include the inland dotterel, stubble quail, Australian pratincole and spotted nightjar. 13 species of parrot, which rely on tree hollows for nesting, have been recorded in the park. These include flocks of cockatiels, galahs and less budgerigars that appear after rain events. A wide variety of birds of prey are present in the park, including the wedge-tailed eagle, black-breasted buzzard, Grey falcon, Australian hobby and nankeen kestrel; the Ramsar-listed Lake Pinaroo, present within the park acts as an important stopover and drought refuge for at least 40 species of waterbird, including several threatened species, such as the Australian painted-snipe. Other waterbird species include the Freckled duck, Blue-billed duck and Caspian tern. Ants, native bees and spiders are all common within the park, however existing knowledge of species and interactions are poor.
The aquatic invertebrates found in the park include the common yabby and freshwater crab, while populations of shield shrimp can be found in temporary water pools after rain events. The Mount Wood Station is a heritage-listed former cattle station in the national park; the park contains aboriginal middens and stone relics. There are an extensive network of roads. Most roads in the park are gravel with some sandy stretches and can be driven on with a conventional vehicle. A 4WD vehicle is needed after heavy rains. In the east of the park are flood plains, dotted with occasional trees which give way to small rocky gorges and creek beds. Located here is Mount Wood, Gorge Lookout and the Mount Wood camping ground. Towards the middle of the park, The Olive Downs, or "Jump Up" country has flat topped mesas rising up to 150 metres above the surrounding plains, granite outcrops and flat valleys; the Jump Ups are the remains of an ancient mountain range. The park's second camping site called. Amongst the boulders north of Tibooburra is another camping ground.
All camp grounds have toilets, gas barbecues and water provided. In the far west of the national park, the gibber plains are replaced by sandhills of the Strzelecki Desert. Cameron Corner is a remote but popular tourist destination where the states of New South Wales, South Australia and Queensland meet. In this part of the park is Fort Grey—the fourth camp ground and a heritage site; the holding yards visible a remnant from the explorer Charles Sturt. The fort is a stockade, built to protect Sturt's supplies and prevent the exploration party's sheep from wandering away. While searching for a fabled inland sea, Captain Charles Sturt, after whom the park is named, spent a year in the area. Fort Grey is sited on the edge of the ephemeral, Ramsar-listed, Lake Pinaroo - an important breeding and drought refuge for waterbirds when it contains water; the Wild Deserts program is an ongoing program aiming to reintroduce 7 locally extinct mammals back into Sturt National Park. A partnership between the University of New South Wales and Ecological Horizons, in collaboration with the Office of Environment and Heritage and Taronga Conservation Society, the project is using large fenced exclosures to assist with the reintroduction.
The species being reintroduced include the Crest-tailed Mulgara, Greater Bilby, Western barred bandicoot, Burrowing
Cameron Corner Survey Marker
Cameron Corner Survey Marker is a heritage-listed survey marker in the locality of Cameron Corner, Shire of Bulloo, Australia. The survey marker is at the border corner of South-West Queensland with New South Wales and South Australia, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 9 November 2012. Cameron Corner Survey Marker was established in September 1880 during the first official survey of the western section of the border between Queensland and New South Wales undertaken in 1879-1881, it defines the westernmost extension of the Queensland-New South Wales border. Its marking was a surveying feat of its time. After debate about a suitable southern boundary for the proposed new colony to the north of New South Wales, letters patent were issued by Queen Victoria in June 1859 which separated the new Colony of Queensland from NSW; the letters patent described the border between the two colonies as having three components: the watershed from Point Danger west to the Dumaresq River a river section formed by the Dumaresq and Barwon Rivers to latitude 29 degrees South along latitude 29 degrees South to the 141st meridian of East longitude, the eastern boundary of South Australia.
The eastern and western sections of the border required surveying but the central river section did not. The eastern section was surveyed between 1863 and 1866. In 1863 surveyors Francis Edward Roberts from Queensland and Isaiah Rowland from New South Wales were chosen to survey the boundary line from Point Danger west to the Dumaresq River. Starting in June, two separate surveys were carried out, although in many instances both surveyors used the same tree to mark the border and Roberts defined the border in different positions. At the direction of the Queensland Surveyor-General, Roberts deviated from the definable position of the watershed in order to increase the accuracy of the survey. Subsequently, the New South Wales and Queensland governments adopted the survey of Roberts. Marking the river section formed by the Dumaresq and Barwon Rivers to 29 degrees South took place in 1865. Queensland and New South Wales arranged for the fixing of the 29th parallel of latitude, at the intersections of the Barwon, Bokhara, Narran and Culgoa Rivers, to enable the colonial governments to adjust the rents of leases of several pastoral runs in the vicinity, some of which were in both colonies.
In addition, about 450,000 acres of land on the Queensland border could not be leased until its position was determined. Augustus Charles Gregory, Queensland Surveyor-General and NSW District Surveyor of the Northern Rivers, William Albert Baylesford Greaves, conducted this initial survey of latitude 29S; the marking of the border was done with steel pins one inch in diameter and two feet long, driven a few inches below the surface, radial reference bearings being taken to adjacent trees. This process was repeated at each of the above named rivers, the work was completed in five or six weeks; that left surveying of the western section of the border at latitude 29 degrees S to be completed. Pastoral occupation of south-west Queensland began in the 1860s. In July 1862 Sir Charles Nicholson had reported to the Secretary of State for the Colonies that: "On the west, the whole of the basin of the'Barcoo' for several hundred miles, as far as the 142nd meridian of East longitude, is becoming occupied by squatters, the authorised possession of the greater part of it has I believe, been secured under pastoral licenses...".
Pastoralists began settling the Cooper and Bulloo country and the adjacent portion of South Australia in 1864 with Bulloo Downs Station being the first pastoral run in the Bulloo area. By the end of the decade the Cooper country was settled. During the 1870s, settlement extended west to the Diamantina and Georgina areas. In 1873, the pastoral districts were named - Gregory South comprised the Bulloo and lower Cooper area and the remainder became Gregory North. Runs in both districts were stocked with cattle and sheep. By 1885 all available land in Queensland's far south-west had been claimed; this land, comprising the floodplains of the Mulligan, Georgina and Bulloo Rivers and Cooper Creek, which form part of a vast inland drainage system originating in Queensland's central west and north-west and reaching Lake Eyre, became known as Channel Country. During floods, the semi-arid region becomes a network of channels, watering vast grasslands suitable for cattle-fattening. Another factor in the determination of the Queensland-NSW border was the collection of customs duties at the border and establishment of border customs offices.
Inter-colonial border duties were introduced in Australia in the 1850s, after the Murray River became the boundary between New South Wales and Victoria. Their introduction demonstrated that the Australian colonies were developing in divergent and independent ways; as each new colony was declared, it established its own Customs administration, responsible for the collection of lucrative custom duties and the prevention of smuggling. In mid-1862, the Queensland government assented to the provisions of the New South Wales Border Customs Act, introduced to provide for a mutual Queensland-New South Wales system of collecting customs duties payable on goods crossing their shared border. At first, the flow of goods into Queensland through the inland routes was not sufficient in either quantity or value to warrant the cost of collecting customs duty in remote areas. However, as settlement expanded, the Queensland government became concerned at the amount of revenue being lost in this way (estimated in 1870 at between £12,000 and £15,000 per annum, with 340 pastor