In architecture, a pavilion has several meanings. In architectural terminology it refers to a subsidiary building, either positioned separately or as an attachment to a main building, its function makes it an object of pleasure. In the traditional architecture of Asia, palaces or other large houses may have one or more subsidiary pavilions that are either freestanding or connected by covered walkways, as in the Forbidden City, Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, in the Red Fort and other buildings of Mughal architecture. In another more specific meaning applied to large palaces, it refers to symmetrically placed subsidiary building blocks that appear to be attached to each end of a main building block or to the outer ends of wings that extend from both sides of a central building block – the corps de logis; such configurations provide an emphatic visual termination to the composition of a large building, akin to bookends. Pavilions may be small garden outbuildings, similar to a kiosk; these were popular up to the 18th century and can be equated to the Italian casina rendered in English "casino".
These resembled small classical temples and follies. If there is some space for food preparation, they may be called a banqueting house. A pavilion built to take advantage of a view may be referred to as a gazebo. Bandstands in a park are a class of pavilion. A pool house by a swimming pool may have sufficient charm to be called a pavilion. By contrast, a free-standing pavilion can be a far larger building such as the Royal Pavilion at Brighton, in fact a large oriental style palace. A sports pavilion is a building adjacent to a sports ground used for changing clothes and partaking of refreshments, it has a verandah to provide protection from the sun for spectators. In cricket grounds, as at Lords, a cricket pavilion tends to be used for the building the players emerge from and return to when this is a large building including a grandstand; the term pavilion can be used in stadia baseball parks, to distinguish a single-decked, covered seating area from the more expensive seating area of the main grandstand and the less expensive seating area of the uncovered bleachers.
Externally, pavilions may be emphasised by any combination of a change in height, colour and ornament. Internally they may be part of a rectangular block, or only connected to the main block by a thin section of building; the two 18th-century English country houses of Houghton Hall and Holkham Hall, illustrate these different approaches in turn. In the Place des Vosges, twin pavilions mark the centers of the north and south sides of the square, they are named the Pavillon du Roi and the Pavillon de la Reine though no royal personage lived in the square. With their triple archways, they function like gatehouses that give access to the privileged space of the square. French gatehouses had been built in the form of such pavilions in the preceding century. In some areas, a pavilion is a term for a hunting lodge; the "Pavillon de Galon" in Luberon, France is a typical 18th century aristocratic hunting pavilion. The pavilion, located on the site of an old Roman villa, includes a garden "à la française,", used by the guests for receptions.
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Brutalist architecture or Brutalism is an architectural style which emerged in the late 1930s and early 1940s and gained popularity in the late 1950s and early to mid 1960s. It descended from the modernist architectural movement of the late 19th century and of the first half of 20th century, it is characterized by simple, block-like structures that feature bare building materials. Exposed concrete is favored in construction, however some examples are made of brick. Though beginning in Europe, Brutalist architecture can now be found around the world; the style has been most used in the design of institutional buildings such as libraries, public housing and city halls. Brutalism's stark, geometric designs contrast with the more ornate features of some 1910s, 1920s and 1930s architecture. Brutalist designs have been polarising. Specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism and support from architects and the public. Many brutalist buildings have become architectural and cultural icons, with some obtaining listed status.
The term "Brutalism" was coined by the Swedish architect Hans Asplund to describe Villa Göth, a modern brick home in Uppsala, designed in 1949 by his contemporaries Bengt Edman and Lennart Holm. He used the Swedish term Nybrutalism, picked up in the early 1950s by a group of visiting English architects, including Michael Ventris, Alison and Peter Smithson; the Smithsons' Hunstanton School completed in 1954 in Norfolk, the Sugden House completed in 1955 in Watford, represent the earliest examples of Brutalism in the United Kingdom. The term gained wider recognition when the British architectural historian Reyner Banham used it, to identify both an ethic and aesthetic style, in both his 1955 essay, The New Brutalism, 1966 book, The New Brutalism: Ethic or Aesthetic?, to characterize a somewhat established cluster of architectural approaches in Europe. In the 1955 essay, Reyner Banham associated the term New Brutalism with Art Brut and Le Corbusier's béton brut, meaning raw concrete in French, for the first time.
The best known proto-Brutalist architecture is the work of the Swiss architect Le Corbusier, in particular his 1952 Unité d'habitation in France, the 1953 Secretariat Building in Chandigarh and the 1955 church of Notre Dame du Haut in Ronchamp, France. Brutalism gained considerable momentum in the United Kingdom during the mid-twentieth century, as economically depressed communities sought inexpensive construction and design methods for low-cost housing, shopping centres, government buildings. Brutalism began to be favoured by governmental and institutional clients, with numerous examples in English-speaking countries, Western Europe, the Soviet Union, the Eastern Bloc, places as disparate as Japan, Brazil, the Philippines, Israel. Examples are massive in character, fortress-like, with a predominance of exposed concrete construction, or, in the case of the "brick Brutalists," they ruggedly combine detailed brickwork and concrete. There is an emphasis on graphic expressions in the external elevations and in the whole-site architectural plan the main functions and people-flows of the buildings.
Brutalism became popular for educational buildings but was rare for corporate projects, which preferred International Style. Brutalism became favoured for many government projects, rectangle tower blocks, shopping centres. Combined with the progressive intentions behind Brutalist streets in the sky housing such as the Smithsons' Robin Hood Gardens, completed in 1972, Brutalism was promoted as a positive option for forward-moving, modern urban housing. Brutalist buildings are constructed with repeated modular elements forming masses representing specific functional zones, distinctly articulated and grouped together into a unified whole. Concrete is used for its raw and unpretentious honesty, contrasting with the refined and ornamented buildings constructed in the elite Beaux-Arts style. Surfaces of cast concrete are made to reveal the basic nature of its construction, showing the texture of the wooden planks used for the in-situ casting forms. Brutalist building materials include brick, steel, rough-hewn stone, gabions.
Conversely, not all buildings exhibiting an exposed concrete exterior can be considered Brutalist, may belong to one of a range of architectural styles including Constructivism, International Style, Expressionism and Deconstructivism. Another common theme in Brutalist designs is the exposure of the building's functions—ranging from their structure and services to their human use—in the exterior of the building. In the Boston City Hall, designed in 1962, the strikingly different and projected portions of the building indicate the special nature of the rooms behind those walls, such as the mayor's office or the city council chambers. From another perspective, the design of the Hunstanton School included placing the facility's water tank a hidden service feature, in a prominent, visible tower. Brutalism as an architectural philosophy, associated with a socialist utopian ideology, which tended to be supported by its designers Alison and Peter Smithson, near the height of the style; this style had a strong position in the architecture of European communist countries from the mid-1960s to the late 1980s.
In Czechoslovakia Brutalism was presen
Australian Heritage Council
The Australian Heritage Council is the principal adviser to the Australian Government on heritage matters. It was established on 19 February 2004; the Council replaced the Australian Heritage Commission as the Australian Government's independent expert advisory body on heritage matters when the new Commonwealth heritage system was introduced in 2004 under amendments to the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. The Council assesses nominations for the Australian National Heritage List and the Commonwealth Heritage List; the Minister may ask the Council for advice on action that he may take in relation to the List of Overseas Places of Historic Significance to Australia. The Council plays a key role in assessment and policy formulation and support of major heritage programs, its main responsibilities are to: assess places for the National Heritage List and the Commonwealth Heritage List nominate places for inclusion in the National Heritage List or Commonwealth Heritage List promote the identification, assessment and monitoring of heritage advise the Minister on various heritage matters including the preparation and amendment of heritage strategies and management plans for Commonwealth areas and agencies Protection of Australia’s Commemorative Places and Monuments Report - 2018 National Heritage Places map - 2017 Australia's National Heritage List - the story so far - 2017 ‘The Waters of Australian Deserts’ Cultural Heritage Study - 2017 A thematic heritage study on Australia’s benevolent and other care institutions - Thematic Study and Companion Guide - 2016 Rock Art Thematic Study - 2016 AHC Submission on the Great Barrier Reef Strategic Assessment - 2014 Identifying Commonwealth Heritage Values and Establishing a Heritage Register - 2010 Guidelines for the assessment of places for the National Heritage List - 2009 Standard Commonwealth Heritage Listing process - 2007 Standard National Heritage Listing process - 2007 Australian Heritage Database Historic Shipwrecks Act 1976 Official website Australian Heritage Council Act 2003
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
The District of Belconnen is one of the original eighteen districts of the Australian Capital Territory, used in land administration. The district is subdivided into 25 divisions and blocks; the district of Belconnen lies within the bounds of the city of Canberra, the capital city of Australia. As at the 2016 census, the district had a population of 96,049 people. Belconnen is situated 7 kilometres to the north-west of the central business district of Canberra, surrounds an artificially created, ornamental lake, Lake Ginninderra. Lake Ginninderra was made possible by building a dam at an elbow of Ginninderra Creek. Exiting the lake, via a simple overflow, Ginninderra Creek continues, runs north-west to its confluence with the Murrumbidgee River just beyond the north-western ACT border; the traditional custodians of the district are the indigenous people of the Ngunawal tribe. Following the transfer of land from the Government of New South Wales to the Commonwealth Government in 1911, the district was established in 1966 by the Commonwealth via the gazettal of the Districts Ordinance 1966 which, after the enactment of the Australian Capital Territory Act 1988, became the Districts Act 1966.
This Act was subsequently repealed by the ACT Government and the district is now administered subject to the Districts Act 2002. Belconnen was occupied by Ginninderra, the former agricultural lands that corresponds with the watershed of Ginninderra Creek; the Belconnen district is named after one of the earliest land grants made in the district during colonial times. Belconnen a land grant totalling 800 hectares was made to explorer Charles Sturt who sold the property to Robert Campbell who owned the nearby Duntroon Estate. A stone plaque located at the sport fields in Aranda, Belconnen's first suburb, commemorates the commencement of urban development of the Belconnen district, inscribed: "This tablet marks the inauguration of development of the district of Belconnen by the Minister of State for the Interior The Honourable J. D. Anthony, M. P. 23rd June 1966" The nearby Jamison Centre, the first commercial centre in the district, opened in 1969. The Belconnen Town Centre located on the shore of Lake Ginninderra opened in the late 1970s.
For the purposes of Australian federal elections for the House of Representatives, the District of Belconnen is contained within the electoral division of Fenner. For the purposes of Australian Capital Territory elections for the ACT Legislative Assembly, the District of Belconnen is within the Ginninderra electorate; the Belconnen district is a set of 25 contiguous residential suburbs that surround the Belconnen Town Centre, set on the western shore of the artificially established Lake Ginninderra. In addition to the residential development, the district contains some pastoral leasees on its western and south-western boundaries with the districts of Molonglo Valley and Stromlo, its north-western boundary with the state of New South Wales, its northern and north-eastern boundaries with the districts of Hall and Gungahlin; the natural features of the district are constrained to the east and to the south-east by the Bruce Ridge and the northern slopes of Black Mountain, much of, preserved as nature reserves.
The majority of the residential suburbs are predominantly characterised by detached single family homes on suburban blocks, with pockets of medium density housing units or town houses. This is most pronounced in the suburbs of Belconnen, Cook, Holt, Macquarie, Melba and Scullin. Within the suburb of Belconnen, a medium density estate mistaken as a suburb, called Emu Ridge consists of town house and unit developments, such as UniGardens, Belconnen accommodation for University of Canberra students; the most recent suburb to be gazetted is Lawson in 1986, where infrastructure works have commenced and residential development is in progress. Within the district of Belconnen, there is no'heavy' industry. A variety of medical practitioners and veterinarians service the region. There is an established artistic community which includes aspiring performing musicians, theatre groups and visual artists. A recycling industry, involving organic as well as plastic and metals collection takes place at the Parkwood Road Recycling Estate, on the outermost western boundary of the district, within the suburb of Holt.
A poultry farm is situated nearby and is a significant primary industry producer providing eggs to Canberra and the surrounding region. The predominant shopping centre of the district is Westfield Belconnen, located within the Belconnen Town Centre. Additional local commerce activity includes large and smaller department stores, clothes retailers, car dealerships, homeware and specialist grocery outlets. There are numerous restaurants and a variety of licensed premises within the Belconnen Town Centre, many close to the shores of Lake Ginninderra; the Belconnen Markets are a fresh food market area within this commercial district operating from Tuesday to Sunday during business hours. Smaller retail shopping centres are located at the Jamison Centre in the suburb of Macquarie; the surrounding suburbs were designed each to have their own smaller shopping areas, with small supermarkets, hairdressers etc. Within the Belconnen Town Centre is a n
Lend Lease Project Management & Construction
Lendlease Project Management & Construction is the international project management and construction division of Lendlease Group. The origins of Lendlease Project Management & Construction date back to the establishment of C. W. Bovis & Co by Charles William Bovis in London in 1885, it changed hands in 1908 when it was acquired by his cousin, Sidney Gluckstein. Bovis was one of the few construction companies to go public in the 1920s, during which time it developed an extensive retail clientele, by far the most important and long lasting of, Marks & Spencer. Central to the relationship with Marks was the pioneering Bovis System contract, designed to bring the interests of the contractor and client together: “the Bovis System pays the builder the prime cost of the work plus an agreed fee to cover overheads and profit; the client receives any savings during construction instead of the contractor.” During World War II, Bovis built the munitions factory at Swynnerton and worked on Mulberry harbour units.
At the end of hostilities, Bovis resumed work for the private sector and in the early 1950s, the company moved into housing. Following the acquisition of Frank Sanderson's business in 1967, Bovis Homes expanded and became one of the largest housebuilders by the early 1970s. Frank Sanderson was to change radically the future of Bovis, he was appointed Managing Director of Bovis Holdings in January 1970, Chairman and Chief Executive in August 1972. After a number of housing acquisitions, Sanderson attempted to obtain control of P&O by means of a reverse takeover. An initial agreement was followed by a boardroom and shareholder revolt at P&O and at the end of 1972 the merger failed. There was boardroom dissension, too, at Bovis and Sanderson was forced out in September 1973. One of Sanderson’s acquisitions, in 1971, had been Twentieth Century Banking, two years the secondary banking crisis created a run on deposits at the Bovis banking subsidiary; the crisis came to a head in December 1973 when National Westminster Bank refused to provide the necessary funds.
A rescue of Bovis was inevitable and the rescuer proved to be P&O: in March 1974 Bovis became a subsidiary of P&O. From 1985 the company was led by Sir Frank Lampl, who changed it from a British concern into an international contractor. Bovis Homes was demerged in 1997, floated on the London Stock Exchange; the company was bought by Lend Lease Corporation in 1999. In 2008, the company and a subcontractor abatement firm, the John Galt Corporation, were charged with numerous OSHA safety violations after a fire broke out and killed two firefighters at the Deutsche Bank Building, a Manhattan skyscraper being demolished in the wake of the September 11 attacks; the violations included an employee of "Lend Lease's Project Management & Construction Business" filling out a safety check list that identified a stand-pipe as being present and functional - when it was disconnected in a hard to see spot. The firemen consulted the check list, thought they had a good system and proceeded up into the building to fight the fire.
Only when they reached the dangerous area, on fire, did they realize the system did not have any water pressure, they died trying to retreat amid the confusion. As of June 2011, two out of the three individuals charged in the associated manslaughter and criminally negligent homicide case have been acquitted. On 17 February 2011 Lend Lease announced wider ranging changes to its group of brands; this announcement resulted in the retirement of the Bovis Lend Lease, Delfin Lend Lease, Vivas Lend Lease, Catalyst Lend Lease, Retirement by Design and Lend Lease Primelife brands and the instatement of Lend Lease as the primary and only brand across the business' operation's globally. Under the rebrand and internal structural changes, the company was re-identified as Lend Lease Project Management & Construction, was no longer a separate entity, but "a strategic business unit of the Lend Lease Group". In 2012, Lend Lease agreed to pay $56 million in fines and restitution after admitting that the company had over-billed clients and evaded government rules regarding the hiring of women and minority-owned firms.
For a ten-year time span ending in 2009, the company along with others devised a scheme to defraud federal and local government contracting agencies as well as private clients. The fine is the largest in the city's history. On 29 October 2012 the long boom of a Lend Lease construction crane atop the 1,004 foot high One57 snapped during Hurricane Sandy forcing the evacuation of several buildings in Midtown Manhattan. In October 2018, Lendlease was announced as a contender for a £330 million contract to renovate Manchester's Town Hall. Manchester's Opposition Leader and former MP John Leech uncovered a history of legal and worker safety controversy surrounding the two shortlisted companies, he said that "Under no circumstances" should Lendlease be considered for a council contract again until they paid a £3 million Grenfell-style cladding bill in the Green Quarter of Manchester. In January 2019, Lendlease was announced as the winner of the contract. Leech said it showed a lack of concern for local people.
The company has managed construction projects worldwide, including retail developments and airport terminals. Lend Lease's Project Management & Construction Business has a significant presence in Australia, Asia and the United States. Key sector expertise includes commercial, residential, government and pharmaceutical; as a major contractor in the UK, Lend Lease Project Management & Construction is a contractor member o
National Capital Authority
The National Capital Authority is a body of the Australian Government, established to manage the Commonwealth's interest in the planning and development of Canberra as the capital city of Australia. Timeline of the NCA and preceding bodies: 1921–1924: Federal Capital Advisory Committee 1925–1930: Federal Capital Commission 1930–1938: No body in existence 1938–1957: National Capital Planning and Development Committee 1958–1989: National Capital Development Commission 1989–present: National Capital Authority The FCAC oversaw the construction of Canberra from 1921 to 1924 following the termination of the contract of architect Walter Burley Griffin; the Committee was chaired by Australian architect Sir John Sulman, advised the Minister of Home Affairs on the Construction of Canberra and conducted a review of the Griffin Plan. The Committee proposed that development should take place in three stages: Stage one, to take three years, would see the transfer of Parliament and key administrative staff moved from Melbourne to Canberra.
Stage two to take three years, would include the construction of railways in addition to other key buildings Stage three would create character and permanence in the capital. The Committee was unsuccessful in achieving its aims, for example Parliament did not move to Canberra until 1927, no permanent rail connection between Sydney and Melbourne was completed; however Sulman was instrumental in developing the garden city aspects of Canberra, he declared that the development of Canberra should take the form of ‘a garden town, with simple, but unpretentious buildings’. In 1924 the Committee was abolished due to the slow pace of development, it was replaced by the more successful Federal Capital Commission in 1925; the FCC was formed to construct and administer Canberra from 1 January 1925. The Chief Commissioner of the body was Sir John Butters; the FCC was to prepare Canberra for the arrival of their families. During the first 2 years of FCC operation Parliament House, The Lodge, the Albert Hall, the Institute of Anatomy, the Australian School of Forestry and an Observatory on Mount Stromlo were completed.
The FCC oversaw construction of the Sydney and Melbourne commercial buildings in the City and significant residential development. The FCC was disbanded on 1 May 1930 following the start of the Great Depression in 1929. Development after this point was not centrally planned until the establishment of the National Capital Planning and Development Committee in 1938. Federal Capital Commission architects designed houses in the new city and public buildings using a mixture of elements from the Arts and Crafts movement and Georgian styles; the result is unique to Canberra. FCC style houses can be found in the suburbs of Barton, Braddon and Reid. Sir John Sulman began the development of Federal Capital Architecture. Before emigrating to Australia in 1885, he had been a friend of William Morris and active in the Arts and Crafts movement. Other than Sulman's leadership, the influences on the architects employed by the Federal Capital Authority and Commission were reflecting the thinking after the peak of the nationalistic Australian Federation style and looking to America for inspiration and seeking to respond to the Australian climate.
By the time Canberra was being built, the popularity of the uniquely Australian Federation style architecture was waning. The architect William Hardy Wilson led the reaction against the ornateness of the Federation style and advocated adopting approaches from the United States; when Leslie Wilkinson arrived in Australia in 1918 to take up his position as the first Professor of Architecture at an Australian university, he reinforced Wilson's view and advocated building appropriately for the climate, suggesting the Spanish Mission style of architecture in California and Mexico as being an appropriate style for Australia. When Walter Burley Griffin arrived in 1913, there was interest in the Prairie Style of mid-western America with which Griffin was associated; the Classical revival style was popular in America, reflected in Beaux-Arts architecture. There was interest in Classicism by English architects, including Edwin Lutyens, responsible for many of the public buildings in New Delhi built from 1912 to 1929 in the wake of the decision to replace Calcutta as the seat of the British Indian government.
The NCPDC was formed in 1938 to oversee the development of Canberra. The NCPDC was to advise the Minister of the Interior to safeguard the Griffin plan and maintain high aesthetic and architectural standards worthy of a National Capital; the Committee had no executive power, was unable to direct development of the Capital. Dissatisfied with progress, the government established a Senate Select Committee in 1954 to inquire into Canberra's development. In 1958 it was replaced by the well funded and authoritative National Capital Development Commission; the NCDC was created to complete the establishment of Canberra as the seat of government. It was created in 1957 through the National Capital Development Commission Act 1957. Under the control of the NCDC Canberra grew from a population of 40,000 to 300,000; the NCDC was responsible for the development of Canberra's satellite cities. The NCDC oversaw construction of Lake Burley Griffin and New Parliament House; the NCDC had four Commissioners: Sir John Overall, Commissioner, 1958–1972 W.
C. Andrews, Commissioner, 1972–1974 Tony Powell, Commissioner, 1974–1985 Malcolm Latham, Commissioner, 1985–1989The NCDC was advised by the National Capital Planning Committee, chaired by the NCDC Commissioner and composed of six no