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Cameroon

Cameroon the Republic of Cameroon, is a country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Nigeria to the north. Cameroon's coastline lies on the Bight of part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. Although Cameroon is not an ECOWAS member state, it is geographically and in West Africa with the Southern Cameroons which now form her Northwest and Southwest Regions having a strong West African history; the country is sometimes identified as West African and other times as Central African due to its strategic position at the crossroads between West and Central Africa. Cameroon is home to over 250 native languages spoken by nearly 20 million people; the official languages of the country are French. Early inhabitants of the territory included the Sao civilisation around Lake Chad and the Baka hunter-gatherers in the southeastern rainforest. Portuguese explorers reached the coast in the 15th century and named the area Rio dos Camarões, which became Cameroon in English. Fulani soldiers founded the Adamawa Emirate in the north in the 19th century, various ethnic groups of the west and northwest established powerful chiefdoms and fondoms.

Cameroon became a German colony in 1884 known as Kamerun. After World War I, the territory was divided between France and the United Kingdom as League of Nations mandates; the Union des Populations du Cameroun political party advocated independence, but was outlawed by France in the 1950s, leading to the Bamileke War fought between French and UPC militant forces until early 1971. In 1960, the French-administered part of Cameroon became independent as the Republic of Cameroun under President Ahmadou Ahidjo; the southern part of British Cameroons federated with it in 1961 to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. The federation was abandoned in 1972; the country was renamed the United Republic of Cameroon in 1972 and the Republic of Cameroon in 1984. Large numbers of Cameroonians live as subsistence farmers. Paul Biya, the incumbent President, has led the country since 1982; the country has experienced tensions coming from the English-speaking territories. Politicians in the English-speaking regions have advocated for greater decentralisation and complete separation or independence from Cameroon.

In 2017, tensions in the English-speaking territories escalated into open warfare. The official languages of Cameroon are English; the languages of former colonial French Cameroons and British Cameroons and its religious population consists of 70% Christians and 20% Muslims. It is governed as a Unitary presidential republic and has good relations with the major powers of France, the United Kingdom and China; the country is referred to as "Africa in miniature" for its geological and cultural diversity. Natural features include beaches, mountains and savannas; the highest point at 4,100 metres is Mount Cameroon in the Southwest Region of the country, the largest cities in population-terms are Douala on the Wouri River, its economic capital and main seaport, Yaoundé, its political capital, Garoua. The country is well known for its native styles of music Makossa and Bikutsi, for its successful national football team. Cameroon is a member state of the African Union, the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

The territory of present-day Cameroon was first settled during the Neolithic Era. The longest continuous inhabitants are groups such as the Baka. From here, Bantu migrations into eastern and central Africa are believed to have originated about 2,000 years ago; the Sao culture arose around Lake Chad, c. 500 AD, gave way to the Kanem and its successor state, the Bornu Empire. Kingdoms and chiefdoms arose in the west. Portuguese sailors reached the coast in 1472, they noted an abundance of the ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus turneranus in the Wouri River and named it Rio dos Camarões, which became Cameroon in English. Over the following few centuries, European interests regularised trade with the coastal peoples, Christian missionaries pushed inland. In the early 19th century, Modibo Adama led Fulani soldiers on a jihad in the north against non-Muslim and Muslim peoples and established the Adamawa Emirate. Settled peoples who fled the Fulani caused a major redistribution of population; the Bamum tribe have a writing system, known as Shu Mom.

The script was given to them by Sultan Ibrahim Njoya in 1896, is taught in Cameroon by the Bamum Scripts and Archives Project. Germany began to establish roots in Cameroon in 1868 when the Woermann Company of Hamburg built a warehouse, it was built on the estuary of the Wouri River. Gustav Nachtigal made a treaty with one of the local kings to annex the region for the German emperor; the German Empire claimed the territory as the colony of Kamerun in 1884 and began a steady push inland. The Germans ran into resistance with the native people who did not want the Germans to establish themselves on this land. Under the influence of Germany, commercial companies were left to regulate local administrations; these concessions used forced labour of the Africans to make a profit. The labour was used on banana, palm oil, cocoa plantations, they initiated projects to improve the colony's infrastructure, relying on a harsh system of forced labour, much criticised by the other colonial powers

Clap Your Hands Say Yeah (album)

Clap Your Hands Say Yeah is the eponymous debut album by Clap Your Hands Say Yeah, self-released in the U. S. on 28 June 2005, released in the UK on 23 January 2006 by Wichita Recordings. Produced and mixed by Adam Lasus, the album and the band rose to fame after buzz and attention built up on various MP3 blogs and a positive review from influential music website Pitchfork. Clap Your Hands Say Yeah was listed as one of the 50 most important recordings of the decade by National Public Radio's All Songs Considered; the success of the album started after bassist Tyler Sargent began mailing out copies of the album from his apartment. As of November 2009, the album has sold more than 125,000 copies in the United States. Although the band still has no official record deal in the United States, they have signed a distribution deal to make the album available to a wider audience. In the UK, the band signed to independent record label Wichita Recordings; the song "The Skin of My Yellow Country Teeth" was featured on the 2005 episode "E-mail Surveillance" of the NBC show The Office as well as the 2011 film The Art of Getting By.

The album cover was created from a drawing by artist Dasha Shishkin and was designed and lettered by group member Robbie Guertin. All lyrics and music written by Alec Ounsworth except. "Clap Your Hands!" – 1:48 "Let the Cool Goddess Rust Away" – 3:23 "Over and Over Again" – 3:09 "Sunshine and Clouds" – 1:02 "Details of the War" – 3:31 "The Skin of My Yellow Country Teeth" – 5:43 "Is This Love?" – 3:11 "Heavy Metal" – 4:01 "Blue Turning Gray" – 1:17 "In This Home on Ice" – 3:58 "Gimmie Some Salt" – 3:03 "Upon This Tidal Wave of Young Blood" – 4:34 The UK release, on Enhanced CD, contains a link to bonus live tracks. All songs were recorded live at The Black Cat in Washington, D. C. on 13 September 2005. "Is This Love?" "Details of the War" "Gimmie Some Salt" "In This Home on Ice" Sean Greenhalgh – Group Member Lee Sargent – Group Member Robbie Guertin – Group Member Joe Lambert – Mastering Adam Lasus – Producer, Overdubs, Mixing Alec Ounsworth – Lead vocals, guitars Tyler Sargent – Engineer, Group Member Keith Souza – Engineer

Paduasoy

Paduasoy or padesoy is a luxurious strong corded or grosgrain silk textile that originated in Early Modern Europe. The term paduasoy first appeared in English in 1663. Paduasoy silk was woven in a variation of the satin weave, with bindings arranged to create fine cross-ridges across the fabric. In the British East India Company supercargoes' records, examined by Leanna Lee-Whitman, paduasoy made its first appearance in 1736, its fine appearance is endorsed in a letter of Mrs. Benjamin Franklin to her husband in London, in 1765: "The chairs are plain horsehair and look as well as Paduasoy." In the British East India records consulted by Leanna Lee-Whitman, black paduasoys supplanted "plain" ones after 1761: George Washington commissioned a friend, Tench Tilghman, to purchase numerous household items, "if great bargains are to be had", from the cargo of a ship in the China trade that had docked at Baltimore and were to be auctioned in October 1785. Among his requests, if they could be had cheaply, were "About 13 yds of good bla: paduasoy".

Beatrix Potter employed paduasoy to set the old-fashioned scene in The Tailor of Gloucester, which begins, "In the time of swords and periwigs and full-skirted coats with flowered lappets—when gentlemen wore ruffles, gold-laced waistcoats of paduasoy and taffeta—there lived a tailor in Gloucester. In Elizabeth Gaskell's Cranford, an old white paduasoy wedding dress longed for by Miss Matty's mother has been recut into a christening cloak for a baby; the original French term, peau de soie, is once again part of the English vernacular