Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour

Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour and Leri known as Cavour, was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification. He was one of the leaders of the Historical Right, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont–Sardinia, a position he maintained throughout the Second Italian War of Independence and Garibaldi's campaigns to unite Italy. After the declaration of a united Kingdom of Italy, Cavour took office as the first Prime Minister of Italy. Cavour put forth several economic reforms in his native region of Piedmont in his earlier years, founded the political newspaper Il Risorgimento. After being elected to the Chamber of Deputies, he rose in rank through the Piedmontese government, coming to dominate the Chamber of Deputies through a union of left-center and right-center politicians. After a large rail system expansion program, Cavour became prime minister in 1852; as prime minister, Cavour negotiated Piedmont's way through the Crimean War, the Second Italian War of Independence, Garibaldi's expeditions, managing to maneuver Piedmont diplomatically to become a new great power in Europe, controlling a nearly united Italy, five times as large as Piedmont had been before he came to power.

English historian Denis Mack Smith says Cavour was the most successful parliamentarian in Italian history but he was not democratic. Cavour was dictatorial, ignored his ministerial colleagues and parliament, interfered in parliamentary elections, he practiced trasformismo and other policies which were carried over into post-Risorgimento Italy. Camillo Benso was born in Turin during Napoleonic rule, into a family that had gained a fair amount of land during the French occupation, he was the second of two sons of Michele Giuseppe Francesco Antonio Benso, 4th Marquess of Cavour and Count of Isolabella and Leri, Lord of Corveglia, Mondonio and Ponticelli, Co-Lord of Castagnole and Menabi, Chieri, San Salvatore Monferrato and Valfenera, 1st Baron of the French Empire and his wife Adélaïde Suzanne, Marchioness of Sellon, herself of French origin. His godparents were Napoleon's sister Pauline, her husband, Prince Camillo Borghese, after whom Camillo was named. Camillo and his older brother Gustavo were educated at home.

He was sent to the Turin Military Academy. In July 1824 he was named a page to the king of Piedmont. Cavour ran afoul of the authorities in the academy, as he was too headstrong to deal with the rigid military discipline, he was once forced to live three days on bread and water because he had been caught with books that the academy had banned. He was found to be apt at the mathematical disciplines, was therefore enlisted in the Engineer Corps in the Piedmontese-Sardinian army in 1827. While in the army, he studied the English language as well as the works of Jeremy Bentham and Benjamin Constant, developing liberal tendencies which made him suspect to police forces at the time, he resigned his commission in the army in November 1831, both because of boredom with military life and because of his dislike of the reactionary policies of King Charles Albert. He administered the family estate at Grinzane, some forty kilometers outside the capital, serving as mayor there from 1832 to the revolutionary upheaval of 1848.

Cavour lived for a time in Switzerland, with his Protestant relatives in Geneva. He grew acquainted with Calvinist teachings, for a short while he converted from a form of unorthodox Catholicism, only to go back later. A Reformed pastor, Alexandre Vinet, impressed upon Cavour the need for the separation of church and state, a doctrine Cavour followed for the remainder of his life, he traveled to Paris where he was impressed by parliamentary debates those of François Guizot and Adolphe Thiers, confirming his devotion to a political career. He next went to London, where he was much more disappointed by British politics, toured the country, visiting Oxford, Birmingham, Chester and Manchester. A quick tour through the Netherlands and Switzerland landed him back in Turin. Cavour believed that economic progress had to precede political change, stressed the advantages of railroad construction in the peninsula, he was a strong supporter of transportation by steam engine, sponsoring the building of many railroads and canals.

Between 1838 and 1842 Cavour began several initiatives in attempts to solve economic problems in his area. He experimented with different agricultural techniques on his estate, such as growing sugar beets, was one of the first Italian landowners to use chemical fertilizers, he founded the Piedmontese Agricultural Society. In his spare time, he again traveled extensively in France and the United Kingdom; the first "liberal" moves of Pope Pius IX and the political upheavals of 1848 spawned a new movement of Italian liberalism, allowing Cavour to enter the political arena, no longer in fear of the police. He gave a speech in front of numerous journalists in favor of a constitution for Piedmont, granted. Cavour, unlike several other political thinkers, was not at first offered a position in the new Chamber of Deputies, as he was still a somewhat suspicious character to the nation. Cavour never planned for the establishment of a united country, later during his Premiership hi

Magsaysay, Occidental Mindoro

Magsaysay the Municipality of Magsaysay, is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Occidental Mindoro, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 36,016 people. Magsaysay, one of the eleven municipalities in the Occidental Mindoro, lies on the southernmost part of Mindoro Island, is adjacent to the municipality of San Jose on the north, it is facing the China Sea, with vast valleys. It is characterized by rugged terrain with plain areas. Slope ranges from level to steep sloping areas; the highest point of elevation is 543 feet above sea level. The municipality has a total land area of 29,670 hectares with a land density of 91.0 per square kilometer. Magsaysay is characterized by rugged terrain with plain areas located at Barangays Calawag, Laste, Nicolas and Sibalat. Slope of 3-8 percent are observed in the surroundings of Barangays Alibog, Paclolo and Santa Teresa, it is drained by the Caguray River. Slope ranges from level to steeply sloping land; the highest point of elevation at 543 feet above sea level located at the north-east portion of Barangay Purnaga, which has slopes of 18 percent and above.

Majority or 97.14 percent of the total land area falls below 18 percent slope, based on the Forestry Code can be classified Alienable and Disposable or areas that can be owned. This manifests minimal limitation in terms of land development for land falling above 18 percent or land classified as forests have minimal share of only 2.86 percent. The municipality has abundant water resource for domestic irrigation supply. Ground water serves as a main source of potable water supply including natural springs. Various river systems traverse the locality, being utilized for irrigation such as Caguray River. In the same manner, it serves as a natural drainage system in the locality. Magsaysay is politically subdivided into 12 barangays, one of, classified urban and the rest are rural. Five barangays of the municipality are coastal barangays. Since 1970, total population has been continuously increasing with fluctuating growth rate; the highest growth rate of 5.98 percent was noted between 1975 and 1980 while the least growth rate of 1.76 percent was recorded between 1985-1990.

The municipality is home to the indigenous Ratagnon language of the Ratagnon people. The language is endangered, with only 2 people speaking the language out of 2,000 Ratagnon residents. Due to government programs from the 1960s to 1970s, most Ratagnons have shifted to the Tagalog language, endangering their own culture. There has yet to be a revitalization program for the language. If no such program is made within the next 5-10 years, the language may be deemed as the first language of the Philippines that has gone extinct in the 21st century, the fifth Philippine language to be extinct. Philippine Standard Geographic Code Philippine Census Information Local Governance Performance Management System

USS Spot (SS-413)

USS Spot was a Balao-class submarine of the United States Navy, named for the spot, a small sciaenoid food fish of the Atlantic coast, with a black spot behind its shoulders. Spot was laid down on 24 August 1943 by the Mare Island Navy Yard, Calif.. Spot moved to San Diego for shakedown. After a yard period, the submarine arrived at Pearl Harbor on 14 November. Accompanied by Balao, she got underway for the Marianas on 4 December, they were joined by Icefish en route, the trio arrived at Saipan on 15 December 1944. Two days the hunter-killer group headed for the Yellow Sea. On 7 January 1945, Spot sank two small trawlers with her deck gun. Four days she destroyed a small freighter by gunfire. On 13 January off Shanghai, the submarine sank two trawlers by shellfire, she repeated the feat the next day. In a night sweep through the Elliott Islands on 18 and 19 January, Spot torpedoed a cargo ship and a tanker; as Spot came down the west coast of Korea, she sighted a small ship and fired her last three torpedoes.

All missed. With only 1,300 rounds of 20 mm ammunition remaining, the submarine closed to 800 yards and opened fire; the enemy made an unsuccessful attempt to ram. No one manned the Japanese ship's machine gun atop her pilot house. Spot waited for an hour and sent over a boarding party of seven men to plant demolition charges and search for intelligence material. After about ten minutes on board, the party had to abandon as the ship listed to port and sank by the stern; the boarding party was recovered and one Japanese prisoner taken. The submarine returned to Midway on 30 January for a training period. On 24 February, Spot began her second war patrol which took her and Sea Fox into the East China Sea. On the second night in her assigned patrol area, Spot expended all torpedoes attacking a Japanese convoy, they sank the passenger-cargo ship, Nanking Maru, damaged a freighter. The attack was made in shallow water. Spot was surfaced and heading for deeper water but could not elude one of the escorts, the minesweeper W-17, which closed to 4,200 yards and opened fire.

Spot manned her guns and returned the fire though she was wallowing in the rough seas. A lucky hit by her 5-inch gun knocked out W-17's forward gun and saved the submarine from certain disaster. Spot secured her guns, cleared the bridge, submerged; the escort dropped a few depth charge patterns which caused no damage, the submarine returned to Saipan on 23 March to reload. Four days she resumed her patrol. On 31 March, she sighted a destroyer; the submarine maneuvered to close when the destroyer increased its speed. When the range was 5,500 yards, the destroyer opened fire. Spot fired a recognition flare, answered by a second salvo; as Spot submerged, another salvo straddled her conning tower. The destroyer was identified as Case. Spot suffered no damage in this incident. During the first week of April, Spot guarded the approaches to Kii Suido. After aircraft from the Fast Carrier Task Force sank battleship Yamato, a cruiser, four destroyers in the East China Sea on 7 April, the submarine patrolled in that area.

She hunted off the China coast and conducted a reconnaissance of Kokuzan To, off Korea and decided to shell a radio station on the northwest tip of the island. On the evening of 25 April, she surfaced and began the bombardment which hit an oil storage area, several barracks, set the radio station on fire. Spot returned to the Mariana Islands on 4 May for refit. Spot began her last war patrol on 2 June and performed lifeguard services off the coast of Honshū until 23 June, she patrolled in the East China and Yellow Seas, sinking two junks by gunfire before returning to Saipan on 18 July. The submarine sailed for Hawaii the next day. Spot arrived at Pearl Harbor on 29 July for an extended overhaul and was still there when hostilities ceased, she sailed for San Diego on 27 August and provided services for antisubmarine warfare units there from 3 September 1945 to 2 March 1946. The ship sailed to San Francisco to prepare for inactivation, she was decommissioned at the Mare Island Naval Shipyard on 19 June and attached to the Pacific Reserve Fleet.

Spot received four battle stars for World War II service. In January 1961, Spot was towed to Pearl Harbor for modernization in preparation for transfer to Chile. A streamlined sail was added but, unusually for a post-World War II submarine, her deck gun was retained; the Chilean crew reported on board in the year for training and on 12 January 1962, Spot was loaned to that government under the Military Assistance Loan Program. She was renamed Simpson, in honor of Chilean admiral Robert Winthrop Simpson; the submarine arrived at Chile 23 April 1962. On 1 August 1975 the submarine was sold outright to Chile, struck from the US Naval Register. In 1980, the Simpson was used extensively by director Kinji Fukasaku in the disaster film Fukkatsu no hi; the film features spectacular footage of Simpson sailing in the Antarctic. Simpson was significant for being one of the last submarines to have a deck gun. Photo gallery of Spot at NavSource Naval History Kill record: USS Spot Simpson