Cammeray is a suburb on the lower North Shore of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Cammeray is located 5 kilometres north of the Sydney central business district, Cammeray is mostly a residential area. Some houses have waterfront access such as those in Cowdroy Avenue, Cammeray is named after the Cammeraygal, the Aboriginal tribe who once resided in the North Sydney area. Cammeray was the site of Sydneys first quarry, with blocks from the quarry making many of the first buildings in Sydney town. Cammeray was for a time the home of Joseph Palmer Abbott, Australian politician, Abbott built Tarella, a two-storey Italianate mansion in Amherst Street, c. 1886, on land he had acquired in 1881, Palmer Street in Cammeray was named after him. Tarella includes a coachhouse at the rear, with a clock tower. It is listed with the Heritage Council of New South Wales, Amherst Street was named after William Pitt Amherst, who was Governor-General of India 1823-28. According to the 2011 census of Population, there were 6,784 residents in Cammeray, in Cammeray,62.
5% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were England 6. 9%, New Zealand 3. 6%. 79. 1% of people only spoke English at home, other languages spoken at home included Cantonese 2. 0%, Japanese 1. 5% and Mandarin 1. 1%. The most common responses for religion in Cammeray were No Religion 27. 8%, Catholic 25. 3%, the Green Park shopping area makes a small hamlet, within the village of Cammeray. Stockland Cammeray is a centre that feature Harris Farm Markets. Long Gully Bridge, a bridge spanning Tunks Park that once carried trams to Northbridge in the early half of the 20th century, is located at the northern end of Cammeray. It is now a link to suburbs north of Cammeray. Cammeray Public School, catering for students from Kindergarten to Year 6, is situated on the corner of Palmer and Bellevue Streets. Anzac Park Public School opened in 2016 and caters for students from Kindergarten to Year 6, is situated on the corner of Anzac Avenue and Ernest Street, Cammeray Childrens Centre, a pre–school and childcare centre, is located at Warwick Avenue in Green Park.
The Sydney Saturday School of Japanese, a weekend Japanese educational programme, holds classes for Japanese national, the All Saints Anglican church, part of the Naremburn Cammeray Anglican Church, is located in 5 Carter St. Cammeray
Contact with the first white settlements bridgehead into Australia quickly devastated much of the population through epidemics of smallpox and other diseases. Their descendants live on, though the language, social system, way of life and traditions are mostly lost. The language spoken by the Eora has, since the time of R. H. Mathews, been called Dharuk, the Australian bush term bogey comes from a Port Jackson Dharuk root buugi-. In terms of boundaries, the Kuringgai lay to the north, on the Western edges were the Darug, and to the south, around Kundul were the Gwiyagal. Eora is used specifically of the people around the first area of settlement in Sydney. The generic term Eora generally is used with a wider denotation to embrace some 29 bands, which in turn constituted clans that spoke several distinct languages. Thus, Eora is used collectively to refer to all tribes in the area of the settlement area, the Guringai to the north, the Tharawal people to the south. These have been classified into the language groups.
The sizes of bands, as opposed to clans, averaged around 50 members, -gal denominates the clan affixed to the place name. Muringong Camden Cattai Windsor Kurrajong Kurrajong Boo-bain-ora Wentworthville Mulgoa Penrith 4, dharawal South Gweagal Norongerragal Illawarra Threawal Tagary Wandeandegal The Cadigal people are the traditional owners of the inner Sydney city region. Their traditional land and waters are south of Port Jackson, stretching from South Head to Petersham, the people described by British settlers as the Eora people were probably Cadigal people, the Aboriginal tribe of the inner Sydney region in 1788 at the time of first European settlement. The Cadigal clan western boundary is approximately the Balmain peninsula, the traditional territory of the Wanegal people begins around Goat Island and runs west past Concord to what is now called Parramatta, and includes parts of Lane Cove River. The Cammeraygal peoples traditional territory is on the present-day lower North Shore of Port Jackson, the traditional Eora people were largely coastal dwellers and lived mainly from the produce of the sea.
They were expert in navigation, fishing and eating in the bays. The Eora people did not grow or plant crops, although the women picked herbs which were used in herbal remedies, the Eora placed a time limit on formal battles engaged in order to settle inter-tribal grievances. Such fights were regulated to begin late in the afternoon, the first contact occurred when James Cooks Endeavour anchored in Botany Bay. A drawing, thought recently to be the handiwork of the Polynesian navigator Turpaia who was on board Cooks ship, survives depicting Aboriginals in Botany Bay, around Kurnel. When the First Fleet of 1300 convicts and administrators arrived in January 1788, by early 1789 frequent remarks were made of great numbers of decomposed bodies of Eora natives which settlers and sailors came across on beaches, in coves and in the bays
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture
The indigenous people identify themselves as Guringai. Their taurai is known to extend north to the Macleay River, Fraser came up with the name Kuringgai being a conjunction of the native words Koori/Guri to mean black man and Ngai, meaning black woman, or belonging to. According to Fraser, the Kuringgai were bordered by the Wachigari and the Paikalyung to the north, the Kamalarai to the northwest, the Wiradhari to the west and the Murrinjari to the south. However, Norman Tindale would say in 1974 that the Awabakal are the one of a series of tribes to which the arbitrary term Kuringgai has been applied by Fraser. He divided the area Fraser labelled Kuringgai into several tribes, including the Tharawal, Dharuk, Awabakal, Birpai, the clan groups are the Garigal, Borregegal, Walkeloa with hundreds more. They were hunters and gatherers within their land, the Guringai lives were dictated by the seasons and the seasonal travels throughout their lands, with great ceremony. The Guringai still live in their traditional homelands, the Aborigines of New South Wales.
Sauchie House, West Maitland, University of Newcastle, bibliography of Ku-ring-gai people and language resources, at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
Australian National University
The Australian National University is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. Its main campus in Acton encompasses seven teaching and research colleges, founded in 1946, it is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. ANU enrolls 10,052 undergraduate and 10,840 postgraduate students, the universitys endowment stood at A$1.13 billion in 2012. ANU is ranked 22nd in the world by the 2016/17 QS World University Rankings, ANU was named the worlds 7th most international university in a 2017 study by Times Higher Education. In the 2016 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, a ranking of university graduates employability. ANU is ranked 100th in the CWTS Leiden ranking, ANU counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni. The university has educated two prime ministers,30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of Government departments of Australia, calls for the establishment of a national university in Australia began as early as 1900.
After the location of the capital, was determined in 1908. A group of eminent Australian scholars returned from overseas to join the university, including Sir Howard Florey, Sir Mark Oliphant, Sir Keith Hancock, economist Sir Douglas Copland was appointed as ANUs first Vice-Chancellor and former Prime Minister Stanley Bruce served as the first Chancellor. ANU was originally organised into four centres—the Research Schools of Physical Sciences, Social Sciences and Pacific Studies, the first residents’ hall, University House, was opened in 1954 for faculty members and postgraduate students. Mount Stromlo Observatory, established by the government in 1924. The first locations of the ANU Library, the Menzies and Chifley buildings, the Australian Forestry School, located in Canberra since 1927, was amalgamated by ANU in 1965. Canberra University College was the first institution of education in the national capital, having been established in 1929. Its founding was led by Sir Robert Garran, one of the drafters of the Australian Constitution, CUC was affiliated with the University of Melbourne and its degrees were granted by that university.
Academic leaders at CUC included historian Manning Clark, political scientist Finlay Crisp, in 1960, CUC was integrated into ANU as the School of General Studies, initially with faculties in arts, economics and science. Faculties in Oriental studies and engineering were introduced later, Bruce Hall, the first residential college for undergraduates, opened in 1961. The Canberra School of Music and the Canberra School of Art were amalgamated by ANU in 1992, ANU established its Medical School in 2002, after obtaining federal government approval in 2000. On 18 January 2003, the Canberra bushfires largely destroyed the Mount Stromlo Observatory, ANU astronomers now conduct research from the Siding Spring Observatory, which contains 10 telescopes including the Anglo-Australian Telescope
Brookvale, New South Wales
Brookvale is a suburb of northern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Brookvale is 16 kilometres north-east of the Sydney central business district and it is part of the Northern Beaches region. The first development in the area was in 1836 when 64 hectares of farmland was granted to William Frederick Parker, in this period further land was sold to the Malcolm and Miles families. In 1883, Sydney Alexander Malcolm built what became known as Brookvale House and it eventually was sold in 1961 to the Hooker Investment Corporation paving the way for the construction of Warringah Mall, which is the largest shopping complex in the area. Brookvale Post Office opened on 1 June 1888 and closed on 1 November 2013, the post office included a mail & parcel delivery & a collection service operated by Mailplus operates in that post office. Warringah Mall Post Office opened on 3 April 1963 as a second post office for Brookvale, after World War II, much of the surrounding land was bought by immigrants, many of whom were Italian.
The Curulli and Bombardieri families own a percentage of the land in Brookvale. Brookvale developed from farmland to manufacturing, and in recent years there has been significant office space development, because of the large presence of Pazzano immigrants, a little village of southern Italy, Brookvale is called by them Pazzaniedu, Little Pazzano in calabrian dialect. According to the 2011 census of Population, there were 2,589 residents in Brookvale, in Brookvale,53. 8% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were England 5. 9%, Italy 4. 0%,64. 4% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Italian 6. 4%, Mandarin 2. 4%, Tongan 1. 7%, Korean 1. 4%, and Filipino 1. 2%. The most common responses for religion in Brookvale were Catholic 31. 9%, No Religion 22. 6%, Anglican 14. 6%, Uniting Church 2. 6%, Brookvale has a fast-growing business community, and is a major industrial area. Westfield Warringah Mall is the largest shopping centre in the Northern Beaches owned by Scentre Group, major stores in the centre include David Jones, Big W, Target, JB Hi-Fi, Rebel Sport, Woolworths and a Hoyts Cinema.
A number of car dealerships and related services are located in Brookvale. Many printing and signage businesses are located in Brookvale, such as Innovative Print Solutions. Sydney Buses Brookvale Bus Depot is located on Pittwater Road, Brookvale Oval is the home ground of the Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles National Rugby League team. Manly Leagues Club is located nearby, the land for Brookvale Oval was given to the people of Warringah for their recreational use in 1911 by Jane Try of Brookvale House. Brookvale has four television standard light towers to allow for night games, in 2014, the North Harbour Rays announced Brookvale Oval as their home ground for the inaugural National Rugby Championship season
Willoughby, New South Wales
The City of Willoughby takes its name from the suburb but its administrative centre is located in the adjacent suburb of Chatswood, which is the local areas major commercial centre. There is some conjecture as to how Willoughby was named, captain Arthur Phillips search for good land, well watered led to the discovery and colonisation of the rough shores of Roseville Chase, where Samuel Bates built a farm at Echo Point. Later developments included the building of the first post office in 1871, the latter—a small sandstone building in Penshurst Street—was originally the Congregational Church, which changed premises. Laurel Bank Cottage, a home, was constructed in Penshurst Street in 1884. The cottage is now owned and run by the local Masonic Lodge as a function, circa 1920, Telford Lane—between Fourth Avenue and Eastern Valley Way—was created and paved, the method used was the one pioneered by Thomas Telford in England in the nineteenth century. This lane is one of the few surviving examples of the Telford method in Sydney, in 1934, the Willoughby incinerator was built in Small Street, after a design by Walter Burley Griffin.
It has been described as a successful example of an industrial building integrating function with site. Like Telford Lane, the incinerator is listed on the Register of the National Estate, Willoughby has a number of small shops and hotels and is the News & Finance centre of the Nine Network television, under the callsign of TCN-9. Next to this site is the TXA TV tower which at 233 metres high is the tallest in Australia, there are several small groupings of shops, the majority of which are on Mowbray Road, Willoughby Road, Penshurst Street and High Street. Bicentennial Reserve which includes Hallstrom Park, features a field, T Ball & softball fields. Willoughby Leisure Centre features a 25m lap pool, childrens pool, swim school, basketball courts, netball courts, flat Rock Gully, built on an old rubbish tip, is bushland with two walking tracks to Long Bay, following the creek line. Carlson Park Julian St Park Willoughby Squash courts Hallstrom Park Willoughby Park Artarmon is the nearest station for Willoughbys residents, a number of bus routes cover the area.
It is close to St Leonards and Chatswood railway stations, m40 express buses operate along Victoria Avenue, Penshurst Street and Willoughby Road, express via the freeway to the city onto Bondi Junction. More Armenian families made their home once a Armenian Apostolic Church was built on Macquarie Street, Chatswood. Willoughby contains several Armenian Churches and Community Centres and it is home to the first Armenian Saturday School which still operates on Saturdays at Willoughby Girls High
Chatswood West, New South Wales
Chatswood West is a suburb on the lower North Shore of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Chatswood West is located 11 kilometres north-west of the Sydney central business district, in the government areas of the City of Willoughby. Chatswood West is located between the suburbs of Chatswood and North Ryde. It straddles the Lane Cove River, occupying the valley flats, Chatswood is believed to be named after the pet name Chat of the second wife of Richard Harnett and the original wooded nature of the area. Chatswood West split off from Chatswood to become a suburb on 20 January 2006. Chislehurst was a historic house on Centennial Avenue. Chatswood West is mainly residential, with commercial areas on Fullers Road. The National Acoustics Laboratories is on Greville Street, the residential buildings are overwhelmingly detached houses. Chatswood West is served by Chatswood High School and Chatswood Public School, there are regular buses that connect the area with the Chatswood CBD, and other suburbs such as Parramatta.
Chatswood railway station is on the North Shore, Northern & Western Line of the Sydney Trains network, according to the 2011 census, there were 1,426 residents in Chatswood West. 61. 9% of people were born in Australia, the most common other countries of birth were England 5. 8%, China 4. 6%, New Zealand 2. 9%, Republic of 1. 6% and Germany 1. 2%. In Chatswood West 72. 9% of people only spoke English at home, other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 4. 8%, Cantonese 4. 4% and Korean 2. 2%. The most common responses for religion in Chatswood West were No Religion 27. 8%, Catholic 25. 2%, there are walking tracks and a golf course. There are two entrances to Lane Cove National Park from Chatswood West, one on Lady Game Drive, noteworthy indigenous flora includes the blackbutt, tree heath, celery wood, native crabapple and hard corkwood. Ferns include jungle brake, fishbone fern, filmy fern
Manly, New South Wales
Manly is a beach-side suburb of northern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is 17 kilometres north-east of the Sydney central business district and is the centre of the local government area of Northern Beaches Council. Manly was named by Captain Arthur Phillip for the people living there, stating that their confidence. These men were of the Kay-ye-my clan and Colebee spoke to them and Bennelong asked for Governor Phillip. Captain Nepean sent the Boatswain back to Governor Phillip at South Head, the Aboriginal men cut large chunks of whale off and put them in the boat for Governor Phillip. The military party proceeded on their walk to Broken Bay, when Governor Phillips party arrived to see the Aboriginal men they held friendly conversation with Bennelong and Colebee for over half an hour. Later an older Aboriginal man appeared with a spear, Captain Tench remarked that he was seemingly a stranger and little acquainted with Bennelong and Colebee. The Governor moved towards this man and the man became agitated, Governor Phillip threw down his dirk to appease the man crying out confidently.
The spear was thrown and Governor Phillip was hit in the shoulder, the muskets were brought to shore but only one would fire. The spear was broken and all hastened to Port Jackson. Manly had been envisaged as a resort by Henry Gilbert Smith in the 1850s. In 1853 Smith acquired two parcels of land. Initially John had chartered a paddle steamer to Manly and other vessels visited on an ad hoc excursion basis, Smith built a wharf in 1855 and eventually acquired an interest in steamers himself and soon more regular services to Manly had commenced. By 1873, Smith had sold the lease to the wharf and his share of the steamers to the operators of the ferries and eventually ownership passed to the once famous Port Jackson & Manly Steamship Company. It was the Port Jackson & Manly Steamship Company which coined the expression about Manly being Seven miles from Sydney, the Port Jackson & Manly Steamship Company played an important part in Manlys development. It built several attractions including a large pool and bathing pavilion.
In 1972 the company was sold to Brambles Limited and in 1974 to the Government of New South Wales and it is now part of Sydney Ferries. It was Australias first overseas military adventure, and the Little Boy from Manly, became a symbol either of patriotism or, among opponents of the adventure, especially due to a cartoon by Livingston Hopkins of The Bulletin
University of Sydney
The University of Sydney is an Australian public research university in Sydney, Australia. Founded in 1850, it is Australias first university and is regarded as one of the leading universities. The university comprises 16 faculties and schools, through which it offers bachelor, master, in 2011 it had 32,393 undergraduate and 16,627 graduate students. The university is known as one of Australias sandstone universities. Five Nobel and two Crafoord laureates have been affiliated with the university as graduates and faculty, the university has educated six prime ministers and 24 justices of the High Court of Australia, including four chief justices. Sydney has produced 24 Rhodes Scholars and several Gates Scholars and it would take two attempts on Wentworths behalf, before the plan was finally adopted. The university was established via the passage of the University of Sydney Act, two years later, the university was inaugurated on 11 October 1852 in the Big Schoolroom of what is now Sydney Grammar School.
The first principal was John Woolley, the first professor of chemistry, by 1859, the university had moved to its current site in the Sydney suburb of Camperdown. Most of the estate of John Henry Challis was bequeathed to the university and this was thanks in part due to William Montagu Manning who argued against the claims by British Tax Commissioners. The following year seven professorships were created, zoology, history, law and mental philosophy, the New England University College was founded as part of the University of Sydney in 1938 and separated in 1954 to become the University of New England. During the late 1960s, the University of Sydney was at the centre of rows to introduce courses on Marxism and feminism at the major Australian universities, prior to 1981, the Sydney Institute of Education was the Sydney Teachers College. In January 2005, the University of Sydney transferred the OAC to Charles Sturt University, in February 2007, the university agreed to acquire a portion of the land granted to St Johns College to develop the Sydney Institute of Health and Medical Research.
This caused concern among some groups, who argued that it would interfere with scientific medical research, at the start of 2010, the university controversially adopted a new logo. It retains the same university arms, however it takes on a modern look. The original Coat of Arms from 1857 continues to be used for ceremonial and other formal purposes, concerns about public funding for higher education were reflected again in 2014 following the federal governments proposal to deregulate student fees. In order to enhance its competitiveness locally and internationally, the university has introduced plans to consolidate existing degrees to reduce the overall number of programs. In 2001, the University of Sydney chancellor, Dame Leonie Kramer, was forced to resign by the governing body. In 2005, the Public Service Association of New South Wales, action initiated by Spence to improve the financial sustainability of the university has alienated some students and staff
Norman Barnett Tindale AO was an Australian anthropologist, archaeologist and ethnologist. The family returned to Perth, and in 1917 moved to Adelaide where Tindale took up a position as a cadet at the Adelaide Public Library. Shortly after this, Tindale lost the sight in one eye in a gas explosion which occurred while assisting his father with photographic processing. In January 1919 he secured a position at the South Australian Museum as Entomologists Assistant to Arthur Mills Lea and he had already published thirty-one papers on entomological and anthropological subjects before receiving his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Adelaide in March 1933. Tindale is best remembered for his work mapping the various groupings of Indigenous Australians. This interest began with a trip to Groote Eylandt where an Anindilyakwa man gave Tindale very detailed descriptions of which land was his. This led Tindale to question the orthodoxy of the time which was that Aboriginal people were purely nomadic and had no connection to any specific region.
While Tindales methodology and his notion of the tribe have been superseded. Quite a number of now-important record films were made by Tindale, in 1942 Tindale joined the Royal Australian Air Force and was assigned the rank of Wing Commander. He had previously tried to enlist in the Australian army at the outbreak of WWII but was rejected due to his damaged eyesight, in 1967, at the age of sixty-six, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Colorado. He was eventually honoured with a doctorate by the Australian National University in 1980, during 1993 Tindale received unofficial confirmation of his appointment as an Officer of the Order of Australia, this was presented posthumously, to his widow Muriel. Also in 1993, the South Australian Museum Boards named a public gallery in his honour, Tindale published extensively, both as sole author and collaborator. Note that the archives contain 2,804 items related to Dr Tindale