Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only, doing so by complete immersion. Baptist churches generally subscribe to the tenets of soul competency/liberty, salvation through faith alone, scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ordinances: baptism and the Lord's supper. Diverse from their beginning, those identifying as Baptists today differ from one another in what they believe, how they worship, their attitudes toward other Christians, their understanding of what is important in Christian discipleship. Historians trace the earliest "Baptist" church to 1609 in Amsterdam, Dutch Republic with English Separatist John Smyth as its pastor. In accordance with his reading of the New Testament, he rejected baptism of infants and instituted baptism only of believing adults. Baptist practice spread to England, where the General Baptists considered Christ's atonement to extend to all people, while the Particular Baptists believed that it extended only to the elect.
Thomas Helwys formulated a distinctively Baptist request that the church and the state be kept separate in matters of law, so that individuals might have freedom of religion. Helwys died in prison as a consequence of the religious conflict with English dissenters under King James I. In 1638, Roger Williams established the first Baptist congregation in the North American colonies. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the First and Second Great Awakening increased church membership in the United States. Baptist missionaries have spread their faith to every continent. Baptist historian Bruce Gourley outlines four main views of Baptist origins: the modern scholarly consensus that the movement traces its origin to the 17th century via the English Separatists, the view that it was an outgrowth of Anabaptist traditions, the perpetuity view which assumes that the Baptist faith and practice has existed since the time of Christ, the successionist view, or "Baptist successionism", which argues that Baptist churches existed in an unbroken chain since the time of Christ.
Modern Baptist churches trace their history to the English Separatist movement in the 1600s, the century after the rise of the original Protestant denominations. This view of Baptist origins has the most historical support and is the most accepted. Adherents to this position consider the influence of Anabaptists upon early Baptists to be minimal, it was a time of considerable religious turmoil. Both individuals and churches were willing to give up their theological roots if they became convinced that a more biblical "truth" had been discovered. During the Protestant Reformation, the Church of England separated from the Roman Catholic Church. There were some Christians who were not content with the achievements of the mainstream Protestant Reformation. There were Christians who were disappointed that the Church of England had not made corrections of what some considered to be errors and abuses. Of those most critical of the Church's direction, some chose to stay and try to make constructive changes from within the Anglican Church.
They are described by Gourley as cousins of the English Separatists. Others decided they must leave the Church because of their dissatisfaction and became known as the Separatists. Historians trace the earliest Baptist church back to 1609 in Amsterdam, with John Smyth as its pastor. Three years earlier, while a Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, he had broken his ties with the Church of England. Reared in the Church of England, he became "Puritan, English Separatist, a Baptist Separatist," and ended his days working with the Mennonites, he began meeting in England with 60–70 English Separatists, in the face of "great danger." The persecution of religious nonconformists in England led Smyth to go into exile in Amsterdam with fellow Separatists from the congregation he had gathered in Lincolnshire, separate from the established church. Smyth and his lay supporter, Thomas Helwys, together with those they led, broke with the other English exiles because Smyth and Helwys were convinced they should be baptized as believers.
In 1609 Smyth first baptized himself and baptized the others. In 1609, while still there, Smyth wrote a tract titled "The Character of the Beast," or "The False Constitution of the Church." In it he expressed two propositions: first, infants are not to be baptized. Hence, his conviction was that a scriptural church should consist only of regenerate believers who have been baptized on a personal confession of faith, he rejected the Separatist movement's doctrine of infant baptism. Shortly thereafter, Smyth left the group, layman Thomas Helwys took over the leadership, leading the church back to England in 1611. Smyth became committed to believers' baptism as the only biblical baptism, he was convinced on the basis of his interpretation of Scripture that infants would not be damned should they die in infancy. Smyth, convinced that his self-baptism was invalid, applied with the Mennonites for membership, he died while waiting for membership, some of his followers became Mennonites. Thomas Helwys and others kept their Baptist commitments.
The modern Baptist denomination is an outgrowth of Smyth's movement. Baptists rejected the name Anabaptist. McBeth writes that as late as the 18th century, many Baptists referred to themselves as "the Christians commonly—though falsely—called Anabaptists."Another milestone in the early dev
Unexploded ordnance, unexploded bombs, or explosive remnants of war are explosive weapons that did not explode when they were employed and still pose a risk of detonation, sometimes many decades after they were used or discarded. UXO does not always originate from wars. UXO from World War I continue to be a hazard, with poisonous gas filled munitions still a problem; when unwanted munitions are found, they are sometimes destroyed in controlled explosions, but accidental detonation of very old explosives occurs, sometimes with fatal results. Seventy-eight countries are contaminated by land mines, which kill 15,000–20,000 people every year while maiming countless more. 80% of casualties are civilian, with children as the most affected age group. An estimated average of 50% of deaths occurs within hours of the blast. In recent years, mines have been used as weapons of terror against local civilian populations specifically. In addition to the obvious danger of explosion, buried UXO can cause environmental contamination.
In some used military training areas, munitions-related chemicals such as explosives and perchlorate can enter soil and groundwater. Unexploded ordnance, however old, may explode. If it does not explode, environmental pollutants are released as it degrades. Recovery of deeply-buried projectiles, is difficult and hazardous—jarring may detonate the charge. Once recovered, explosives must either be detonated in place—sometimes requiring hundreds of homes to be evacuated—or transported safely to a site where they can be destroyed. Unexploded ordnance from at least as far back as the mid-19th century still poses a hazard worldwide, both in current and former combat areas and on military firing ranges. A major problem with unexploded ordnance is that over the years the detonator and main charge deteriorate making them more sensitive to disturbance, therefore more dangerous to handle. Construction work may disturb unsuspected unexploded bombs, which may explode. There are countless examples of people tampering with unexploded ordnance, many years old with fatal results.
For this reason it is universally recommended that unexploded ordnance should not be touched or handled by unqualified persons. Instead, the location should be reported to the local police so that bomb disposal or Explosive Ordnance Disposal professionals can render it safe. Although professional EOD personnel have expert knowledge and equipment, they are not immune to misfortune because of the inherent dangers: in June 2010, construction workers in Göttingen, Germany discovered an Allied 500-kilogram bomb dating from World War II buried 7 metres below the ground. German EOD experts attended the scene. Whilst residents living nearby were being evacuated and the EOD personnel were preparing to disarm the bomb, it detonated, killing three of them and injuring 6 others; the dead and injured each had over 20 years of hands-on experience, had rendered safe between 600 and 700 unexploded bombs. The bomb which killed and injured the EOD personnel was of a dangerous type because it was fitted with a delayed-action chemical fuze which had not operated as designed, but had become unstable after over 65 years underground.
The type of delayed-action fuze in the Göttingen bomb was used: a glass vial containing acetone was smashed after the bomb was released. These bombs, when striking soft earth at an angle ended their trajectory not pointing downwards, so that the acetone did not drip onto and weaken the celluloid. In November 2013 four US Marines were killed by an explosion whilst clearing unexploded ordnance from a firing range at Camp Pendleton; the exact cause is not known, but the Marines had been handing grenades they were collecting to each other, permitted but discouraged, it is thought that a grenade may have exploded after being kicked or bumped, setting off hundreds of other grenades and shells. A dramatic example of munitions and explosives of concern threat is the wreck of the SS Richard Montgomery, sunk in shallow water about 1.5 miles from the town of Sheerness and 5 miles from Southend, which still contains 1,400 tons of explosives. When the deeper World War II wreck of the Kielce, carrying a much smaller load of explosives, exploded in 1967, it produced an earth tremor measuring 4.5 on the Richter scale.
North Africa, in particular the desert areas of The Sahara, is mined and with serious consequences for the local population. Egypt is the most mined country in the world with as much as 19.7 million mines as of 2000. Land mines and other explosive remnants of war are not limited to North Africa, however. In the Tropics and floods displace and spread landmines, further aggravating the problem. In Mozambique, as much as 70% of the country is
Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana
Natchitoches Parish is a parish located in the U. S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 39,566; the parish seat is Natchitoches. The parish was formed in 1805; the Natchitoches, LA Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Natchitoches Parish. This is the heart of the Cane River Louisiana Creole community, free people of color of mixed-race descent who settled here in the antebellum period, their descendants continue to be Catholic and many are still French speaking. The Cane River National Heritage Area includes the parish. Among the numerous significant historic sites in the parish is the St. Augustine Parish Church, a destination on the Louisiana African American Heritage Trail, founded in 2008. Including extensive outbuildings at Magnolia and Oakland plantations, the Cane River Creole National Historical Park interprets the history and culture of the Louisiana Creoles, it is on the Heritage Trail. Natchitoches Parish was created by the act of April 10, 1805 that divided the Territory of Orleans into twelve parishes, including Orleans, Iberville and Natchitoches.
The parish boundaries were much larger than now defined, but were reduced as new parishes were organized following population increases in the state. The parishes of Caddo, Bossier, Webster, DeSoto, Jackson, Red River and Grant were formed from Natchitoches' enormous territory. Natchitoches Parish has had fifteen border revisions, making it second only to Ouachita parish in number of boundary revisions. During the antebellum period, numerous large cotton plantations were developed in this area, worked by enslaved African Americans; the parish population was majority enslaved by the time of the Civil War. There was a large mixed-race population of free Creoles of color. Among the institutions they founded was the St. Augustine Parish Church, built in 1829, it is a destination on the Louisiana African American Heritage Trail. In May 1861 free men of color in the area known as Isle Brevelle began to organize two militia companies. Other free men of color of Campti and that area enlisted in the Confederate Army in the war, it is believed were accepted into a predominately white company because of their longstanding acceptance in the community.
Many of the free people of color were related to longtime white families in the parish, who acknowledged them. After the war, during Reconstruction and after, there was white violence against freedmen and their sympathizers blacks in the aftermath of emancipation and establishing a free labor system. Most planters continued to rely on cotton as a commodity crop, although the market declined, adding to area problems. In the late 19th century, a timber industry developed in some areas. Since the late 20th century, the parish has developed considerable heritage tourism, it attracts people for fishing and other sports, including spring training on Cane River Lake by several university teams. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the parish has a total area of 1,299 square miles, of which 1,252 square miles is land and 47 square miles is water, it is the fourth-largest parish by land area in Louisiana. The primary groundwater resources of Natchitoches Parish, from near surface to deepest, include the Red River alluvial, upland terrace and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifers.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 39,566 people residing in the parish. 54.3% were White, 41.4% Black or African American, 1.0% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.9% of some other race and 2.1% of two or more races. 1.9% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 39,080 people, 14,263 households, 9,499 families residing in the parish; the population density was 31 people per square mile. There were 16,890 housing units at an average density of 14 per square mile; the racial makeup of the parish was 57.85% White, 38.43% Black or African American, 1.08% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.92% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races. 1.45% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 14,263 households out of which 33.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.30% were married couples living together, 17.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.40% were non-families. 27.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.14. In the parish the population was spread out with 26.00% under the age of 18, 17.90% from 18 to 24, 24.30% from 25 to 44, 19.70% from 45 to 64, 12.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 90.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.80 males. The median income for a household in the parish was $25,722, the median income for a family was $32,816. Males had a median income of $29,388 versus $19,234 for females; the per capita income for the parish was $13,743. About 20.90% of families and 26.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.70% of those under age 18 and 19.00% of those age 65 or over. Until the late 20th century, Natchitoches Parish was reliably Democratic in most competitive elections, but the party affiliations have changed and, like much of the rest of the South, have a distinct ethnic and demographic character. Since African Americans achieved certain gains under civil rights legislation and have been enabled to vote again since the late 1960s, they have supported the Democratic Party.
Most white conservatives have left that
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
332nd Engineer General Service Regiment
332nd Engineer General Service Regiment or 332nd Engineer Regiment was activated as a Special Service Regiment in May 1942, as a unit in the United States Army. This unit was redesignated a General Service Regiment; the unit was formed from some regular Army officers and enlisted men, trained in the United States shipped overseas early in World War II to England. They were the vanguard of many others to follow, including armored troops, their purpose was to build facilities in preparation for those to follow. After the Normandy Invasion, they followed the front lines constructing roads, railroad bridges and other infrastructure needed by the advancing Armies. Continuing through until surrender by Germany in 1945, the unit stayed on as part of the Army of Occupation. Many of the troops in the units were among those who were overseas for the longest periods of all in World War II; the unit formed and trained at Camp Claiborne Louisiana, in May 1942. Engineer "Special" and "General" Service Regiments would replace the old combat battalion unit structure with multipurpose skills.
These large regimental units would have heavier engineer equipment, consist of officers, non-commissioned officers and enlisted men who had experience in engineering or construction jobs. The best construction skills available in the country would be used to build these units; the commanding officer through the formation and most of the service during World War II was Colonel Helmer Swenholt, a 1911 graduate of the University of Wisconsin–Madison. The Chief of Army Engineers ordered Colonel Swenholt to recruit skilled personnel from construction in an organized unit; some were recruited from Army Corps of Engineer Districts in the Kansas City Districts. Others came from various other locations throughout the Midwest. An infantry cadre of seven officers and seventy-three enlisted men formed the nucleus of the unit in May, 1942. Additional personnel arrived quickly; the activities in the first months were basic training and indoctrination into military life, since these citizen-soldiers had experience in construction and engineering.
They lived in tents and trained for six weeks in basic infantry training, including marches, rifle training, demolition training, identification of gases and proper equipment, close order drill, etc. Their time at Camp Claiborne was short as they were needed to ship overseas early in the War. Three separate trains were needed for their transfer to Camp Kilmer, a new Army camp named after the American journalist and poet Joyce Kilmer. By this time the regiment had grown to full strength consisting of 52 officers, they arrived at Camp Kilmer at 1655 hours on 22 July 1942. The purpose of their time at Kilmer was to receive final medical evaluations and final preparations before shipping overseas; the unit shipped overseas to England on 6 August 1942. Task Force #38 left 6 August 1942 bound for Greenock, Scotland in the British Isles with the USS Arkansas as flagship, fourteen destroyers as escorts with twelve transports including USAT Argentina, carrying the 332nd; the convoy arrived there 17 August 1942.
Upon reaching Scotland, 332nd travelled by rail to Newport. The 332nd was involved to build bases for the coming troops in preparation for the North Africa campaign and D-Day in World War II. In their first 1–2 months they built base camps for the Regiment, first from tents but to more permanent Nissen huts. Training was conducted on. A depot was constructed at Thatcham; this depot was designed as a staging area for the American Army for assembly and shipping of equipment and gear to the western and northern ports of the UK, where ships were loaded for North Africa. In order to concentrate engineering resources and to distribute available heavy equipment, the concept of the "engineer group" was begun. General John C. H. Lee was pleased with the work performed with the use of the special and general engineer regiments since mid-1942; these were new concepts of army organization for a new type of war. Still, there were engineers with civilian experience that knew that more improvements could be made with the engineer group idea.
In this organization five or six engineer units, including regiments, dump truck companies, welding detachments and engineer maintenance companies would work together on larger projects. Some army engineer officers were lost to aviation construction battalions for runway construction; the engineer section at Southern Base Command implemented the group idea. Southern Base Engineer Group 2 was organized with Colonel Swenholt as commander 1 August 1943. There was no previous Group 1; this unit served with several of the Armies of World War II as it was part of ADSEC. ADSEC's mission was to support the U. S. First Army, U. S. Third Army, U. S. Seventh Army by building bridges and hospitals through France and Germany; the greatest accomplishment of the 332nd Engineer G. S. Regiment was the reconstruction of the Duisburg-Hochfeld rail bridge, 2,815 feet long, over the Rhine River in the record time of six days, fifteen hours and twenty minutes; the site of this bridge was crossing the Rhine River between Rheinhausen, Germany.
The railroad bridge was completed 8 May 1945 and was named the "Victory Bridge". In building the bridge, the Engineer Group had to finish the demolition of the nearby railway bridge. Near the new piers was part of a masonry bridge that looked similar to the Castle Design of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; this was a fitting tribute the Army Engineering. After the end of World War II, the Occupation Zones
Racial segregation is the systemic separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life. It may apply to activities such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a public toilet, attending school, going to the movies, riding on a bus, or in the rental or purchase of a home or of hotel rooms. Segregation is defined by the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance as "the act by which a person separates other persons on the basis of one of the enumerated grounds without an objective and reasonable justification, in conformity with the proposed definition of discrimination; as a result, the voluntary act of separating oneself from other people on the basis of one of the enumerated grounds does not constitute segregation". According to the UN Forum on Minority Issues, "The creation and development of classes and schools providing education in minority languages should not be considered impermissible segregation, if the assignment to such classes and schools is of a voluntary nature".
Racial segregation is outlawed, but may exist de facto through social norms when there is no strong individual preference for it, as suggested by Thomas Schelling's models of segregation and subsequent work. Segregation may be maintained by means ranging from discrimination in hiring and in the rental and sale of housing to certain races to vigilante violence. A situation that arises when members of different races mutually prefer to associate and do business with members of their own race would be described as separation or de facto separation of the races rather than segregation. In the United States, segregation was mandated by law in some states and came with anti-miscegenation laws. Segregation, however allowed close contact in hierarchical situations, such as allowing a person of one race to work as a servant for a member of another race. Segregation can involve spatial separation of the races, mandatory use of different institutions, such as schools and hospitals by people of different races.
Wherever there have been multiracial communities, there has been racial segregation. Only areas with extensive miscegenation, or mixing, such as Hawaii and Brazil, despite some social stratification, seem to be exempt. Following its conquest of Ottoman controlled Algeria in 1830, for well over a century France maintained colonial rule in the territory, described as "quasi-apartheid"; the colonial law of 1865 allowed Arab and Berber Algerians to apply for French citizenship only if they abandoned their Muslim identity. Camille Bonora-Waisman writes that, "n contrast with the Moroccan and Tunisian protectorates", this "colonial apartheid society" was unique to Algeria; this "internal system of apartheid" met with considerable resistance from the Muslims affected by it, is cited as one of the causes of the 1954 insurrection and ensuing independence war. In fifteenth-century north-east Germany, people of Wendish, i.e. Slavic, origin were not allowed to join some guilds. According to Wilhelm Raabe, "down into the eighteenth century no German guild accepted a Wend."German praise for America's institutional racism found in Hitler's Mein Kampf, was continuous throughout the early 1930s, radical Nazi lawyers were advocates of the use of American models.
Race based U. S. citizenship laws and anti-miscegenation laws directly inspired the two principal Nuremberg Laws—the Citizenship Law and the Blood Law. The ban on interracial marriage prohibited sexual relations and marriages between people classified as "Aryan" and "non-Aryan." Such relationships were called Rassenschande. At first the laws were aimed at Jews but were extended to "Gypsies and their bastard offspring". Aryans found guilty could face incarceration in a concentration camp, while non-Aryans could face the death penalty. To preserve the so-called purity of the German blood, after the war began, the Nazis extended the race defilement law to include all foreigners. Under the General Government of occupied Poland in 1940, the Nazis divided the population into different groups, each with different rights, food rations, allowed housing strips in the cities, public transportation, etc. In an effort to split Polish identity they attempted to establish ethnic divisions of Kashubians and Gorals, based on these groups' alleged "Germanic component."
During the 1930s and 1940s, Jews in Nazi-controlled states were made to wear yellow ribbons or stars of David, were, along with Romas, discriminated against by the racial laws. Jewish doctors were not allowed to treat Aryan patients nor were Jewish professors permitted to teach Aryan pupils. In addition, Jews were not allowed to use any public transportation, besides the ferry, were able to shop only from 3–5 pm in Jewish stores. After Kristallnacht, the Jews were fined 1,000,000 marks for damages done by the Nazi troops and SS members. Jews and Roma were subjected to genocide as "undesirable" racial groups in the Holocaust; the Nazis established ghettos to confine Jews and sometimes Romas into packed areas of the cities of Eastern Europe, turning them into de facto concentration camps. The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of these ghettos, with 400,000 people; the Łódź Ghetto was the second largest, holding about 160,000. Between 1939 and 1945, at least 1.5 million Polish citizens were transported to the Reich for forced labour.
Although Nazi Germany used forced laborers from We
82nd Airborne Division
The 82nd Airborne Division is an airborne infantry division of the United States Army, specializing in parachute assault operations into denied areas with a U. S. Department of Defense requirement to "respond to crisis contingencies anywhere in the world within 18 hours." Based at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, the 82nd Airborne Division is part of the XVIII Airborne Corps. The 82nd Airborne Division is the U. S. Army's most strategically mobile division; some journalists have reported that the 82nd Airborne is the best trained light infantry division in the world. More the 82nd Airborne has been conducting operations in Iraq and assisting Iraqi Security Forces; the All American division was constituted as the 82nd Division, in the National Army on 5 August 1917, shortly after the American entry into World War I. It was organized on 25 August 1917, at Camp Gordon and served with distinction on the Western Front in the final months of World War I. Since its initial members came from all 48 states, the division acquired the nickname All-American, the basis for its famed "AA" shoulder patch.
The division served in World War II where, in August 1942, it was reconstituted as the first airborne division of the U. S. fought in numerous campaigns during the war. Famous soldiers of the division include: Sergeant Alvin C. York; the 82nd Division was first constituted as an infantry division on 5 August 1917 during World War I in the National Army. It was organized and formally activated on 25 August 1917 at Georgia; the division consisted of newly conscripted soldiers. The citizens of Atlanta held a contest to give a nickname to the new division. Major General Eben Swift, the commanding general, chose "All American" to reflect the unique composition of the 82nd—it had soldiers from all 48 states; the bulk of the division was each commanding two regiments. The 163rd Infantry Brigade commanded the 326th Infantry Regiment; the 164th Infantry Brigade commanded the 328th Infantry Regiment. In the division were the 157th Field Artillery Brigade, composed of the 319th, 320th and 321st Field Artillery Regiments and the 307th Trench Mortar Battery.
It sailed to Europe to join the American Expeditionary Force, commanded by General John Pershing, on the Western Front. William P. Burnham, who had commanded the 164th Brigade, led the division during most of its training and its movement to Europe. In early April, the division embarked from the ports in Boston, New York and Brooklyn to Liverpool, where the division assembled by mid-May 1918. From there, the division moved to mainland Europe, leaving Southampton and arriving at Le Havre and moved to the British-held region of Somme on the front lines, where it began sending small numbers of troops and officers to the front lines to gain combat experience. On 16 June it moved by rail to Toul, France to take position on the front lines in the French sector, its soldiers were issued French weapons and equipment to simplify resupply. The division was assigned to I Corps before falling under the command of IV Corps until late August, it was moved to the Woëvre front, in the Lagney sector, where it operated with the French 154th Infantry Division.
The division relieved the 26th Division on 25 June. Though Lagney was considered a defensive sector, the 82nd Division patrolled and raided in the region for several weeks, before being relieved by the 89th Division. From there it moved to the Marbache sector in mid-August, where it relieved the 2nd Division under the command of the newly formed US First Army. There it trained until 12 September. Once the First Army jumped off on the offensive, the 82nd Division engaged in a holding mission to prevent German forces from attacking the right flank of the First Army. On 13 September, the 163rd Infantry Brigade and 327th Infantry Regiment raided and patrolled to the northeast of Port-sur-Seille, toward Eply, in the Bois de Cheminot, Bois de la Voivrotte, Bois de la Tête-d'Or, Bois Fréhaut. Meanwhile, the 328th Infantry Regiment, in connection with the attack of the 90th Division against the Bois-le-Prêtre, advanced on the west of the Moselle River, and, in contact with the 90th Division, entered Norroy, advancing to the heights just north of that town where it consolidated its position.
On 15 September, the 328th Infantry, in order to protect the 90th Division's flank, resumed the advance, reached Vandières, but withdrew on the following day to the high ground north of Norroy. On 17 September, the St-Mihiel Operation stabilized, the 90th Division relieved the 82nd's troops west of the Moselle River. On 20 September, the 82nd was relieved by the French 69th Infantry Division, moved to the vicinity of Marbache and Belleville to stations near Triaucourt and Rarécourt in the area of the First Army. During this operation, the divi