Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Morris County, Texas
Morris County is a county located near the eastern border of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 12,934, its county seat is Daingerfield. Morris County is named for William Wright Morris, an early judge and planter from Henderson in northeast Texas; as of 2016, Morris County is no longer one of 25 prohibition, or dry, counties in the state of Texas. Morris County is now "partially wet." In the nineteenth century, this area was settled by European-American planters and farmers, many of whom brought enslaved African Americans with them or purchased others to work as laborers on the cotton plantations they developed. Cotton was most important, but farmers cultivated other commodity crops before the American Civil War. Eastern Texas was the region of proportion of slaves; the area has continued to be rural and agricultural. In the 21st century, African Americans comprise a significant minority in the county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 259 square miles, of which 252 square miles is land and 6.7 square miles is water.
It is the fifth-smallest county in Texas by land fourth-smallest by total area. I-30 US 67 US 259 SH 11 SH 49 SH 77 FM 130 FM 144 FM 161 FM 250 SH 338 Bowie County Cass County Marion County Upshur County Camp County Titus County Red River County As of the census of 2000, there were 13,048 people, 5,215 households, 3,749 families residing in the county; the population density was 51 people per square mile. There were 6,017 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 71.71% White, 24.13% Black or African American, 0.53% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 2.28% from other races, 1.12% from two or more races. 3.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,215 households out of which 29.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.90% were married couples living together, 14.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.10% were non-families. 25.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.20% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 24.30% from 25 to 44, 24.50% from 45 to 64, 18.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 92.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,011, the median income for a family was $35,326. Males had a median income of $30,917 versus $20,270 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,612. About 14.90% of families and 18.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.40% of those under age 18 and 12.90% of those age 65 or over. The following school districts serve Morris County: Daingerfield-Lone Star ISD Hughes Springs ISD Pewitt CISD Morris County is served by the Northeast Texas Community College, whose main campus is in southeastern Titus County, but it has a small satellite campus in Naples.
Daingerfield Hughes Springs Lone Star Omaha Naples Cason Jenkins Dry counties Ernest Wallace, historian of the South Plains National Register of Historic Places listings in Morris County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Morris County Morris County website Morris County from the Handbook of Texas Online
Pittsburg is a city located in Camp County, Texas. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 4,497, it is the county seat of Camp County. It is best known as the former home of the giant poultry producer Pilgrim's and the home of racing legend Carroll Shelby. Pittsburg is the birthplace of Cavenders Boot City, it is the hometown of Tennessee Titan Kendall Wright. In 1902, it was the site of an early flight attempt by the Ezekiel Air Ship Mfg Co; the city is named after the family of William Harrison Pitts. In 1996, the town changed its name to "Cowboys" for a few weeks in support of the Dallas Cowboys, who faced the Pittsburgh Steelers that year in Super Bowl XXX. Pittsburg is located at 32°59'49" North, 94°58'5" West. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.3 square miles, all land. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Pittsburg has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.
As of the census of 2000, there are 4,347 people, 1,593 households, 150 rental apartments, 1,056 families residing in the city, 25 Protestant churches, 1 Catholic. The population density is 1,301.9 people per square mile. There are 1,779 housing units at an average density of 532.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city is 54.50% White, 27.97% African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 15.76% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races. 23.86 % of the population are Latino of any race. There are 1,593 households out of which 34.5% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.7% are married couples living together, 19.3% have a female householder with no husband present, 33.7% are non-families. 29.9% of all households are made up of individuals and 15.7% have someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.63 and the average family size is 3.24. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 30.0% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 17.9% from 45 to 64, 17.0% who are 65 years of age or older.
The median age is 32 years. For every 100 females, there are 87.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 79.3 males. The median income for a household in the city is $24,789, the median income for a family is $28,398. Males have a median income of $28,750 versus $20,042 for females; the per capita income for the city is $14,882. 27.7% of the population and 23.8% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 38.8% of those under the age of 18 and 14.1% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. Pittsburg is located in the geographic center of northeast Texas in the I-30 corridor, on US Highway 271 and SH 11, ten minutes south of I-30 and forty-five miles from I-20; the City of Pittsburg is served by the Pittsburg Independent School District and home to the Pittsburg High School Pirates. Barbara Smith Conrad, opera singer Louie Gohmert, Republican U. S. Representative from Texas's 1st congressional district Mildred Fay Jefferson, first black woman graduate from Harvard Medical School and national pro-life leader Homer Jones, professional football wide receiver Frank P. Lockhart, who served as US Consul General and Counsellor in China.
Ernie McAnally, professional baseball player, Montreal Expos 1971-74 Basil Mitchell, professional football running back, Green Bay Packers 1999-2000 Carroll Shelby and automotive designer and former driver Lonnie "Bo" Pilgrim, founder of Pilgrim's Pride, largest poultry and egg producer in USA Dave Abernathy, Mayor of Pittsburg, Texas for 52 consecutive years. Kendall Wright, wide receiver for Baylor and NFL's Tennessee Titans, Chicago Bears Official City Web Site Northeast Texas Rural Heritage Center and Museum
Wood County, Texas
Wood County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 41,964, its county seat is Quitman. The county was named for George T. Wood, governor of Texas from 1847 to 1849; the first documented European exploration of what is now Wood County took place in the late 18th century, when Pedro Vial, was sent on expeditions by the Spanish governor of Texas. After marching all the way to Santa Fe in 1787, he headed east to Natchitoches; the following year, he passed through today's Wood County on his way back to San Antonio. There is some archeological evidence to suggest that a French trading post stood along Mill Race Creek in the early 1700s near the site of the modern town of Hainsville, it is thought that the French may have build a military post called Fort Ledout near Black Oak in Wood County. However, other than the archeological evidence, little is known about any possible French settlements. An important archeological discovery made by a hunting party in 1887, southeast of Hainsville and north of Bromley, suggests that Native Americans may have engaged in a battle either between different tribes or with the Spanish.
Despite finding many relics, including a cross, tomahawk pieces, a Spanish coin, several broken muskets, there is no written record of any such encounter. Some Spanish and Mexican land grants were issued in the area, but settlement was sparse until after the Texas Revolution; the first white settler was Martin Varner. He built his home near the southeast side of what is now Hainsville at least by 1824; the first organized settlement was at Webster in 1845. In 1850, five years after Texas was annexed to the United States, the Legislature authorized the forming of the county from Van Zandt County. In 1849, residents of what was Van Zandt County north of the Sabine River, petitioned the Legislature for the county to be reorganized. Reasons included that the majority of the population lived north of the river, that travel to Jordan's Saline the county seat, was difficult in winter. Wood county was created and Van Zandt was reorganized with territory from adjacent counties. Early industry included a number of sawmills, steam mills, cotton gins.
A jug factory operated north of the Big Sandy Creek in the 1850s. A second jug factory was built some years near Holly Creek. Two brick kilns are known to have been located in the area of Winnsboro. A furniture company, Wigley Furniture Company, begain operating in Mineola in 1874. A cane and raw-hide bottom chair factory opened in 1886. Tie-cutting became a major industry in the county in the 1870s with the coming of the railroads. Pine Mills, Ogburn, Merrimac and Fouke got their start as sawmill towns. Wood County had only 17 slaves by 1850, but that number ballooned ten years to 3,963, estimated at about 20 percent of the population. Wood County voted for secession by a 70 percent majority. However, the two delegates to the Secession Convention both opposed secession; the first soldiers raised for the Confederacy in Wood County were Company A, 10th Texas Cavalry Regiment. A training ground called. Another company called the Wood County Rebels was formed on August 5, 1861, they requested active duty as cavalry.
The Texas and Pacific Railroad came through the southern portion of the county in 1873 and formed a junction with the International and Great Northern Railroad at Sodom, renamed Mineola, on a Longview to Dallas route. The railroads came to the northern portion of the county in 1876 when the East Line and Red River Railroad laid track from Jefferson to Greenville; this segment was absorbed by the Louisiana and Texas Railroad. The Texas Shortline Railroad ran between Alba and Grand Saline in Van Zandt County. Coal was discovered in the Alba area in sometime before 1900; the operating mines were Lignite coal mines. Oil was discovered in Wood County in 1941, the county produced 25 million barrels of oil per year by 1948. Developed oilfields in Wood County include the Alba Oilfield. There were a number of so-called "subscription schools" in Wood County after 1854, when free public schools in Texas were on the rise due to legislative action. In 1852, a log school house in the western part of the county near Chaney Crossing on Lake Fork was built.
By 1854, school was being taught in Quitman. By 1859, Quitman had three schools. On January 8, 1884, the Texas legislature required the county to be divided into free public school districts; the school districts established by the legislature were Quitman, Lone Star, Myrtle Springs, Forest Hill, Caney, Rock Hill, Forest Home, Chalybeate Springs, Spring Hill, Cold Springs, Shady Grove, Center Point, Pleasant Grove, Floyd's Common Ridge, Mount Pisgah, Sand Springs, Pleasant Divide, Lone Pint, Webster, Permimmon Grove, Macedonia, New Hope, Mount Enterprise, "Albia". Free school districts for African Americans were established at Quitman, Cedar Tree, Robinson's Chapel, Muddy Creek, Mount Zion, Center, Shiloh and "District 48" which encompassed all of the district west of Lake Fork. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 696 square miles, of which 645 square miles is land and 50 square miles is water. Hopkins County Franklin County Camp County Upshur County Smith County Van Zandt County Rains County Little Sandy National Wildlife Refuge The following are municipalities and towns which are incorporated under the laws of the state of Texas, meaning they have elected governments a
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Mineola is a city in Wood County, United States. It lies at the junction of U. S. highways 69 and 80, eighty miles east of Dallas in southwestern Wood County. The population was 4,515 at the 2010 census; the town was incorporated. It is believed by some that a railroad official combined the names of two prominent locals' daughters and Olla, to create the city name Mineola. While these two girls did exist, the more story is that the city was named after the railroad official's hometown of Mineola, New York because of the area's beauty. Mineola came into existence. In 1873 the Texas and Pacific and the International-Great Northern raced to see which could get to Mineola first; the I-GN reached the finish fifteen minutes earlier. A city government was organized in 1873, a post office opened in 1875, the town incorporated in 1877, but a fire in the 1880s destroyed eighteen buildings; the town's oldest paper, the Mineola Monitor, was founded in 1876. By 1890 the town had seven churches, several schools including a black free school, banks, a population of 2,000.
In 1895 Mineola became the site of the Wood County Fair. Since Mineola was in the heart of the East Texas timber belt, timber was plentiful for railroad tiemaking and lumber. During the community's first sixty years, farm products included cotton, livestock and berries. A chair factory opened in 1886, became a crate and basket factory in 1900, operated until 1952. Highway improvement, the Magnolia Pipeline Company gas line, the establishment of a railroad terminal caused growth during the 1920s, the discovery of oil in parts of Wood County and construction of a T&P railroad shop spurred the economy during the 1940s. By 1930 the population was 3,000, by 1970 it was 4,000. Diversified farming gave way to cattle raising and watermelon crops by 1950; the Mineola Watermelon Festival began in 1948. Subsequently, sweet-potato farming, a creamery, a nursery, a company that supplies poles and pulpwood to the telephone company helped the economy; the town remains a shipping center. The Mineola Memorial Library financed by H. W. Meredith, was completed in 1960.
Nearby Lake Holbrook completed in 1962, attracts residents and visitors. The Meredith Foundation has provided large sums for educational and cultural purposes since 1962. Meredith Hall Civic Center, completed in 1977, is used by small groups for varied events; the population of Mineola in 1980 was 4,346. The manufacture of women's clothing, sporting goods, electronic connectors and cattle feed and the packaging of dry beans and meat provide employment for many people; the Wood County Airport, five miles north of Mineola, was completed in 1984. A new city hall complex was completed in 1986, a two-school facility was completed in 1987; the population of Mineola in 1990 was 4,321. Mineola is located at 32°39′10.4″N 95°28′49.1″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.339 square miles, of which, 10.161 square miles of it is land and 0.178 square miles is water. Mineola enjoys weather typical of East Texas, unpredictable in the spring time. Mineola's humid subtropical climate is typical of the Southeast in North America.
As of the census of 2000, there were 5,611 people, 1,779 households, 1,197 families residing in the city. The population density was 859.6 people per square mile. There were 1,993 housing units at an average density of 376.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 77.19% White, 13.38% African American, 0.70% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 6.44% from other races, 2.00% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.95% of the population. There were 1,779 households out of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.7% were non-families. Of all households 30.1% were made up of individuals and 17.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.08. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.3% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 22.0% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 22.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,000, the median income for a family was $37,528. Males had a median income of $29,938 versus $20,750 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,945. About 16.2% of families and 18.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.3% of those under age 18 and 11.2% of those age 65 or over. First Baptist Mineola is one of the largest churches in the Wood County area with an enrollment record of about 850. Sand Springs Baptist Church is located just west of Mineola; the church has a regular Sunday attendance of about 350. Broad Street Church of Christ New Hope Baptist Church St. Paul Missionary Baptist Church, founded October 1871, in Mineola, Texas formally name Sodom, Texas Johnson Chapel United Methodist Church Sidney Temple Church of God East Chapel Christian Methodist Episcopal Church St. Peter the Apostle Roman Catholic Church is a parish of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tyler.
The City of Mineola is served by the Mineola Independent School District. Mineola High SchoolHistorical Black SchoolsSouthward School Mineola Colored School McFarland Elementary McFarland High School Mineola Amtrak train station Willie Brown, the eventual Sp
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti