Fount of honour
The fount of honour refers to a person, who, by virtue of his or her official position, has the exclusive right of conferring legitimate titles of nobility and orders of chivalry on other persons. During the High Middle Ages, European knights were armoured, mounted warriors. For most of the Middle Ages, it was possible for private individuals to form orders of chivalry; the oldest existing order of chivalry, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, was formed as a private organization which received official sanction from church and state. The 13th century witnessed the trend of monarchs, beginning with Emperor Frederick II in 1231, retaining the right of fons honorum as a royal prerogative abrogating the right of knights to elevate their esquires to knighthood. After the end of feudalism and the rise of the nation-state and knighthoods, along with titles of nobility, became the domain of the monarchs to reward their loyal subjects – in other words, the heads of state became their nations' "fountains of honour".
Many of the old-style military knights resented what they considered to be a royal encroachment on their independence. The late British social anthropologist, Julian A. Pitt-Rivers, noted that "while the sovereign is the'fount of honour' in one sense, he is the enemy of honour in another, since he claims to arbitrate in regard to it." By the early thirteenth century, when an unknown author composed L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechal), Richard W. Kaeuper notes that "the author bemoans the fact that, in his day, the spirit of chivalry has been imprisoned; the question whether an order is a legitimate chivalric order or a self-styled order coincides with the subject of the fons honorum. A legitimate fount of honour is a entity who holds sovereignty when the order is awarded. Other persons, whether commoners, knights, or noblemen, no longer have the right to confer titles of nobility, knighthood or orders of chivalry upon others; the official website of the British monarchy states: "As the'fountain of honour' in the United Kingdom, The Queen has the sole right of conferring all titles of honour, including life peerages and gallantry awards."
Some private societies in the United Kingdom have permission from the monarch to award medals which may be worn by those in uniform provided the private society's medal is worn on the right-side rather than the usual left. In Spain the fount of honour is King Felipe VI as the head of state. In France, only decorations recognised by the Grand Chancery of the Legion of Honour may be worn publicly, permission must be sought and granted to wear any foreign awards or decorations. Dynastic orders are prohibited unless the dynasty in question is recognised as sovereign. Failure to comply is punishable by law. A non-exhaustive list of collectively authorised orders is published by the government. "These two dispositions are meant to protect the ensemble of authentic national and foreign distinctions by attempting to prevent the attire of fake decorations. These may stem from territorial entities which have not acceded to sovereignty or from countries, empires or kingdoms that are the pure and simple products of someone's overactive imagination, a fan of fiction or a megalomaniac, if not purely mercantile acts or the patent intention to abuse and swindle others."The Papal Orders of Knighthood comprise five orders awarded directly by the Holy See and two others which it'recognises and supports': the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the Order of the Holy Sepulchre.
In response to queries regarding the Catholic Church's relationship to a large number of self-proclaimed Roman Catholic chivalric orders, the Holy See issued a statement in 2012 stating that any body other than its own seven approved orders,'whether of recent origin or mediaeval foundation, are not recognised by the Holy See' and that'the Holy See does not guarantee their historical or juridical legitimacy, their ends or organisational structures... to prevent the continuation of abuses which may result in harm to people of good faith, the Holy See confirms that it attributes no value whatsoever to certificates of membership or insignia issued by these groups, it considers inappropriate the use of churches or chapels for their so-called "ceremonies of investiture".' Australian honours system British honours system Canadian honours system
A chapter is one of several bodies of clergy in Roman Catholic and Nordic Lutheran churches or their gatherings. The name derives from the habit of convening monks or canons for the reading of a chapter of the Bible or a heading of the order's rule; the 6th-century St Benedict directed that his monks begin their daily assemblies with such readings and over time expressions such as "coming together for the chapter" found their meaning transferred from the text to the meeting itself and to the body gathering for it. The place of such meetings became known as the "chapter house" or "room". A cathedral chapter is the body of advisors assisting the bishop of a diocese at his cathedral church; these were a development of the presbyteries made up of the priests and other church officials of cathedral cities in the early church. In the Catholic Church, they are now only established by papal decree. Cathedral chapters are sometimes charged with election of the bishop's replacement and with the government of the diocese during vacancies of his office.
They are made up of canon priests. "Numbered" chapters are made up of a fixed number of prebendaries, while "unnumbered" chapters vary in number according to the direction of the bishop. The chapters were led by the cathedral's archdeacon but, since the 11th century, have been directed by a dean or provost. In the Catholic Church, the chapter appoints its own treasurer and sacristan and—since the Council of Trent—canon theologian and canon penitentiary; the same council approved of other local offices, which might include precentors, almoners, portarii, primicerii, or custodes. Canons are sometimes given the functions of punctator and hebdomadarius as well. In the Church of England, the chapter includes lay members, a chancellor who oversees its educational functions, a precentor who oversees its musical services; some Church of England cathedrals have "lesser" and "greater" chapters with separate functions. A collegiate chapter is a similar body of canons who oversee a collegiate church other than a cathedral.
A general chapter is a general assembly of monks composed of representatives from all the monasteries of an order or congregation. The equivalent meetings of provincial representatives of Franciscan orders is called a Chapter of Mats. A chapter of faults is a gathering for public correction of infractions against community rules and for self-criticism separate from standard confession; the assembled body of knights of a military or knightly order was referred as a "chapter”. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Chapter". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. Cambridge University Press. P. 855. Fanning, William. "Chapter". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Baynes, T. S. ed.. "Chapter". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. P. 398. Cripps, H. W.. A Practical Treatise on the Law Relating to the Church and Clergy. K. M. Macmorran. Pp. 127–146
A prize is an award to be given to a person, a group of people like a sports team, or organization to recognise and reward actions or achievements. Official prizes involve monetary rewards as well as the fame that comes with them; some prizes are associated with extravagant awarding ceremonies, such as the Academy Awards. Prizes are given to publicize noteworthy or exemplary behaviour, to provide incentives for improved outcomes and competitive efforts. In general, prizes are regarded in a positive light, their winners are admired. However, many prizes the more famous ones, have caused controversy and jealousy. Specific types of prizes include: Booby prize: awarded as a joke or insult to whoever finished last. Consolation prize: an award given to those who do not win, but still recognized. Hierarchical prizes, where the best award is "first prize", "grand prize", or "gold medal". Subordinate awards are "second prize", "third prize", etc. or "first runner-up" and "second runner-up", etc. or "silver medal" and "bronze medal".
On game shows in the UK, the term is "star prize", while in Australia, it is "major prize". Purchase prize or acquisition prize: a monetary prize given in an art competition in exchange for the winning work. List of prizes and awards Medal Prize Prize money, monetary award, given to someone after they have won a competition. Prizes named after people Repechage Media related to Prizes at Wikimedia Commons
A Masonic lodge termed a private lodge or constituent lodge, is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry. It is commonly used as a term for a building in which such a unit meets; every new lodge must be warranted or chartered by a Grand Lodge, but is subject to its direction only in enforcing the published constitution of the jurisdiction. By exception the three surviving lodges that formed the world's first known grand lodge in London have the unique privilege to operate as time immemorial, i.e. without such warrant. A Freemason is entitled to visit any Lodge in any jurisdiction in amity with his own. In some jurisdictions this privilege is restricted to Master Masons, he is first required to check, certify, the regularity of the relationship of the Lodge – and be able to satisfy that Lodge of his regularity of membership. Freemasons gather together as a Lodge to work the three basic Degrees of Entered Apprentice and Master Mason. Technically, Freemasons meet as a lodge not in a lodge. In this context, the word "lodge" refers to a local chapter of Freemasons.
However, the term is misused to refer to the buildings or rooms that Masons meet in. Masonic premises are sometimes referred to as temples. In many countries Masonic centre or Masonic hall has now replaced these terms to avoid arousing prejudice and suspicion. Several different lodges, or other Masonic organisations use the same premises at different times. Blue lodges, craft lodges or ancient craft lodges refer to the lodges that work the first three Masonic degrees, rather than the appendant Masonic orders such as York Rite and Scottish Rite; the term "craft lodge" is used in Great Britain. The blue lodge is said to refer to the traditional colour of regalia in lodges derived from English or Irish Freemasonry. Although the term was frowned upon, it has gained widespread and mainstream usage in America in recent times. Research lodges have the purpose of furthering Masonic scholarship. Quatuor Coronati Lodge is an example of a research lodge. Many jurisdictions have well-established research lodges, which meet less than blue lodges and do not confer degrees.
In Great Britain, a lodge of instruction may be associated with a Lodge, but is not constituted separately. The lodge of instruction provides the officers and those who wish to become officers an opportunity to rehearse ritual under the guidance of an experienced brother. In some jurisdictions in the United States, the lodge of instruction serves as a warranted lodge for candidate instruction in other aspects of Freemasonry besides ritual rehearsal, as well as hosting a speaker on topics both Masonic and non-Masonic. In Great Britain, the term mother lodge is used to identify the particular Lodge where the individual was first "made a Mason".'Mother lodge' may refer to a lodge which sponsors the creation of a new lodge, the daughter lodge, to be warranted under the jurisdiction of the same grand lodge. Lodge Mother Kilwinning No 0 in the Grand Lodge of Scotland is known as the Mother Lodge of Scotland, having been referred to in the Schaw Statutes of 1598 and 1599, having itself warranted other lodges at a time when it did not subscribe to a grand lodge.
Lodges are governed by national, state or provincial authorities called Grand Lodges or Grand Orients, whose published constitutions define the structure of freemasonry under their authority, which appoint Grand Officers from their senior masons. Provincial Grand Lodges exercise an intermediate authority, appoint Provincial Grand Officers. Different grand lodges and their regions show subtleties of tradition and variation in the degrees and practice. In any case, Grand Lodges have limited jurisdiction over their member Lodges, where there is no prescribed ritual Lodges may thus have considerable freedom of practice. Despite these minor differences, fraternal relations exist between Lodges of corresponding degrees under different Grand Lodges. To be accepted for initiation as a regular Freemason, a candidate must: Be a man who comes of his own free will by his own initiative or by invitation in some jurisdictions. Believe in some kind of Supreme Being. Be of good morals and financially supporting himself and family.
Be at least 21 years old. Live in the jurisdiction Be able to pass interviews and pass the Investigation Committee's inquiries about his past with people who have known him, which can take up to 2 years. Be of sound mind and body.. Be a "Free Man"; this may have arisen from the refusal of operative masons to pass their secr
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions and led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict; the wars are categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition, the Fourth, the Fifth, the Sixth, the Seventh. Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic. In 1805, Austria and Russia waged war against France. In response, Napoleon defeated the allied Russo-Austrian army at Austerlitz in December 1805, considered his greatest victory. At sea, the British defeated the joint Franco-Spanish navy in the Battle of Trafalgar on October 1805; this victory prevented the invasion of Britain itself. Concerned about the increasing French power, Prussia led the creation of the Fourth Coalition with Russia and Sweden, the resumption of war in October 1806.
Napoleon defeated the Prussians in Jena and the Russians in Friedland, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. The peace failed, though, as war broke out in 1809, when the badly prepared Fifth Coalition, led by Austria, was defeated in Wagram. Hoping to isolate Britain economically, Napoleon launched an invasion of Portugal, the only remaining British ally in continental Europe. After occupying Lisbon in November 1807, with the bulk of French troops present in Spain, Napoleon seized the opportunity to turn against his former ally, depose the reigning Spanish Bourbon family and declare his brother King of Spain in 1808 as Joseph I; the Spanish and Portuguese revolted with British support, after six years of fighting, expelled the French from Iberia in 1814. Concurrently, unwilling to bear economic consequences of reduced trade violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon to launch a massive invasion of Russia in 1812; the resulting campaign ended with the dissolution and disastrous withdrawal of the French Grande Armée.
Encouraged by the defeat, Prussia and Russia formed the Sixth Coalition and began a new campaign against France, decisively defeating Napoleon at Leipzig in October 1813 after several inconclusive engagements. The Allies invaded France from the East, while the Peninsular War spilled over southwestern French territory. Coalition troops captured Paris at the end of March 1814 and forced Napoleon to abdicate in early April, he was exiled to the island of Elba, the Bourbons were restored to power. However, Napoleon escaped in February 1815, reassumed control of France; the Allies responded with the Seventh Coalition, defeating Napoleon permanently at Waterloo in June 1815 and exiling him to St Helena where he died six years later. The Congress of Vienna redrew the borders of Europe, brought a lasting peace to the continent; the wars had profound consequences on global history, including the spread of nationalism and liberalism, the rise of the British Empire as the world's foremost power, the appearance of independence movements in Latin America and subsequent collapse of the Spanish Empire, the fundamental reorganisation of German and Italian territories into larger states, the establishment of radically new methods of conducting warfare.
Napoleon seized power in 1799. There are a number of opinions on the date to use as the formal beginning of the Napoleonic Wars; the Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, the first of the Coalition Wars against the First French Republic after Napoleon's accession as leader of France. Britain ended the Treaty of Amiens and declared war on France in May 1803. Among the reasons were Napoleon's changes to the international system in Western Europe in Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleon's assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs though King George III was an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. For its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers; the British enforced a naval blockade of France to starve it of resources.
Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, sought to eliminate Britain's Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him. The so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France; the British responded by capturing the Danish fleet, breaking up the league, secured dominance over the seas, allowing it to continue its strategy. Napoleon won the War of the Third Coalition at Austerlitz, forcing the Austrian Empire out of the war and formally dissolving the Holy Roman Empire. Within months, Prussia declared war; this war ended disastrously for Prussia and occupied within 19 days of the beginning of the campaign. Napoleon subsequently defeated the Russian Empire at Friedland, creating powerful client states in Eastern Europe and ending the fourth coalition. Concurrently, the refusal of Portugal to commit to the Con
Order of chivalry
A chivalric order, order of chivalry, order of knighthood or equestrian order is an order, confraternity or society of knights founded during or inspired by the original Catholic military orders of the Crusades, paired with medieval concepts of ideals of chivalry. During the 15th century, orders of chivalry, or dynastic orders of knighthood, began to be created in a more courtly fashion that could be created ad hoc; these orders would retain the notion of being a society or association of individuals, some of them were purely honorific, consisting of nothing but the badge. In fact, the badges themselves came to be known informally as orders; these institutions in turn gave rise to the modern-day orders of merit of states. In Dell'origine dei Cavalieri, the Italian scholar Francesco Sansovino distinguished knights and their respective societies in three main categories: "Knights of the Cross", comparable to the modern term military orders "Knights of Spur", i.e. invested by the Pope or other sovereign, thus somewhat comparable to dynastic orders of knighthood, or by feudal lords and knights elderly "Knights of Necklace", i.e. purely ornamentalOver time, the above division became no longer sufficient, heraldic science distinguished orders into: hereditary, military and fees.
The Secretariat of the State of the Holy See - medieval pioneer - distinguishes orders in the following manner: State orders: "orders of merit" of a nation state, rewarding military or civil merit of its citizens based on the sovereignty of their states Pontifical equestrian orders, conferred by the Pope Sovereign orders: the only extant one in this category is the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, an international sovereign entity Dynastic orders of a sovereign royal dynasty, either an active "dynastic state actor", otherwise a "non-national dynastic order", as the head of a reigning royal house operating under iure collationis approved by Papal bulls in the case of older origins In a more generous distribution proposed in The Knights in the Crown: The Monarchical Orders of Knighthood in Late Medieval Europe, the Canadian heraldist D'Arcy Boulton classifies chivalric orders as follows: Monarchical orders Confraternal orders Fraternal orders Votive orders Cliental pseudo-orders Honorific ordersBased on Boulton, this article distinguishes: Chivalric orders by time of foundation: Medieval chivalric orders: foundation of the order during the Middle Ages or the Renaissance Modern chivalric orders: foundation after 1789 Chivalric orders by religion: Catholic chivalric orders: membership for members of the Catholic Church Orthodox chivalric orders: blessed by the heads of Orthodox churches Protestant chivalric orders: blessed by the heads of Protestant churches Chivalric orders by purpose: Monarchical chivalric orders: foundation by a monarch, a fount of honour.
Order of Saint George, founded by Charles I of Hungary in 1325 Order of the Band, founded by Alfonso XI of Castile in ca. 1330 Order of the Garter, founded by Edward III of England in 1348 Order of the Star, founded by John II of France in 1351 Order of the Knot, founded by Louis I of Naples in 1352. Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation, founded by Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy in 1362. Order of the Ermine, founded by Duke of Brittany in 1381: First order to accept Women. Order of the Ship, founded by Charles III of Naples on 1 December 1381 Order of the Dragon, founded by Sigismund von Luxembourg in 1408. Order of the Golden Fleece, founded by Philip III, Duke of Burgundy in 1430 Order of the Tower and Sword, founded by Afonso V of Portugal in 1459 Order of Saint Michael, founded by Louis XI of France in 1469Post-medieval foundations of chivalric orders:Order of Saint Stephen Order of the Holy Spirit Blood of Jesus Christ Order of the Thistle Order of Saint Louis Order of the Seraphim Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary Order of St. Patrick Order of Saint Joseph Monarchical orders whose monarch no longer reigns but continues to bestow the order:Order of the Golden Fleece Order of the Holy Spirit Order of Prince Danilo I of Montenegro Order of Saint Peter of Cetinje Order of Skanderbeg Royal Order of Saint George for the Defense of the Immaculate Conception Order of the Crown Order of Carol I Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa Order of Saint Michael of the Wing Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George Order of the Eagle of Georgia Order of Queen Tamara Order of the Crown of Georgia Royal Order of the Crown of Hawai'i Confraternal orders are orders of chivalry with the presidency attached to a nobleman: Princely orders were founded by noblemen of higher rank.
Most of t
A battle honour is an award of a right by a government or sovereign to a military unit to emblazon the name of a battle or operation on its flags, uniforms or other accessories where ornamentation is possible. In European military tradition, military units may be acknowledged for their achievements in specific wars or operations of a military campaign. In Great Britain and those countries of the Commonwealth which share a common military legacy with the British, battle honours are awarded to selected military units as official acknowledgement for their achievements in specific wars or operations of a military campaign; these honours take the form of a place and a date. Theatre honours, a type of recognition in the British tradition allied to battle honours, were introduced to honour units which provided sterling service in a campaign but were not part of specific battles for which separate battle honours were awarded. Theatre honours could be listed and displayed on regimental property but not emblazoned on the colours.
Since battle honours are emblazoned on colours, artillery units, which do not have colours in the British military tradition, were awarded honour titles instead. These honour titles were permitted to be used as part of their official nomenclature, for example 13 Field Regiment. Similar honours in the same tenor include unit citations. Battle honours, theatre honours, honour titles and their ilk form a part of the wider variety of distinctions which serve to distinguish military units from each other. For the British Army, the need to adopt a system to recognise military units' battlefield accomplishments was apparent since its formation as a standing army in the part of the 17th century. Although the granting of battle honours had been in place at the time, it was not until 1784 that infantry units were authorised to bear battle honours on their colours. Before a regiment's colours were practical tools for rallying troops in the battlefield and not quite something for displaying the unit's past distinctions.
The first battle honour to be awarded in the British Army was granted to the 15th Hussars for the Battle of Emsdorf in 1760. Thereafter, other regiments received battle honours for some of their previous engagements; the earliest battle honour in the British Army is Tangier 1662–80, granted to the Tangier Horse, the oldest line cavalry regiment of the British army, who in 1969 amalgamated with the Royal Horse Guards to become The Blues and Royals. Awarded the honour was the 2nd Regiment of Foot, or the Tangier Regiment now The Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment, the senior English regiment in the Union, for their protracted 23-year defence of the Colony of Tangier; the battle honour is still held by the Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment. During these early years of the British standing army, a regiment needed only to engage the enemy with musketry before it was eligible for a battle honour. However, older battle honours are carried on the standards of the Yeomen of the Guard and the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms, neither of which are part of the army, but are instead the Sovereign's Bodyguard, in the personal service of the sovereign.
The need to develop a centralised system to oversee the selection and granting of battle honours arose in the 19th century following the increase of British military engagements during the expansion of the Empire. Thus in 1882, a committee was formed to adjudicate applications of battle honour claims; this committee called the Battles Nomenclature Committee, still maintains its function in the British Army today. A battle honour may be granted to infantry/cavalry regiments or battalions, as well as ships and squadrons. Battle honours are presented in the form of a name of a country, region, or city where the unit's distinguished act took place together with the year when it occurred. Not every battle fought will automatically result in the granting of a battle honour. Conversely, a regiment or a battalion might obtain more than one battle honour over the course of a larger operation. For example, the 2nd Battalion of the Scots Guards were awarded two battle honours for their role in the Falklands War.
While in Korea, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry earned both "Kapyong" and "Korea 1951–1953". A unit does not have to defeat their adversary to earn a battle honour: the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps received the battle honour "Hong Kong" despite the defeat and capture of most of the force during the Japanese invasion of Hong Kong, while the cruiser HMAS Sydney was awarded the naval engagement honour "Kormoran 1941" after being sunk with all aboard by the German raider Kormoran. Supporting corps/branches such as medical, ordnance, or transport do not receive battle honours; however and uniquely the Royal Logistic Corps has five battle honours inherited from its previous transport elements, such as the Royal Waggon Train. Commonwealth artillery does not maintain battle honours as they carry neither colours nor guidons—though their guns by tradition are afforded many of the same respects and courtesies. However, both the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers were in 1832 granted by King William IV the right to use the Latin "Ubique", meaning everywhere, as a battle honour.
This is worn on the cap badge of both the Corps of Royal Enginee