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Karel Šmirous

Karel Šmirous was Czech scientist and the only Czech photographer who specialized in color photography using the autochrome process. Karel Šmirous took his first black-and-white photographs at the age of 12. After leaving high school, he wanted to become a painter. During his studies at Czech Technical University in Prague from 1908–1912, he became aware of autochrome, began his lifelong interest in color photography, his photograph of Český Krumlov, taken in 1908, published by Minerva in 1910, was the first known Czech color postcard using autochrome. Back in Český Krumlov, Šmirous worked with local photographer Josef Seidel. With him, he photographed Český Krumlov and the mountain area of Šumava, where he photographed nature in color the Boubín primeval forest, his sense of art composition was influenced by his mother, who had herself studied painting with Amálie Mánesová, sister of famous painter Josef Mánes. Šmirous gained further experience in Germany and France, his chemistry studies, specializing in color dyes, allowed him to experiment with color printing techniques.

In 1913 he met the Lumière brothers, because of all their common interests, they became firm friends, he remained in contact with them till end of their lives. After gaining his Doctorate in Chemistry, Šmirous worked as assistant to Prof. Votočka. During the period 1913 – 1918, he made first experiments with color printing, after the war, he was sent by the Czech Academy of Sciences to visit the laboratory of the Lumière brothers in France, he worked there several times in his career, in 1931, he solved the problem of enlarging color photographs under artificial light. Šmirous' long research into color printing culminated in his discovery and patent of the Hydrotype process in 1921. For this invention, the photographs printed by it, he was given a gold medal at the World Expo in Paris in 1937. Despite interest in the invention from Kodak, his technique was not adopted because of WWII, due to the introduction of modern color photographic paper. Karel Šmirous is the author of three Czechoslovak patents in the area of color photography.

In parallel with his scientific career, Karel Šmirous was a successful photographer. His photographs are not only technically excellent, but are notable for their composition and use of color. From his early experiments with color, he developed a style with careful choice of colors using only variants of a single dominating color, his work is rich thematically – he photographed in still life, nudes, reportages and scientific photography. Šmirous published color postcards of excellent technical quality, presented lectures and exhibitions with color photographs and 18×24 cm autochrome slides. He published a number of books, prepared a representative booklet, “Czechoslovakia”, for the 1958 World Expo in Brussels. Catalogue of exhibition at National Technical Museum in Prague „Karel Šmirous Autochromy z let 1908 -1955“ – 1993 Biography at webpage of historian of photography Pavel Scheufler Selection of autochromes by Karel Šmirous from exhibition at Šechtl and Voseček Museum of Photography

Proud (Britannia High song)

"Proud" is a song by Wayne Hector, Steve Mac and Andy Hill written and recorded for the British television drama series Britannia High. The song was covered by Scottish singer Susan Boyle for her debut album I Dreamed a Dream. In the ITV drama series the song is performed in episode 1.03 by the character Jez Tyler played by Matthew James Thomas. The song features on the 2008 Britannia High soundtrack album; the song was written for the Britannia High television programme. The original inspiration was a teenager talking to a father. In an interview with HitQuarters Hector recounts how the writers composed the lyrics: "We drew on the things that we felt about our own relationships with our dads when we were younger. I've got a good relationship with my dad now but, as is usual, when you're a teenager and the whole world is against you … I mean, not everybody has a tense relationship, but both of us did." "Proud" was covered by Scottish singer Susan Boyle for her debut 2009 album. Despite being written about teenage-parent conflict, the song arguably found greater resonance when Boyle reinterpreted the song to suit her own real life feelings

Older Dryas

The Older Dryas was a stadial period between the Bølling and Allerød interstadials, about 14,000 years Before Present), towards the end of the Pleistocene. Its date is not well defined, with estimates varying by 400 years, but its duration is agreed to have been around 200 years; the gradual warming since the Last Glacial Maximum has been interrupted by two cold spells: the Older Dryas and the Younger Dryas. In northern Scotland, the glaciers were thicker and deeper during the Older Dryas than the succeeding Younger Dryas, there is no evidence of human occupation of Britain. In Northwestern Europe was an earlier Oldest Dryas; the Dryas are named after an indicator genus, the Arctic and Alpine plant Dryas, the remains of which are found in higher concentrations in deposits from colder periods. The Older Dryas was a variable cold, dry Blytt-Sernander period, observed in climatological evidence in only some regions, depending on latitude. In regions in which it is not observed, the Bølling-Allerød is considered a single interstadial period.

Evidence of the Older Dryas is strongest in northern Eurasia part of Northern Europe equivalent to Pollen zone Ic. In the Greenland oxygen isotope record, the Older Dryas appears as a downward peak establishing a small, low-intensity gap between the Bølling and the Allerød; that configuration presents a difficulty in estimating its time, as it is more of a point than a segment. The segment is small enough to escape the resolution of most carbon-14 series, as the points are not close enough together to find the segment. One approach to the problem assigns a point and picks an arbitrary segment; the Older Dryas is sometimes considered to be "centered" near 14,100 BP or to be 100 to 150 years long "at" 14,250 BP. A second approach finds carbon-14 or other dates as close to the end of the Bølling and the beginning of the Allerød as possible and selects endpoints that based on them: for example, 14,000-13,700 BP; the best approach attempts to include the Older Dryas in a sequence of points as close together as possible or within a known event.

For example, pollen from the island of Hokkaidō, records a Larix pollen peak and matching sphagnum decline at 14,600-13700 BP. In the White Sea, a cooling occurred at 14,700-13,400/13,000, which resulted in a re-advance of the glacier in the initial Allerød. In Canada, the Shulie Lake phase, a re-advance, is dated to 14,000-13,500 BP. On the other hand, varve chronology in southern Sweden indicates a range of 14,050-13,900 BP. Capturing the Older Dryas by high resolution continues to be of interest to climatologists. Northern Europe offered an alternation of steppe and tundra environments depending on the permafrost line and the latitude. In moister regions, around lakes and streams, were thickets of dwarf birch, sea buckthorn, juniper. In the river valleys and uplands, to the south, were open birch forests; the first trees and pine, had spread into Northern Europe 500 years earlier. During the Older Dryas, the glacier re-advanced, the trees retreated southward, to be replaced by a mixture of grassland and cool-weather alpine species.

The biome has been called "Park Tundra," "Arctic tundra," "Arctic pioneer vegetation," or “birch woodlands." It is now in the transition between tundra in Siberia. It stretched from Siberia to Great Britain, in a more-or-less unbroken expanse. To the northwest was the Baltic ice lake, truncated by the edge of the glacier. Species had access to southern Sweden. Most of Finland and the Baltic countries were under the lake for most of the period. Northern Scandinavia was glaciated. Between Britain and the Continental Europe were rolling hills prolifically populated with animals. Thousands of specimens, hundreds of tons of bones, have been recovered from the bottom of the North Sea, called "Doggerland," and they continue to be recovered. There are many. Most families were more diverse than they are today, they were yet more so in the last interglacial. A great extinction of mammals, continued throughout the end of the Pleistocene, it may be continuing today; the Older Dryas is a period of cooling during the Bølling-Allerød warming, estimated to be from 13,900 to 13,600 years before present, the estimated ages can vary using different age dating methods.

Numerous studies on chronology and palaeoclimate of last deglaciation show a cooling event within Bølling-Allerød warming that reflects the occurrence of Older Dryas. The determination of paleotemperatures varies from study to study depending on the sample collected. Δ18O measurements are most common when analyzing Ice core samples whereas the changing abundance pattern of fauna and flora are most used when examining lake sediments. Moraine belts are studied in places with palaeoglacier presented; as for ocean sediments, the variations of alkenone levels and faunal abundances were measured to model paleotemperatures in separate studies showed in the following sections. The North Greenland Ice Core Project members drilled an undisturbed ice core from North Greenland; the ice core record showed a cold oscillation between 14,025 to13,904 years BP, reflected in the increased δ18O during this period. This cold oscillation was observed in earlier ice core records drilled in early 1990s by GRIP members.

A multi-proxy study on late glacial lake sediments of Moervaart palaeolake shows multiple pieces of evidence in various aspects to support Older Dryas. The lake sediment had an erosional surface prior to Older Dryas suggesting a change to colder climate. Microstruct

Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor

Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor or Eastern DFC is a freight specific railway under construction in northern to eastern India by Indian Railways. The railway will run between Ludhiana in Dankuni in West Bengal; the railway is one of the multiple freight corridors. For the railway line, broad gauge will be used; the Eastern DFC will have double tracks and will be electrified but the section from Ludhiana in Punjab to Khurja in Uttar Pradesh 400 Km will be single line electrified due to lack of space. This freight corridor will cover a total distance of 1839 km; this corridor will pass through Dadri, the origin point of the Western Dedicated Freight Corridor and which will serve as a junction. The freight corridor will cover first 447 km of Ludhiana - Dhari - Khurja section with single electrified track. After this the remaining line will be double track electrified up to Dankuni in West Bengal; this will pass through the important districts of Sahnewal, Ludhiana, Rajpura, Yamunanagar, Muzaffarnagar, Hapur, Aligarh, Barhan, Firozabad, Kanpur and Mughalsarai.

To reduce load over the main line, this line will have many junctions. The proposed junctions on this line are Dhandharikalan, Rajpura, Khurja, Tundla, Prempur, Jeonathpur, Ganjkhwaja, Son Nagar, Andal and Dankuni; this corridor is divided into multiple section for contracting purposes. Western Dedicated Freight Corridor Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India High-speed rail in India Eastern DFC Map of Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India Official link for project status

CCA tRNA nucleotidyltransferase

CCA tRNA nucleotidyltransferase is an enzyme with systematic name CTP,CTP,ATP:tRNA cytidylyl,cytidylyl,adenylyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction a tRNA precursor + 2 CTP + ATP ⇌ a tRNA with a 3' CCA end + 3 diphosphate a tRNA precursor + CTP ⇌ a tRNA with a 3' cytidine end + diphosphate a tRNA with a 3' cytidine + CTP ⇌ a tRNA with a 3' CC end + diphosphate a tRNA with a 3' CC end + ATP ⇌ a tRNA with a 3' CCA end + diphosphateThe acylation of all tRNAs with an amino acid occurs at the terminal ribose of a 3' CCA sequence. TRNT1 CCA+tRNA+nucleotidyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings