Warrnambool railway line
The Warrnambool railway line is a railway serving the south west of Victoria, Australia. Running from the western Melbourne suburb of Newport through the cities of Geelong and Warrnambool, the line once terminated at the coastal town of Port Fairy before being truncated to Dennington; this closed section of line has been converted into the 37 km long Port Fairy to Warrnambool Rail Trail. The line continues to see both freight services today. Metro Trains Melbourne operates suburban passenger services along the inner section of the line as far as Werribee, while V/Line operates the Geelong and the Warrnambool services. For 11 years, from 19 September 1993 until 31 August 2004, the Melbourne to Warrnambool passenger service was run by the private West Coast Railway company. Freight services run on the line, operated by Pacific National and, for a brief period, El Zorro to the WestVic container terminal, between Warrnambool and Dennington; the Warrnambool line was built by the private Geelong and Melbourne Railway Company and opened on 25 June 1857, the line being sold to the Victorian Railways in 1860.
The line was designed by English engineer Edward Snell, built as a single track. The standard of engineering was called into question as the light timber bridges required extra maintenance and had a short life span, while the decision to build only a single track resulted in slow and infrequent trains. Travelers between Melbourne and Geelong continued to prefer the bay steamers across Port Phillip Bay, leading to diminished profits for the company. At a railway commission enquiry, Snell defended his approach as necessary to complete the work in time, with the expectation that the engineering works would be upgraded as traffic and revenue increased; the railway had the misfortune of a fatal accident on its first run. The company's superintendent - and a friend of Snell’s - was struck when leaning out of the train's engine as it approached a bridge. An inquiry cleared the company of any negligence; the line was progressively duplicated from the 1950s to the 1980s. The line was extended south-west, to Winchelsea in 1876, Colac in 1877, Camperdown in 1883, Terang in 1877 and Warrnambool and Port Fairy in 1890.
This line is now closed beyond Warrnambool, with the last train leaving Port Fairy on 10 September 1977, hauled by B75, with the line closing on 12 September 1977. A branch line was built from Koroit to Hamilton, via Penshurst, in 1890. At the same time a short-lived connection was opened between Dunkeld, it closed eight years later. Branch lines were constructed from South Geelong to Queenscliff in 1879, from Moriac to Wensleydale and Terang to Mortlake in 1890, from Birregurra to Forrest in 1891, from Camperdown to Timboon in 1892, from Irrewarra to Cressy in 1910, from Colac to Alvie in 1923. A 2 ft 6 in narrow gauge branch was opened from Colac to Beech Forest in 1902, principally to carry timber, was extended to Weeaproniah and Crowes in 1911; the branch lines began to be closed from the late 1940s, the Wensleydale line being the first in 1948, followed by the Forrest line in 1957, the Irrewarra line in 1953, the Alvie line in 1954, the Beech Forest line in 1962, the Timboon line in 1988.
In July 2012, the Minister for Public Transport announced that a new crossing loop would be constructed on the line at Warncoort, between Birregurra and Colac. Tenders were called for in August; the loop opened in April 2014. In 2017, the Victorian State Government announced upgrades to be completed by 2019 that allow VLocity railcars to travel to Warrnambool; these upgrades include new signalling, level crossing upgrades and a second track between Boorcan and Weerite, either side of Camperdown. Rail Geelong: Line History
The Shipwreck Coast of Victoria, Australia stretches from to Cape Otway to Port Fairy, a distance of 130 km. This coastline is accessible via the Great Ocean Road, is home to the limestone formations called The Twelve Apostles. Explorer Matthew Flinders said of the Shipwreck Coast, "I have seen a more fearful section of coastline." There are 638 known shipwrecks along Victoria’s coast, although only around 240 of them have been discovered. The Historic Shipwreck Trail along the Shipwreck Coast and the Discovery Coast shows some of the sites where gales, human error and, in some cases, foul play caused these vessels to be wrecked. Ships wrecked on the Shipwreck Coast include: Thistle Children Unknown French whaler Lydia Socrates Cataraqui Enterprise Essington Freedom SS Schomberg John Scott Golden Spring Marie Gabrielle Young Australian Loch Ard Napier Alexandra Yarra Edinburgh Castle Fiji Joseph H. Scammell Newfield Freetrader La Bella Falls of Halladale The Speculant Antares Casino City of Rayville Over 50 shipwrecks are commemorated in a Historic Shipwreck Trail beginning at Port Fairy.
Shipwreck Coast - Maritime History Historic Shipwreck Trail guide Maritimequest Shipwreck Database Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village
Port Campbell is a coastal town in Victoria, Australia. The town is on the Great Ocean Road, west of the Twelve Apostles, in the Shire of Corangamite. At the 2016 census, Port Campbell had a population of 478; the town was settled in the 1870s, with the first wharf being built in 1880. Port Campbell Post Office opened on 19 March 1874, it was renamed Port Campbell West in 1881. At the 2001 census, Port Campbell had a population of 372. At the 2006 census, Port Campbell had a population of 599. At the 2011 census, Port Campbell had a population of 618. Port Campbell is now a popular tourist destination for visiting The Twelve Apostles, located 12 kilometres to the east of the town and the Port Campbell National Park, as well as maintaining a small crayfishing community. Media related to Port Campbell, Victoria at Wikimedia Commons Port Campbell - Official tourism website. Official Website for 12 Apostles Region of Victoria
Drought in Australia
Drought in Australia is defined by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology as rainfall over a three-month period being in the lowest decile of what has been recorded for that region in the past. This definition takes into account that drought is a relative term and rainfall deficiencies need to be compared to typical rainfall patterns including seasonal variations. Drought in Australia is defined in relation to a rainfall deficiency of pastoral leases and is determined by decile analysis applied to a certain area. Note that this definition uses rainfall only because long-term records are available across most of Australia. However, it does not take into account other variables that might be important for establishing surface water balance, such as evaporation and condensation. Historical climatic records are now sufficiently reliable to profile climate variability taking into account expectations for regions. Bureau of Meteorology records since the 1860s show that a ‘severe’ drought has occurred in Australia, on average, once every 18 years.
State Governments are responsible for declaring a region drought affected and the declaration will take into account factors other than rainfall. The worst drought to affect the country occurred in the 21st century—between the years 2003 to 2012. Nonetheless, many regions of Australia are still in significant drought, rainfall records have showed a marked decrease in precipitation levels since 1994, with many scientists attributing this to climate change and global warming. Deficiencies in northern Australia increased in 2013–14, leading to an extended drought period in certain parts of Queensland. 1803 Drought in New South Wales that produced severe crop failures. 1809 Beginning of an unusually severe drought in NSW that continued until 1811. 1813 − 15 Severe drought in NSW. 1826−29 Severe drought in NSW that caused Lake George to dry up and the Darling River to cease flowing. Since 1860, when adequate meteorological recording commenced, the most severe droughts have occurred at intervals of 11 to 14 years.
Major droughts that were recorded in the 19th century include: 1829 Major drought in Western Australia with little water available.1835 and 1838 Sydney and NSW receive 25% less rain than usual. Severe drought in Northam and York areas of Western Australia. 1838−39 Droughts in South Australia and Western Australia 1839 Severe drought in the west and north of Spencer Gulf, South Australia. 1846 Severe drought converted the interior and far north of South Australia into an arid desert. 1849 Sydney received about 27 inches less rain than normal. 1850 Severe drought, with big losses of livestock across inland New South Wales and around the western rivers region. 1864−66. The little data available indicates that this drought period was rather severe in Victoria, South Australia, New South Wales and Western Australia. 1877 All states affected with disastrous losses in Queensland. In Western Australia many native trees died, swamps dried up and crops failed. 1880 to 1886 Drought in Victoria. 1888 Extremely dry in Victoria.
1897 Drought in much of Queensland, compared to 1883–84 droughts. At the time of Federation, Australia suffered a major drought. There had been a number of years of below average rainfall across most of Australia before the drought. During the drought, the wheat crop was "all but lost", the Darling River was dry at Bourke, New South Wales, for over a year, from April 1902 to May 1903. There was concern about Sydney's water supply. By 1902, Australia's sheep population dropped from its 1891 level of 106 million to fewer than 54 million. Cattle numbers fell by more than 40 per cent. Sheep numbers did not return to 100 million until 1925. In the 1911–1915 period, Australia suffered a major drought, which resulted in the failure of the 1914 wheat crop. During 1918 to 1920, a severe drought was experienced by Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia, Northern Territory, Western Australia and Tasmania. During World War II, eastern Australia suffered dry conditions which lasted from 1937 through to 1947 with little respite.
The end of the drought coincided with the 1946-47 Ashes series. From 1965–68, eastern Australia was again affected by drought. Conditions had been dry over the centre of the continent since 1957 but spread elsewhere during the summer of 1964/1965; this drought contributed to the 1967 Tasmanian fires in which 62 people died in one day and 1,400 homes were lost. The drought in 1982–83 is regarded as the worst of the twentieth century for short-term rainfall deficiencies of up to one year and their over-all impact. There were severe dust storms in north-western Victoria and severe bushfires in south-east Australia in February 1983 with 75 people killed; this El Niño-related drought ended in March, when a monsoon depression became an extratropical low and swept across Australia's interior and on to th
Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae. The genus first appeared in the Miocene geological period about 20 million years ago, originating in what is now central Asia; these trees flourished and spread over most of the Northern Hemisphere, inhabiting the temperate and tropical-montane regions of North America and Eurasia, presently ranging southward across the Equator into Indonesia. Elms are components of many kinds of natural forests. Moreover, during the 19th and early 20th centuries many species and cultivars were planted as ornamental street and park trees in Europe, North America, parts of the Southern Hemisphere, notably Australasia; some individual elms reached great age. However, in recent decades, most mature elms of European or North American origin have died from Dutch elm disease, caused by a microfungus dispersed by bark beetles. In response, disease-resistant cultivars have been developed, capable of restoring the elm to forestry and landscaping.
There are about 30 to 40 species of Ulmus. Oliver Rackham describes Ulmus as the most critical genus in the entire British flora, adding that'species and varieties are a distinction in the human mind rather than a measured degree of genetic variation'. Eight species are endemic to North America, a smaller number to Europe; the classification adopted in the List of elm species, varieties and hybrids is based on that established by Brummitt. A large number of synonyms have accumulated over the last three centuries. Botanists who study elms and argue over elm identification and classification are called pteleologists, from the Greek πτελέα; as part of the sub-order urticalean rosids they are distant cousins of cannabis and nettles. The name Ulmus is the Latin name for these trees, while the English "elm" and many other European names are either cognate with or derived from it; the genus is hermaphroditic, having apetalous perfect flowers. Elm leaves are alternate, with simple, single- or, most doubly serrate margins asymmetric at the base and acuminate at the apex.
The fruit is a round wind-dispersed samara flushed with chlorophyll, facilitating photosynthesis before the leaves emerge. The samarae are light, those of British elms numbering around 50,000 to the pound. All species are tolerant of a wide range of soils and pH levels but, with few exceptions, demand good drainage; the elm tree can grow to great height with a forked trunk creating a vase profile. Dutch elm disease devastated elms throughout Europe and much of North America in the second half of the 20th century, it derives its name'Dutch' from the first description of the disease and its cause in the 1920s by the Dutch botanists Bea Schwarz and Christina Johanna Buisman. Owing to its geographical isolation and effective quarantine enforcement, Australia has so far remained unaffected by Dutch Elm Disease, as have the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia in western Canada. DED is caused by a micro-fungus transmitted by two species of Scolytus elm-bark beetle which act as vectors; the disease affects all species of elm native to North America and Europe, but many Asiatic species have evolved anti-fungal genes and are resistant.
Fungal spores, introduced into wounds in the tree caused by the beetles, invade the xylem or vascular system. The tree responds by producing tyloses blocking the flow from roots to leaves. Woodland trees in North America are not quite as susceptible to the disease because they lack the root-grafting of the urban elms and are somewhat more isolated from each other. In France, inoculation with the fungus of over three hundred clones of the European species failed to find a single variety possessed of any significant resistance; the first, less aggressive strain of the disease fungus, Ophiostoma ulmi, arrived in Europe from the Far East in 1910, was accidentally introduced to North America in 1928, but was weakened by viruses and had all but disappeared in Europe by the 1940s. The second, far more virulent strain of the disease Ophiostoma novo-ulmi was identified in Europe in the late 1960s, within a decade had killed over 20 million trees in the UK alone. Three times more deadly, the new strain arrived in Europe from the US on a cargo of Rock Elm.
There is no sign of the current pandemic waning, no evidence of a susceptibility of the fungus to a disease of its own caused by d-factors: occurring virus-like agents that debilitated the original O. ulmi and reduced its sporulation. Elm phloem necrosis is a disease of elm trees, spread by leafhoppers or by root grafts; this aggressive disease, with no known cure, occurs in the Eastern United States, southern Ontario in Canada, Europe. It is caused by phytoplasmas. Infection and death of the phloem girdles the tree and stops the flow of water and nutrients; the disease affects cultivated trees. Cutting the infected tree before the disease establishes itself and cleanup and prompt disposal of infected matter has resul
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement popular in the Western world that began in the late 1740s in England. Its popularity grew in the early 19th century, when serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval Gothic architecture, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, lancet windows, hood moulds and label stops; the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 18th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with philosophical movements associated with Catholicism and a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism; the "Anglo-Catholicism" tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. Gothic Revival architecture varied in its faithfulness to both the ornamental style and principles of construction of its medieval original, sometimes amounting to little more than pointed window frames and a few touches of Gothic decoration on a building otherwise on a wholly 19th-century plan and using contemporary materials and construction methods.
In parallel to the ascendancy of neo-Gothic styles in 19th-century England, interest spread to the continent of Europe, in Australia, Sierra Leone, South Africa and to the Americas. The influence of the Revival had peaked by the 1870s. New architectural movements, sometimes related as in the Arts and Crafts movement, sometimes in outright opposition, such as Modernism, gained ground, by the 1930s the architecture of the Victorian era was condemned or ignored; the 20th century saw a revival of interest, manifested in the United Kingdom by the establishment of the Victorian Society in 1958. The rise of Evangelicalism in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries saw in England a reaction in the High church movement which sought to emphasise the continuity between the established church and the pre-Reformation Catholic church. Architecture, in the form of the Gothic Revival, became one of the main weapons in the High church's armoury; the Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by "medievalism", which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals and curiosities.
As "industrialisation" progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the picturesque such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society and portrayed pre-industrial medieval society as a golden age. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values, supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation. Gothic Revival took on political connotations. In English literature, the architectural Gothic Revival and classical Romanticism gave rise to the Gothic novel genre, beginning with The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, inspired a 19th-century genre of medieval poetry that stems from the pseudo-bardic poetry of "Ossian". Poems such as "Idylls of the King" by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance. In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions. Gothic architecture began at the Basilica of Saint Denis near Paris, the Cathedral of Sens in 1140 and ended with a last flourish in the early 16th century with buildings like Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster.
However, Gothic architecture did not die out in the 16th century but instead lingered in on-going cathedral-building projects. In Bologna, in 1646, the Baroque architect Carlo Rainaldi constructed Gothic vaults for the Basilica of San Petronio in Bologna, under construction since 1390. Guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active in Turin, recognized the "Gothic order" as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Gothic architecture survived in an urban setting during the 17th century, as shown in Oxford and Cambridge, where some additions and repairs to Gothic buildings were considered to be more in keeping with the style of the original structures than contemporary Baroque. Sir Christopher Wren's Tom Tower for Christ Church, University of Oxford, Nicholas Hawksmoor's west towers of Westminster Abbey, blur the boundaries between what is called "Gothic survival" and the Gothic Revival. Throughout France in the 16th and 17th centuries, churches such as St-Eustache continued to be built following gothic forms cloaked in classical details, until the arrival of Baroque architecture.
In the mid-18th century, with the rise of Romanticism, an increased in