Campania is a region in Southern Italy. As of 2018, the region has a population of around 5,820,000 people, making it the third-most-populous region of Italy. Located on the Italian Peninsula, with the Mediterranean Sea to the west, it includes the small Phlegraean Islands and Capri for administration as part of the region. Campania was part of Magna Græcia. During the Roman era, the area maintained a Greco-Roman culture; the capital city of Campania is Naples. Campania is rich in culture in regard to gastronomy, architecture and ancient sites such as Pompeii, Oplontis, Aeclanum and Velia; the name of Campania itself is derived from Latin, as the Romans knew the region as Campania felix, which translates into English as "fertile countryside" or "happy countryside". The rich natural sights of Campania make it important in the tourism industry along the Amalfi Coast, Mount Vesuvius and the island of Capri; the original inhabitants of Campania were three defined groups of the Ancient peoples of Italy, who all spoke the Oscan language, part of the Italic family.
During the 8th century BC, people from Euboea in Greece, known as Cumaeans, began to establish colonies in the area around the modern day province of Naples. Another Oscan tribe, the Samnites, moved down from central Italy into Campania. Since the Samnites were more warlike than the Campanians, they took over the cities of Capua and Cumae, in an area, one of the most prosperous and fertile in the Italian Peninsula at the time. During the 340s BC, the Samnites were engaged in a war with the Roman Republic in a dispute known as the Samnite Wars, with the Romans securing rich pastures of northern Campania during the First Samnite War; the major remaining independent Greek settlement was Neapolis, when the town was captured by the Samnites, the Neapolitans were left with no other option than to call on the Romans, with whom they established an alliance, setting off the Second Samnite War. The Roman consul Quintus Publilius Filo recaptured Neapolis by 326 BC and allowed it to remain a Greek city with some autonomy as a civitas foederata while aligned with Rome.
The Second Samnite War ended with the Romans controlling southern Campania and additional regions further to the south. Campania was a full-fledged part of the Roman Republic by the end of the 4th century BC, valued for its pastures and rich countryside, its Greek language and customs made it a centre of Hellenistic civilization, creating the first traces of Greco-Roman culture. During the Pyrrhic War the battle took place in Campania at Maleventum in which the Romans, led by consul Curius Dentatus, were victorious, they renamed the city Beneventum, which grew in stature until it was second only to Capua in southern Italy. During the Second Punic War in 216 BC, Capua, in a bid for equality with Rome, allied with Carthage; the rebellious Capuans were isolated from the rest of Campania. Naples resisted Hannibal due to the imposing walls. Capua was starved into submission in the Roman retaking of 211 BC, the Romans were victorious; the rest of Campania, with the exception of Naples, adopted the Latin language as official and was Romanised.
As part of the Roman Empire, with Latium, formed the most important region of the Augustan divisions of Italia. In ancient times Misenum, at the extreme northern end of the bay of Naples, was the largest base of the Roman navy, since its port was the base of the Classis Misenensis, the most important Roman fleet, it was first established as a naval base in 27 BC by Marcus Agrippa, the right-hand man of the emperor Augustus. Roman Emperors chose Campania as a holiday destination, among them Claudius and Tiberius, the latter of whom is infamously linked to the island of Capri, it was during this period that Christianity came to Campania. Two of the apostles, St. Peter and St. Paul, are said to have preached in the city of Naples, there were several martyrs during this time; the period of relative calm was violently interrupted by the epic eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 which buried the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. With the Decline of the Roman Empire, its last emperor, Romulus Augustus, was put in a manor house prison near Castel dell'Ovo, Naples, in 476, ushering in the beginning of the Middle Ages and a period of uncertainty in regard to the future of the area.
The area had many duchies and principalities during the Middle Ages, in the hands of the Byzantine Empire and the Lombards. Under the Normans, the smaller independent states were brought together as part of the Kingdom of Sicily, before the mainland broke away to form the Kingdom of Naples, it was during this period that elements of Spanish and Aragonese culture were introduced to Campania. After a period as a Norman kingdom, the Kingdom of Sicily passed to the Hohenstaufens, who were a powerful Germanic royal house of Swabian origins; the University of Naples Federico II was founded by Frederick II in the city, the oldest state university in the world, making Naples the intellectual centre of the kingdom. Conflict between the Hohenstaufen house and the Papacy, led in 1266 to Pope Innocent IV crowning Angevin Dynasty duke Charles I as the king. Charles moved the capital from Palermo to Naples where he resided at the Castel Nuovo. During this period, much Gothic architec
Atrani is a city and comune on the Amalfi Coast in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-western Italy. It is located to the east of Amalfi, several minutes drive down the coast; the municipality of Atrani has a surface area 0.12 km2. Population was 855 in 2017; the town is located between the Civita Aureo Hill. Atrani is along the valley of the river Dragone, named for a legend saying there once was a terrible dragon that would breathe fire and would hide himself there. Though it is part of the Amalfi Coast, it is the only town along the coast to preserve intact its antique, traditional characteristics; the initial houses face the beach directly. They are grouped around the square and move around the church of San Salvatore and the marble fountain before going up towards the valley and climbing along the rocky mountain and crossing the gardens and the lemon fields. Atrani is isolated from automobile traffic because it is protected by its antique houses with flowered balconies.
The central square of Atrani leads directly to the beach and the sea by crossing an antique passageway created to save boats from sea storms. Atrani boasts a Mediterranean climate, with mild and rainy winters and summers that are moderately hot sunny and never foggy. For the 30-year period from 1961 to 1990 the average temperature of the coldest month, was 10.7 degrees Celsius. The origins of Atrani are still unknown. Archeological research discovered ruins remaining from the 1st century AD. Roman villas existed along the Amalfi Coast and were covered in debris from the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD; the debris was deposited on the mountains encircling Atrani and from there it was dumped into the valley. In the 5th century AD, barbarians attacked and numerous Romans escaped from the cities, they created stable settlements. The first documented proof of the existence of Atrani is represented by a letter by the Pope Gregory I to Bishop Pimenio of Amalfi dated 596 AD; the Duchy of Amalfi extended from Positano to Cetara and included Agerola, Lettere and the archipelago of Sirenuse.
Within this territory Atrani was a village that boasted the title of city, the twin city of Amalfi was seat of the aristocracy. The Pantaleoni, the richest and most powerful family of Amalfi, the Alagno, the Mauro Comite, the Comite Iane, the Augustariccio, the Viarecta families resided there, its inhabitants preserved their identity as Atranese, unlike all the other inhabitants of the duchy, who were called Amalfitani. Only Amalfi and Atrani had the right to depose the leaders of the towns. Amalfi was first ruled by counts by prefects and finally by the Dukes; the Duke concentrated in his person both military power. The symbol of his power was a hat, the "birecto", which the dukes were awarded in a coronation in the palatine chapel of S. Salvatore de Birecto of Atrani; the village of Atrani was more extensive than its current borders and protected by massive fortifications. It extended as far as Castiglione, was so named from the castellio, a large castle situated on the promontory where the collegiate church of St. Mary Magdalene stands today.
In the Civita area there was the Castle of Supramonte, destroyed by attacks by the Republic of Pisa between 1135 and 1137. There was the coastal tower of "Tumulo” or “San Francisco", built in 500 by Don Parafan de Ribera to defend against the Turks who, after the defeat of the Christian fleet at Djerba near Tunis in 1560, would overrun the coast. Atrani contributed to the social development of the duchy. Atrani had prosperous fabric factories that produced sajette and precious fabrics; this commerce made Atrani the pride of the coast. They were active east of the duchy, in Paestum, Cava de' Tirreni and Vietri sul Mare. Atrani's economic success saw. In 987 Amalfi was promoted to the rank of archdiocese by Pope John XV; the first archbishop Leone di Sergio di Urso Comite, from Atrani. Atrani was had a flourishing religious life, with about three hundred churches and chapels in the city. Monte Maggiore housed the oldest of the region. In the second half of 1100, Manfredi punished Atrani for siding in favour of the pope in the struggle between the papacy and the empire and sent 1000 Alexandrian sailors against Atrani.
The inhabitants of Atrani fled to Amalfi, the mercenaries settled in the village, would be many years before they abandoned it. The departure of the mercenaries is attributed to the intercession of St. Mary Magdalene. Small traces of the occupation still remain today, in the cadence of the local dialect and a handful of words; the Earthquake of 1343 struck the Tyrrhenian Sea, the resultant tsunami ravaged the ports along the Amalfi Coast, including Atrani's. The effects of the tsunami were observed by the poet Petrarch, whose ship was forced to return to port, recorded in the fifth book of his Epistolae familiares. In the years that followed, Atrani's fortunes were tied to those of Amalfi, whose duchy had fallen and been incorporated into the Principality of Salerno. In 1647, instigator of an uprising in Naples against Spanish control, was hunted by soldiers of the Duke of Arcos, the Viceroy of Naples, he returned to Atrani to hide in what has since been called the'Cave of Masaniello', a cave not far from the hero's mother's house.
Born in Naples in 1620, whose full name w
Cannalonga is a town and comune in the Province of Salerno, southern Italy. The town was founded between the 9th/10th century AD, it became well known in the region around 1450, when the tradition of the festival called Fiera di Santa Lucia started. Today this festival is better known as Fiera della Frecagnola; the most popular historical monument there is the "Palazzo Ducale", located in the heart of the town, facing Piazza del Popolo. The palace belongs to the Dukes of the Mogrovejo-Romano family. According to some people, this name is due to the large number of bamboo-stems present in the area. According to others the name is referred to an old measure unit called "canna". Traditional meals include: Laane e ciciari Fusilli al sugo di castrato Tiano Pizza chiena Bollito di capra March 23: Celebration for Turibius of Mongrovejo July: Sagra del Fusillo July 16: Celebration for Madonna del Carmine. 2nd Saturday of September: Fiera della Frecagnola Cilento Pruno Cilento Comune of Cannalonga Feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel
Gioi is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-western Italy. As of 2011 its population was of 1,339; the comune of Gioi has a history. The first permanent inhabitants may have been monks; the village was fortified in the 15th century, parts of the fortifications still exist. The population peaked at about 18,000 in the mid 16th century before being decimated by a plague in 1556. A second plague occurred in 1645, after which the prosperity of the village went into long-term decline. Located in the middle of Cilento, Gioi borders with the municipalities of Campora, Moio della Civitella, Salento and Vallo della Lucania, it counts a single hamlet, the village of Cardile, 6 km far from it. ChurchesChurch of Sant'Eustachio Church of San Nicola Church of San Francesco Chapel of Madonna della Porta Chapel of Madonna dello Schito Chapel of Madonna della GraziePalacesPalace Conti Palace Ferri Palace Reielli Palace Salati Leo de Berardinis, stage actor and theatre director Armando Salati, Vice Consul to the United States Giuseppe Salati, author of L'Antica Gioi The Genetic Park of Cilento and Vallo di Diano Project was established in 2000, focuses on the populations of Campora and Cardile.
Using village and church records, a pedigree of over 5000 individuals was created that spans 350 years. Cilentan dialect Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park Comune di Gioi official website Genetic Park of Cilento and Vallo di Diano Project Organized Society of Gioiesi in New Jersey
Ascea is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of southwestern Italy. In the communal territory are the Greek ruins of Velia, it is part of the Cilento traditional area. The town is popular with European tourists in the summer months. Cilento Cilentan Coast Parmenides Elea