Surrey Commercial Docks
The Surrey Commercial Docks were a large group of docks in Rotherhithe, South East London, located on the south bank of the River Thames. The docks operated in one form or another from 1696 to 1969. Most were subsequently filled in and redeveloped for residential housing, the area is now known as Surrey Quays, although the name Surrey Docks is retained for the electoral ward; the sparsely populated Rotherhithe peninsula was wet marshland alongside the river. It was unsuitable for farming, but its riverside location just downstream from the City of London made it an ideal site for docks; the area had long been associated with maritime activities: in July 1620 the Pilgrim Fathers' ship the Mayflower sailed from Rotherhithe for Southampton, to begin loading food and supplies for the voyage to New England, a major Royal Navy dockyard was located just down the river at Deptford. In 1696, Howland Great Wet Dock was dug out to form the largest dock of its time, able to accommodate 120 sailing ships.
By the mid-18th century the dock had become a base for Arctic whalers and was renamed Greenland Dock. However, by the 19th century an influx of commercial traffic from Scandinavia and the Baltic and Canada led to Greenland Dock being expanded and other docks being dug to accommodate the increasing number of vessels. 85% of the peninsula, an area of 460 acres, was covered by a system of nine docks, six timber ponds and a canal. Several of the docks were named after the origins of their customers' cargos, hence Canada Dock, Quebec Pond, Norway Dock and Russia Dock; the Grand Surrey Canal was opened in 1807 to link the docks with inland destinations, but proved a commercial failure and only 3½ miles of it were built. The docks evolved a distinctive working culture, quite different from that of the Isle of Dogs across the river. A characteristic sight of the docks were the "deal porters", dockers who specialised in carrying huge baulks of deal across their shoulders and wore special headgear to protect their heads from the rough wood.
The decline of the docks set in after World War II, when they suffered massive damage from German air raids. The South Dock was pumped dry and used for construction of some of the concrete caissons which made up the Mulberry Harbours used on D-Day; when the shipping industry adopted the container system of cargo transportation, the docks were unable to accommodate the much larger vessels needed by containerisation. They closed for lack of custom in 1969; the Grand Surrey Canal was subsequently drained and filled in. The area remained derelict for over a decade, with much of the warehousing demolished and over 90% of the docks filled in; the only surviving areas of open water were Greenland Dock, South Dock, remnants of Canada Dock, a basin renamed Surrey Water. In 1981, the Conservative government of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher established the London Docklands Development Corporation to redevelop the former dockyard areas east of the City of London, including the Surrey Docks. During the 1980s and early 1990s, the Surrey Docks were extensively redeveloped, renamed Surrey Quays.
Over 5,500 new homes were built, ranging from individual detached housing to large apartment complexes. South Dock was converted into a marina - now the largest in London - and a watersports centre was constructed on Greenland Dock. Canada Water and the infilled Russia Dock became wildlife reserves, with a woodland planted on the latter site. Most of Norway Dock was re-excavated to form a water feature surrounded by residential development, another ornamental feature, the Albion Channel, was created along the eastern side of the former Albion Dock, linking Canada and Surrey Waters. Leisure facilities and a number of light industrial plants were built, notably a new printing works for Associated Newspapers, the publisher of the London Evening Standard and the Daily Mail. In July 1988, the Surrey Quays shopping centre was opened as the centrepiece of the redevelopment of the area; the nearby London Underground station was renamed as Surrey Quays a few months later. Fisher Athletic calls Surrey Docks home.
Surrey Docks is a ward of the London Borough of Southwark. The population of this ward at the 2011 Census was 13,435. Canada Water Greenland Dock Russia Dock Woodland South Dock Grand Surrey Canal LDDC Completion Booklet - Surrey Docks
Surrey Quays Shopping Centre
Surrey Quays Shopping & Leisure is located in Rotherhithe, London. It is owned by British Land; the retail destination opened in July 1988 following years of development by the London Docklands Development Corporation in the London Docklands and surrounding areas. Surrey Quays Shopping has over 40 stores including 1,300 parking spaces and a food court. Improvements in the local transport links and rise in local housing developments in recent years have given local consumers easier access to the retail area. British Land plan to redevelop it over the next few years, adding retail space, extensions and a number of new dwellings; the site on which the destination is built was a dock. However, as the majority of Surrey Docks ship yards closed in the early 1970s, due to a general decline, the land was left abandoned and the docks filled in, it was not until the London Docklands Development Corporation began to redevelop the area that the land found a new lease of life. See Surrey Commercial Docks Construction of Surrey Quays Shopping began in late 1985, was completed in time for a July 1988 opening.
At the same time new housing was being constructed in the surrounding area which ensured a steady influx of customers. The area is still referred to as Surrey Docks by many of the local residents and the old name can still be seen on a few road signs in the area. In 1998 a leisure park was opened adjacent to the area, facilities include an Odeon Cinema, Hollywood Bowl, a number of restaurants. Surrey Quays Shopping has not changed much from its original construction. An extension was added to the Tesco store in 2008, a fountain which used to lie in the main concourse of the area featuring a Dolphin sculpture by David Backhouse was removed in the early 2000s to make way for a new seating and sale area. Surrey Quays Shopping is in close proximity to Canada Water Underground station which serves the Jubilee line and London Overground's East London Line. Canada Water has a bus station which allows access to a number of London bus routes, it has its own bus stops and most local bus routes stop here either before or after serving Canada Water.
Surrey Quays Station is close by which serves London Overground's East London Line. The shopping area has a large car park. In 2013, British Land bought out Tesco's 50% stake in Surrey Quays. British Land in a joint venture with Tesco plans to redevelop it over the next few years; the plan is to have a 100,000 sq ft extension built, while the existing infrastructure will undergo a major refurbishment. The surrounding area and its facade will be improved, including new public spaces, easy routes to transport links and larger parking areas; the nearby leisure park will be included in these works as will the shop fronts along the river featuring the Decathlon stores. Commencement of these works is due to start in the near future. Planning permission has been granted by Southwark Council for the initial phase with further plans being reviewed. Surrey Quays Shopping. Leisure London Docklands Development Corporation Archive British Land Homepage
Belgravia is an affluent district in Central London, shared within the authorities of both the City of Westminster and the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. Belgravia is noted for its expensive residential properties. Belgravia was known as Five Fields during the Middle Ages, became a dangerous place due to highwaymen and robberies, it was developed in the early 19th century by Richard Grosvenor, 2nd Marquess of Westminster under the direction of Thomas Cubitt, focusing on numerous grand terraces centred on Belgrave Square and Eaton Square. Much of Belgravia, known as the Grosvenor Estate, is still owned by a family property company, the Duke of Westminster's Grosvenor Group. Owing to the Leasehold Reform Act 1967, the estate has been forced to sell many freeholds to its former tenants. Belgravia takes its name from one of the Duke of Westminster's subsidiary titles, Viscount Belgrave, in turn derived from Belgrave, Cheshire, a village on land belonging to the Duke. Belgravia is near the former course of a tributary of the River Thames.
The area is in the City of Westminster, with a small part of the western section in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. The district lies to the south-west of Buckingham Palace, is bounded notionally by Knightsbridge to the north, Grosvenor Place and Buckingham Palace Road to the east, Pimlico Road to the south, Sloane Street to the west. To the north is Hyde Park, to the northeast is Mayfair and Green Park and to the east is Westminster; the area is residential, the particular exceptions being Belgrave Square in the centre, Eaton Square to the south, Buckingham Palace Gardens to the east. The nearest London Underground stations are Hyde Park Corner and Sloane Square. Victoria station, a major National Rail and coach interchange, is to the east of the district. Frequent bus services run to all areas of Central London from Grosvenor Place; the A4, a major road through West London, the London Inner Ring Road run along the boundaries of Belgravia. The area takes its name from the village of Belgrave, two miles from the Grosvenor family's main country seat of Eaton Hall.
One of the Duke of Westminster's subsidiary titles is Viscount Belgrave. During the Middle Ages, the area was known as the Five Fields and was a series of fields used for grazing, intersected by footpaths; the Westbourne was crossed by Bloody Bridge, so called because it was frequented by robbers and highwaymen, it was unsafe to cross the fields at night. In 1728, a man's body was discovered by five fingers removed. In 1749, a muffin man was left blind. Five Fields' distance from London made it a popular spot for duelling. Despite its reputation for crime and violence, Five Fields was a pleasant area during the daytime, various market gardens were established; the area began to be built up after George III moved to Buckingham House and constructed a row of houses on what is now Grosvenor Place. In the 1820s, Richard Grosvenor, 2nd Marquess of Westminster asked Thomas Cubitt to design an estate. Most of Belgravia was constructed over the next 30 years. Belgravia is characterised by grand terraces of white stucco houses, is focused on Belgrave Square and Eaton Square.
It was one of London's most fashionable residential districts from its beginnings. After World War II, some of the largest houses ceased to be used as residences, or townhouses for the country gentry and aristocracy, were occupied by embassies, charity headquarters, professional institutions and other businesses. Belgravia has become a quiet district in the heart of London, contrasting with neighbouring districts, which have far more busy shops, large modern office buildings and entertainment venues. Many embassies are located in the area in Belgrave Square. In the early 21st century, some houses are being reconverted to residential use, because offices in old houses are no longer as desirable as they were in the post-war decades, while the number of super-rich in London is at a high level not seen since at least 1939; the average house price in Belgravia, as of March 2010, was £6.6 million, although many houses in Belgravia are among the most expensive anywhere in the world, costing up to £100 million, £4,671 per square foot.
As of 2013, many residential properties in Belgravia were owned by wealthy foreigners who may have other luxury residences in exclusive locations worldwide. The increase in land value has been in sharp contrast to UK average and left the area empty and isolated. Belgrave Square, one of the grandest and largest 19th century squares, is the centrepiece of Belgravia, it was laid out by the property contractor Thomas Cubitt for the 2nd Earl Grosvenor to be the 1st Marquess of Westminster, beginning in 1826. Building was complete by the 1840s; the original scheme consisted of four terraces, each made up of eleven grand white stuccoed houses, apart from the south-east terrace, which had twelve. The numbering is anti-clockwise from west corner mansion No. 12, SW terrace 13–23, south corner mansion No. 24, SE terrace Nos. 25–36, east corner mansion No. 37, NE terrace Nos. 38–48. There is a later detached house at the northern corner, No. 49, built by Cubitt for Sidney Herbert in 1847. The terraces were designed by George Basevi.
The largest of the corner mansions, Seaford House in the east corner, was d
The Jubilee line is a London Underground line that runs between Stratford in east London and Stanmore in the suburban north-west, via the Docklands, South Bank and West End. Opened in 1979, it is the newest line on the network, although some sections of track date back to 1932 and some stations to 1879; the western portion beyond Baker Street was a branch of the Bakerloo line, while the new build was completed in two major sections: in 1979 to Charing Cross in 1999 with an extension to Stratford. The stations are larger and have special safety features, both aspects being attempts to future-proof the line. Following the extension to east London, serving areas once poorly connected to the Underground, the line has seen a huge growth in passenger numbers and is the third-busiest on the network, with over 213 million passenger journeys in 2011/12. Between Finchley Road and Wembley Park the Jubilee line shares its route with the Metropolitan line and Chiltern Main Line. Between Canning Town and Stratford it runs parallel to the Stratford International branch of the Docklands Light Railway.
The Jubilee line is coloured silver on the Tube map, to mark the Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II, after which the line was named. In 1932, the Metropolitan Railway built a branch from its main line at Wembley Park to Stanmore; the line, as with many others in the northwest London area, was designed to absorb commuter traffic from the new and expanding suburbs. The line presented the Metropolitan with a problem – so successful was the suburban traffic that, by the early 1930s, the lines into Baker Street were becoming overloaded, a problem, exacerbated by the post-war flight from the City of London to the West End of London. At first, the Metropolitan had advocated a new underground line following the line of the Edgware Road between the tube station and a point near Willesden Green. Indeed, construction advanced as far as the rebuilding of Edgware Road station to accommodate 4 platforms of 8-car length. Things changed, with the formation of the London Passenger Transport Board and the subsequent absorption of the Metropolitan.
The solution was now a new branch of the Bakerloo line from Baker Street to serve new stations at St. John's Wood and Swiss Cottage, thereby rendering the existing stations of Lord's, Marlborough Road and Swiss Cottage on the parallel route redundant, negating the need for the Met's extension from Edgware Road station, it was proposed that Swiss Cottage would remain open during peak hours for interchange with the Bakerloo, that Lord's station would open for special cricketing events, but both were closed permanently as economy measures during the Second World War. The new line rose between the Metropolitan tracks at Finchley Road, providing cross-platform interchange with the Metropolitan line. Continuing north to Wembley Park, the new Bakerloo was to provide intermediate service on the Metropolitan line, allowing Metropolitan line trains to run non-stop between Finchley Road and Wembley Park, cutting seven minutes from journey times. At Wembley Park, the new Bakerloo would run on to serve Kingsbury, Canons Park and Stanmore, taking over the former Metropolitan branch.
The Bakerloo extension, built as above, opened in 1939. The planning for the Tube network before and after World War II considered several new routes; the main results of this study concerned two major routes: the south-to-northeast "line C", lines 3 and 4, new cross-town routes, linking the northeast suburbs to Fenchurch Street and variously Lewisham and Hayes. Line C opened as the Victoria line, in stages, from 1968 to 1972. Work on the northeast–southwest route continued; the "Fleet line" was mentioned in a 1965 Times article, discussing options after the Victoria line had been completed — suggesting that the Fleet line could take a route via Baker Street, Bond Street, Trafalgar Square, Fleet Street, Ludgate Circus and Cannon Street proceeding into southeast London. The new line was to have been called the Fleet line after the River Fleet. In 1971, construction began on the new Fleet line. Economic pressure and doubt over the final destination of the line had led to a staged approach. Under the first stage, the Baker Street-to-Stanmore branch of the Bakerloo line was joined at Baker Street to a new 2.5-mile segment into central London, with intermediate stops at Bond Street and Green Park and terminating at a new station at Charing Cross, thereby relieving pressure on the West End section of the Bakerloo line between Baker Street and Charing Cross and allowing increased frequencies on the section north of Baker Street.
The new tube was to offer cross-platform interchange between the Bakerloo and Fleet at Baker Street, as pioneered on the Victoria line. The work was completed in 1979; as part of the works, Trafalgar Square and Strand stations were combined into a single station complex, Charing Cross. The existing Charing Cross station on the sub-surface District and Circle lines was renamed Embankment. Another part of the works included a section of test tunnel, built near New Cross; this part of London has waterlogged soil, difficult to tunnel in, so a new tunnelling method, called the Bentonite shield, was used experimentally to construct a 150 m section of tunnel, on the line of the proposed Phase 2 route, in 1972. The experiment was successful, leading to the introduction of this form of construction elsewhere, but when the planned route was altered, this section was left abandoned as it was useless, still exists to this day. In 1975
Gentrification is a process of renovating deteriorated urban neighborhoods by means of the influx of more affluent residents. This is a common and controversial topic in urban planning. Gentrification can improve the material quality of a neighborhood, while potentially forcing relocation of current, established residents and businesses, causing them to move from a gentrified area, seeking lower cost housing and stores. Gentrification shifts a neighborhood's racial/ethnic composition and average household income by developing new, more expensive housing and improved resources. Conversations about gentrification have evolved, as many in the social-scientific community have questioned the negative connotations associated with the word gentrification. One example is that gentrification can lead to community displacement for lower-income families in gentrifying neighborhoods, as property values and rental costs rise; the gentrification process is the result of increasing attraction to an area by people with higher incomes spilling over from neighboring cities, towns, or neighborhoods.
Further steps are increased investments in a community and the related infrastructure by real estate development businesses, local government, or community activists and resulting economic development, increased attraction of business, lower crime rates. In addition to these potential benefits, gentrification can lead to population migration and displacement. However, some view the fear of displacement, dominating the debate about gentrification, as hindering discussion about genuine progressive approaches to distribute the benefits of urban redevelopment strategies; the term gentrification has come to refer to a multi-faceted phenomenon that can be defined in different ways. Gentrification is "a complex process involving physical improvement of the housing stock, housing tenure change from renting to owning, price rises and the displacement or replacement of the working-class population by the new middle class. Historians say that gentrification took place in ancient Rome and in Roman Britain, where large villas were replacing small shops by the 3rd century, AD.
The word gentrification derives from gentry—which comes from the Old French word genterise, "of gentle birth" and "people of gentle birth". In England, Landed gentry denoted the social class. Although the term was used in English in the 1950s - for instance by Sidney Perutz and by William Xenophon Weed and Oscar Le Roy Warren, British sociologist Ruth Glass coined the term "gentrification" in 1964 to describe the influx of middle-class people displacing lower-class worker residents in urban neighborhoods. Shabby, modest mews and cottages—two rooms up and two down—have been taken over, when their leases have expired, have become elegant, expensive residences... Once this process of'gentrification' starts in a district it goes on until all or most of the original working-class occupiers are displaced and the whole social character of the district is changed. In the US, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report Health Effects of Gentrification defines the real estate concept of gentrification as "the transformation of neighborhoods from low value to high value.
This change has the potential to cause displacement of long-time residents and businesses... when long-time or original neighborhood residents move from a gentrified area because of higher rents and property taxes. Gentrification is a housing and health issue that affects a community's history and culture and reduces social capital, it shifts a neighborhood's characteristics, e.g. racial-ethnic composition and household income, by adding new stores and resources in run-down neighborhoods."Scholars and pundits have applied a variety of definitions to gentrification since 1964, some oriented around gentrifiers, others oriented around the displaced, some a combination of both. The first category include Hackworth's definition "the production of space for progressively more affluent users"; the second category include Kasman's definition "the reduction of residential and retail space affordable to low-income residents". The final category includes Rose, who describes gentrification as a process "in which members of the'new middle class' move into and physically and culturally reshape working-class inner city neighbourhoods".
In the Brookings Institution report Dealing with Neighborhood Change: A Primer on Gentrification and Policy Choices, Maureen Kennedy and Paul Leonard say that "the term'gentrification' is both imprecise and quite politically charged", suggesting its redefinition as "the process by which higher income households displace lower income residents of a neighborhood, changing the essential character and flavour of that neighborhood", so distinguishing it from the different socio-economic process of "neighborhood revitalization", although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. German geographers have a more distanced view on gentrification. Actual gentrification is seen as a mere symbolic issue happening in a low number of places and blocks, the symbolic value and visibility in public discourse being higher than actual migration trends. E.g. Gerhard Hard assumes that urban flight is still more im
City of London
The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district of London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders; the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, it is a separate county of England, being an enclave surrounded by Greater London. It is the smallest county in the United Kingdom; the City of London is referred to as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile, as it is 1.12 sq mi in area. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's trading and financial services industries, which continue a notable history of being based in the City; the name London is now ordinarily used for a far wider area than just the City.
London most denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs, in addition to the City of London itself. This wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888; the local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council, such as being the police authority. It is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries; the Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, an office separate from the Mayor of London. The Lord Mayor, as of November 2018, is Peter Estlin; the City is a major business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the world's primary business centre, it continues to be a major meeting point for businesses. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008; the insurance industry is focused around Lloyd's building. A secondary financial district exists at Canary Wharf, 2.5 miles to the east.
The City work there. About three quarters of the jobs in the City of London are in the financial and associated business services sectors; the legal profession forms a major component of the northern and western sides of the City in the Temple and Chancery Lane areas where the Inns of Court are located, of which two—Inner Temple and Middle Temple—fall within the City of London boundary. Known as "Londinium", the Roman legions established a settlement on the current site of the City of London around 43 AD, its bridge over the River Thames turned the city into a road nexus and major port, serving as a major commercial centre in Roman Britain until its abandonment during the 5th century. Archaeologist Leslie Wallace notes that, because extensive archaeological excavation has not revealed any signs of a significant pre-Roman presence, "arguments for a purely Roman foundation of London are now common and uncontroversial."At its height, the Roman city had a population of 45,000–60,000 inhabitants.
Londinium was an ethnically diverse city, with inhabitants from across the Roman Empire, including natives of Britannia, continental Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. The Romans built the London Wall some time between 190 and 225 AD; the boundaries of the Roman city were similar to those of the City of London today, though the City extends further west than Londonium's Ludgate, the Thames was undredged and thus wider than it is today, with Londonium's shoreline north of the City's present shoreline. The Romans built a bridge across the river, as early as 50 AD, near to today's London Bridge. By the time the London Wall was constructed, the City's fortunes were in decline, it faced problems of plague and fire; the Roman Empire entered a long period of instability and decline, including the Carausian Revolt in Britain. In the 3rd and 4th centuries, the city was under attack from Picts and Saxon raiders; the decline continued, both for Londinium and the Empire, in 410 AD the Romans withdrew from Britain.
Many of the Roman public buildings in Londinium by this time had fallen into decay and disuse, after the formal withdrawal the city became uninhabited. The centre of trade and population moved away from the walled Londinium to Lundenwic, a settlement to the west in the modern day Strand/Aldwych/Covent Garden area. During the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, the London area came in turn under the Kingdoms of Essex and Wessex, though from the mid 8th century it was under the control or threat of the Vikings. Bede records that in 604 AD St Augustine consecrated Mellitus as the first bishop to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Saxons and their king, Sæberht. Sæberht's uncle and overlord, Æthelberht, king of Kent, built a church dedicated to St Paul in London, as the seat of the new bishop, it is assumed, although unproven, that this first Anglo-Saxon cathedral stood on the same site as the medieval and the present cathedrals. Alfred the Great, King of Wessex and arguably the first king of the "English", occupied and began the resettlement of the old Roman walled area, in 886, appointed his son-in-law Earl Æthelred of Mercia over it as part of their reconquest of the Viking occupied parts of Englan
Surrey Docks is a residential area of Rotherhithe in south-east London, occupied until 1970 by the Surrey Commercial Docks. The precise boundaries of the area are somewhat amorphous, but it is considered to comprise the southern half of the Rotherhithe peninsula from Canada Water to South Dock; the area is served by Surrey Quays railway station. The Docks are called Surrey Docks because until 1900 the borders of Surrey and Kent met in this area. After the closure of the docks, the area remained derelict for over a decade, with much of the warehousing demolished and over 90% of the docks filled in; the only surviving areas of open water were Greenland Dock, South Dock, part of Canada Dock, remnants of Norway Dock, a basin renamed Surrey Water. In 1981, the Conservative government of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher established the London Docklands Development Corporation to redevelop the former dockyard areas of east London, including the Surrey Docks. A massive building programme took place in the area during the late 1980s and early 1990s with 5,500 new homes being built, ranging from individual detached housing to large apartment complexes, such as Baltic Quay.
South Dock was converted into a marina - now the largest in London - and a sailing facility was constructed on Greenland Dock. The northern part of Canada Water and the infilled Russia Dock became wildlife reserves. Leisure facilities and a number of light industrial plants were built, notably a new printing works for Associated Newspapers, the publisher of the London Evening Standard and the Daily Mail; this site was the headquarters of Metro from its launch in 1999 until 2006, when the newspaper's production was relocated to Kensington, west London. A further phase of development at Canada Water is still underway; the Surrey Docks is sometimes wrongly called surrey quays by those. It wrongly got this name in 1989 when the Surrey Quays Shopping Centre was built on the infilled southern part of Canada Water, the nearby London Underground station Surrey Docks was renamed Surrey Quays; the de facto renaming of the area was controversial at the time among the local community, some of whom felt that their history was being erased.
Although "Surrey Docks" is still the name of the electoral ward. Surrey docks is known as downtown; the nearest London Underground station and London Overground station is Canada Water on the Jubilee line, the next nearest station on the London Overground is Surrey Quays. Greenland Dock Pier is the nearest place for boarding London River Services, operated by Thames Clippers. LDDC Completion Booklet - Surrey Docks Surrey Quays Shopping Centre on The Retail Database