Prohibition is the act or practice of forbidding something by law. The word is used to refer to a period of time during which such bans are enforced; some kind of limitation on the trade in alcohol can be seen in the Code of Hammurabi banning the selling of beer for money. It could only be bartered for barley: "If a beer seller do not receive barley as the price for beer, but if she receive money or make the beer a measure smaller than the barley measure received, they shall throw her into the water."In the Western world, one of the great moral issues of the nineteenth century was slavery, but once that battle was won, social moralists turned to their next targets, one of, prohibition. In the early twentieth century, much of the impetus for the prohibition movement in the Nordic countries and North America came from moralistic convictions of pietistic Protestants. Prohibition movements in the West coincided with the advent of women's suffrage, with newly empowered women as part of the political process supporting policies that curbed alcohol consumption.
The first half of the 20th century saw periods of prohibition of alcoholic beverages in several countries: 1907 to 1948 in Prince Edward Island, for shorter periods in other provinces in Canada 1907 to 1992 in the Faroe Islands. Rum-running or bootlegging became widespread, organized crime took control of the distribution of alcohol. Distilleries and breweries in Canada and the Caribbean flourished as their products were either consumed by visiting Americans or illegally exported to the United States. Chicago became notorious as a haven for prohibition dodgers during the time known as the Roaring Twenties. Prohibition came to an end in the late 1920s or early 1930s in most of North America and Europe, although a few locations continued prohibition for many more years. In some countries where the dominant religion forbids the use of alcohol, the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages is prohibited or restricted today. For example, in Saudi Arabia and Libya alcohol is banned. Sale of alcohol is banned in Afghanistan.
In Bangladesh, alcohol is somewhat prohibited due to its proscription in the Islamic faith. However, the purchase and consumption is allowed in the country; the Garo tribe consume a type of rice beer, Christians in this country drink and purchase wine for their holy communion. In Brunei, alcohol consumption and sale is banned in public. Non-Muslims are allowed to purchase a limited amount of alcohol from their point of embarcation overseas for their own private consumption, non-Muslims who are at least the age of 18 are allowed to bring in not more than two bottles of liquor and twelve cans of beer per person into the country. In India alcohol is a state subject and individual states can legislate prohibition, but most states do not have prohibition and sale/consumption is available in 25 out of 29 states. Prohibition is in force in the states of Gujarat and Nagaland, parts of Manipur, the union territory of Lakshadweep. All other States and union territories of India permit the sale of alcohol.
Election days and certain national holidays such as Independence Day are meant to be dry days when liquor sale is not permitted but consumption is allowed. Some Indian states observe dry days on major religious festivals/occasions depending on the popularity of the festival in that region. Since the 1979 Islamic Revolution, the sale and consumption of alcohol is banned in Iran. All people are banned from drinking alcohol but some people trade and sell it illegally. Alcohol sales are banned in small shops and convenience stores; the consumption and brewing of, trafficking in liquor is against the law. Alcohol is banned only for Muslims in Malaysia due to its Islamic sharia law. Alcoholic products can be found in supermarkets, specialty shops, convenience stores all over the country. Non-halal restaurants typically sell alcohol; the Maldives ban the import of alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are available only to foreign tourists on resort islands and may not be taken off the resort. Pakistan allowed the free sale and consumption of alcohol for three decades from 1947, but restrictions were introduced by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto just weeks before he was removed as prime minister in 1977.
Since only members of non-Muslim minorities such as Hindus and Zoroastrians are allowed to apply for alcohol permits. The monthly quota is dependent upon one's income, but is about five bottles of liquor or 100 bottles of beer. In a country of 180 million, only about 60 outlets are allowed to sell alcohol; the Murree Brewery in Rawalpindi was once the only legal brewery. The ban is enforced by the country's Islamic Ideology Council, but it is not policed. Members of religious minorities, however sell their liquor permits to Muslims as part of a continuing black market trade in alcohol. There are only rest
Donald Francis "Don" Draper is a fictional character and protagonist on the AMC television series Mad Men, portrayed by Jon Hamm. Up to the Season 3 finale, Draper was creative director of Manhattan advertising firm Sterling Cooper, he became a founding partner at a new firm, Sterling Cooper Draper Pryce, after he and his superiors left their previous agency in advance of an unwanted acquisition. The agency merged with a rival firm, Cutler Gleason & Chaough, to become Sterling Cooper & Partners while pursuing a contract from Chevrolet; the character of Don Draper is inspired by Draper Daniels, a creative director at Leo Burnett advertising agency in Chicago in the 1950s, who worked on the Marlboro Man campaign. Donald Francis Draper is revealed through flashbacks to be the assumed identity of Richard "Dick" Whitman, born in Illinois to a sex worker and an abusive, alcoholic farmer, Archibald "Archie" Whitman, his mother died in labor, his father was killed from a kick by a spooked horse, an accident a 10-year-old Dick witnessed.
Dick was raised by Archie's wife Abigail, physically and abusive to him. She had a son named Adam, Dick's half-brother; the one person to show him any kindness as a child was "Uncle Mac," who taught him how to survive in the real world. Mac was "with" Abigail's sister and ran the brothel where Dick and Adam grew up after leaving the family farm. During this period of his life, he began to suffer from croup and was left under the care of a prostitute named Aimee, she took his virginity in a way that Weiner stated concerned "His relationship to sex and molestation" and reviewer Abigail Rine described more directly as rape. Whitman never finishes high school, in his early 20s he runs away to enlist in the United States Army during the Korean War. Once deployed, he serves under the command of Lieutenant Donald Francis Draper, a combat engineer under orders to build a field hospital with only Private Whitman and shovels to assist him. During an enemy artillery attack Whitman causes an explosion by accident, killing Lieutenant Draper instantly.
A wounded Whitman switches Draper's dog tags with his own before passing out. He awakens in a U. S. Army field hospital, presumed to be Lieutenant Draper, is awarded the Purple Heart, he is sent home on a train with Lieutenant Draper's coffin to offer the Army's regrets to Whitman's survivors. He avoids meeting the Whitmans at the train station but is spotted by Adam, whose parents fail to recognize him. Years Adam tracks his half-brother down in New York, but "Draper" insists on leaving the past behind and coldly rejects him driving Adam to commit suicide. Whitman begins his life anew as Don Draper. Anna M. Draper, widow of the real Don Draper, tracks him down, he confesses to his masquerade. The two form a close bond. Anna remains a supportive figure and confidante until her death from bone cancer in 1965; the new Don Draper relocates to New York City, where he works as a fur salesman and attends City College at night. It is at this job that he meets his future wife, Betty, a model who does a photo shoot for the company.
He tricks a drunken Roger Sterling into offering him a job at Sterling Cooper, becomes its Creative Director. He is considered a major asset to the company, as he has considerable talent for understanding the desires of others and for pitching and selling ideas; because of this, he is courted by other advertising firms. Although his true character remains mysterious and guarded everyone at the firm is portrayed as respecting his talent. At the same time, many in the firm are troubled by Draper's erratic behavior. Peggy Olson begins her career at Sterling Cooper as Draper's secretary, but with her boss' support she becomes a copywriter. Throughout the series their relationship is portrayed as one of trust and mutual respect as Peggy advances in her career and leaves the firm. Draper and Elizabeth "Betty" Hofstadt are married in May 1953, move into a house with an address shown as 42 Bullet Park Road, Ossining in Westchester County, New York; the marriage is a rocky one and Draper becomes engaged in numerous affairs.
They file for divorce in 1964 after Betty discovers his true identity, she marries the Republican political operative Henry Francis. Don marries his secretary, Megan Calvet, after which they move to a stylish, Upper East Side apartment on Park Avenue. In December 1963 Draper convinces Bert Cooper, Roger Sterling, Lane Pryce, along with Peggy Olson, Pete Campbell, Joan Holloway, Harry Crane, to leave Sterling Cooper rather than take their chances when they learn their parent company is being purchased by rival firm, McCann Erickson, they form the agency Sterling Cooper Draper Pryce, working out of a hotel suite before moving to the Time-Life Building. Draper leads a merger with a rival agency. While the new agency is successful, at the end of Season 6, he is forced to take "a leave of absence" from the new firm because of his erratic behavior, which costs the firm a possible advertising account with Hershey Chocolate. Draper works as a freelancer for a year on SC&P's payroll. Megan has moved to Los Angeles to pursue her acting career, asks him for a divorce.
Feeling guilty over his past infidelities, Draper gives her a generous divorce settlement. SC&P allows him to come back on the condit
Alphonse Gabriel Capone, sometimes known by the nickname "Scarface", was an American gangster and businessman who attained notoriety during the Prohibition era as the co-founder and boss of the Chicago Outfit. His seven-year reign as crime boss ended when he was 33. Capone was born to Italian immigrants, he was a Five Points Gang member. In his early twenties, he moved to Chicago and became a bodyguard and trusted factotum for Johnny Torrio, head of a criminal syndicate that illegally supplied alcohol—the forerunner of the Outfit—and was politically protected through the Unione Siciliana. A conflict with the North Side Gang was instrumental in Capone's fall. Torrio went into retirement after North Side gunmen killed him, handing control to Capone. Capone expanded the bootlegging business through violent means, but his mutually profitable relationships with mayor William Hale Thompson and the city's police meant he seemed safe from law enforcement. Capone reveled in attention, such as the cheers from spectators when he appeared at ball games.
He made donations to various charities and was viewed by many as "modern-day Robin Hood". However, the Saint Valentine's Day Massacre, in which seven gang rivals were murdered in broad daylight, damaged Chicago's and Capone's image, leading influential citizens to demand government action and newspapers to dub Capone "Public Enemy No. 1". The federal authorities prosecuted him in 1931 for tax evasion. During a publicized case, the judge admitted as evidence Capone's admissions of his income and unpaid taxes during prior negotiations to pay the government taxes he owed, he was sentenced to 11 years in federal prison. After conviction, he replaced his defense team with experts in tax law, his grounds for appeal were strengthened by a Supreme Court ruling, but his appeal failed. Capone showed signs of neurosyphilis early in his sentence and became debilitated before being released after eight years of incarceration. On January 25, 1947, Capone died of cardiac arrest after suffering a stroke. Al Capone was born in Brooklyn, New York on January 17, 1899.
His parents were Teresa Capone. His father was a barber and his mother was a seamstress, both born in Angri, a town in the Province of Salerno. Gabriele and Teresa had nine children: Alphonse "Al" Capone. Ralph and Frank worked with him in his criminal empire. Frank did so until his death on April 1, 1924. Ralph ran the bottling companies early on, was the front man for the Chicago Outfit for some time until he was imprisoned for tax evasion in 1932; the Capone family immigrated to the United States, after first moving to nearby Fiume in Austria-Hungary in 1893. From that port city they traveled on a ship to the U. S. where they settled in the Navy Yard section of downtown Brooklyn. Gabriele Capone worked at a nearby barber shop at 29 Park Avenue; when Al was 11, the Capone family moved to 38 Garfield Place in Brooklyn. Capone showed promise as a student, but had trouble with the rules at his strict parochial Catholic school, his schooling ended at the age of 14, after he was expelled for hitting a female teacher in the face.
He worked at odd jobs including a candy store and a bowling alley. During this time, Capone was influenced by gangster Johnny Torrio, whom he came to regard as a mentor. Capone became involved with small-time gangs that included the Junior Forty Thieves and the Bowery Boys, he joined the Brooklyn Rippers, the powerful Five Points Gang based in Lower Manhattan. During this time, he was employed and mentored by fellow racketeer Frankie Yale, a bartender in a Coney Island dance hall and saloon called the Harvard Inn. Capone inadvertently insulted a woman while working the door at a Brooklyn night club and was slashed by her brother Frank Gallucio; the wounds led to the nickname "Scarface". When he was photographed, he hid the scarred left side of his face, saying that the injuries were war wounds, he was called "Snorky" by a term for a sharp dresser. Capone married Mae Josephine Coughlin at age 19 on December 30, 1918, she was Irish Catholic and earlier that month had given birth to their son Albert Francis "Sonny" Capone.
Capone was under the age of 21, his parents had to consent in writing to the marriage. By all accounts, the two had a happy marriage despite his gang life. At about 20 years of age, Capone left New York for Chicago at the invitation of Johnny Torrio, imported by crime boss James "Big Jim" Colosimo as an enforcer. Capone began in Chicago as a bouncer in a brothel. Timely use of Salvarsan could have cured the infection, but he never sought treatment. In 1923, he purchased a small house at 7244 South Prairie Avenue in the Park Manor neighborhood on the city's south side for US$5,500. In the early years of the decade, his name began appearing in newspaper sports pages where he was described as a boxing promoter. Torrio took over Colosimo's crime empire after Colosimo's murder on May 11, 1920, in which
Canadian whisky is a type of whisky produced in Canada. Most Canadian whiskies are blended multi-grain liquors containing a large percentage of corn spirits, are lighter and smoother than other whisky styles; when Canadian distillers began adding small amounts of highly-flavourful rye grain to their mashes, people began demanding this new rye-flavoured whisky, referring to it as "rye". Today, as for the past two centuries, the terms "rye whisky" and "Canadian whisky" are used interchangeably in Canada and refer to the same product, made with only a small amount of rye grain. In Canada, whisky that had some rye grain added to the mash bill to give it more flavour came to be called "rye"; the regulations under Canada's Food and Drugs Act stipulate the minimum conditions that must be met in order to label a product as "Canadian whisky" or "Canadian Rye Whisky" —these are upheld internationally through geographical indication agreements. These regulations state that whisky must "be mashed and aged in Canada", "be aged in small wood for not less than three years", "contain not less than 40 per cent alcohol by volume" and "may contain caramel and flavouring".
Within these parameters Canadian whiskies can vary especially with the allowance of "flavouring"—though the additional requirement that they "possess the aroma and character attributed to Canadian whisky" can act as a limiting factor. Canadian whiskies are most blends of whiskies made from a single grain, principally corn and rye, but sometimes wheat or barley. Mash bills of multiple grains may be used for some flavoring whiskies; the availability of inexpensive American corn, with its higher proportion of usable starches relative to other cereal grains, has led it to be most used to create base whiskies to which flavouring whiskies are blended in. Exceptions to this include the Highwood Distillery which specializes in using wheat and the Alberta Distillers which developed its own proprietary yeast strain that specializes in distilling rye; the flavouring whiskies are most rye whiskies, blended into the product to add most of its flavour and aroma. While Canadian whisky may be labelled as a "rye whisky" this blending technique only necessitates a small percentage of rye to create the flavour, whereas much more rye is required if it were added to a mash bill alongside the more distilled corn.
The base whiskies are distilled to 180 to 190 proof which results in few congener by-products and creates a lighter taste. By comparison, an American whisky distilled any higher than 160 proof is labelled as "light whiskey"; the flavouring whiskies are distilled to a lower proof so that they retain more of the grain's flavour. The relative lightness created by the use of base whiskies makes Canadian whisky useful for mixing into cocktails and highballs; the minimum three year aging in small wood barrels applies to all whiskies used in the blend. As the regulations do not limit the specific type of wood that must be used, a variety of flavours can be achieved by blending whiskies aged in different types of barrels. In addition to new wood barrels, charred or uncharred, flavour can be added by aging whiskies in used bourbon or fortified wine barrels for different lengths of time. In Canada under British rule, gristmills distilled surplus grains to avoid spoilage. Distilling methods and technologies were brought to Canada by American and European immigrants with experience in distilling wheat and rye.
This early whisky from improvised stills with the grains closest to spoilage, was produced with various, uncontrolled proofs and was consumed, unaged, by the local market. While most distilling capacity was taken up producing rum, a result of Atlantic Canada's position in the British sugar trade, the first commercial scale production of whisky in Canada began in 1801 when John Molson purchased a copper pot still used to produce rum, in Montreal. With his son Thomas Molson, partner James Morton, the Molsons operated a distillery in Montreal and Kingston and were the first in Canada to export whisky, benefiting from Napoleonic Wars' disruption in supplying French wine and brandies to England. Gooderham and Worts began producing whisky in 1837 in Toronto as a side business to their wheat milling but surpassed Molson's production by the 1850s as it expanded their operations with a new distillery in what would become the Distillery District. Henry Corby started distilling whisky as a side business from his gristmill in 1859 in what became known as Corbyville and Joseph Seagram began working in his father-in-law's Waterloo flour mill and distillery in 1864, which he would purchase in 1883.
Meanwhile, Americans Hiram Walker and J. P. Wiser moved to Canada: Walker to Windsor in 1858 to open a flour mill and distillery and Wiser to Prescott in 1857 to work at his uncle's distillery where he introduced a rye whisky and was successful enough to buy the distillery five years later; the disruption of American Civil War created an export opportunity for Canadian-made whiskies and their quality those from Walker and Wiser who had begun the practice of aging their whiskies, sustained that market after post-war tariffs were introduced. In the 1880s, Canada's National Policy placed high tariffs on foreign alcoholic products as whisky began to be sold in bottles and the federal government instituted a bottled in bond program that provided certification of the time a whisky spent aging and allowed deferral of taxes for that period, which encouraged aging. In 1890 Canada became the first country to enact an aging law for whiskies, requiri
Drink mixers are the non-alcoholic ingredients in mixed drinks and cocktails. There are many reasons, they add new ones to a drink. Mixers dilute the drink, they may make the drink sweeter, more savory. Some mixers change the consistency of the drink, making it thicker or more watery. Drink mixers may be used for decorative purposes by changing the color or appearance of the drink, they simply increase the volume of a drink, to make it last longer. Caffeine, a stimulant, masks some of the depressant effects of alcohol. Coffee Energy drinks – Red Bull, etc. Iced tea, sweetened – Lipton BRISK, etc. Carbonation adds a festive flair to drinks, it increases the absorption of the alcohol into the blood stream due to increased pressure in the stomach resulting in faster intoxication. Bitter lemon – flavored with quinine and lemon Carbonated water Cola – Coca-Cola, etc. Ginger ale Ginger beer Lemon Sour Lemon–lime soda – 7 Up, etc. Root beer, orange and cherry soda, various other fruit and herb–flavored soft drinks are used, but they have not been as popular as the drinks listed above.
Tonic water - The essential ingredient is quinine. Sugar and other flavorings are commonly added. Milk products add a smoothing effect to the feel of the drink to counteract the burn of the alcohol, they turn the drinks opaque enhancing and lightening the color of the drink. Cream Eggnog Half and half Ice cream Milk Juices are flavorful additions; some add sweetness, others add a sour tang, add a sweet-tart sensation. Fruit juices are common additions to rum-based cocktails. Apple cider Coconut milk or coconut water Cranberry juice Grape juice Grapefruit juice Lemon juice Lemonade Lime juice, unsweetened Limeade Olive juice Orange juice Pineapple juice Tomato juice – plain or flavored Wheatgrass juice Some suppliers now manufacture pre-made mixes, which contain all the ingredients for a particular drink pre-mixed; the only thing that needs to be added is alcohol. Bloody Mary mix Cosmopolitan mix Hot Toddy mix Margarita mix Mojito mix Mudslide mix Strawberry Daiquiri mix The addition of a sauce imparts a surprising new taste to a familiar drink.
Hot sauces are used in drinking games. Honey Hot sauce – Tabasco sauce, etc. Worcestershire sauce The key ingredient in a syrup is sugar, which sweetens any drink into which it is mixed. Other flavors are added to a sugar syrup. Demerara syrup – A combination of Demerara sugar, a natural brown sugar, water. Falernum – Of Caribbean origin, flavored with almonds, ginger and/or cloves, lime. Fassionola - A passion fruit and guava juice syrup. Lime juice, sweetened – Rose's lime juice Orgeat – Flavored with almonds and either rose water or orange flower water. Simple syrup – A combination of granulated sugar and water. Sour mix – Also known as sweet and sour mix, a combination of simple syrup and lemon or lime juice. Squash – A concentrated fruit- or herbal-flavored syrup. Many other food and beverage items can be used in mixed drinks; these are some other common ones. Egg – egg whites thicken and increase the foaminess of blended drinks. Food coloring Sports drink – Gatorade, SunnyD, Redbull etc. List of cocktails Mixed drink shooters and drink shots Cocktail garnishCategoriesCategory:Drink mixers Category:Mixed drinks Category:Soft drinks
Edward VII was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910. The eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Edward was related to royalty throughout Europe, he was heir apparent to the British throne and held the title of Prince of Wales for longer than any of his predecessors. He was heir presumptive to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha until before his marriage he renounced his right to the duchy, which devolved to his younger brother Alfred. During the long reign of his mother, he was excluded from political power, came to personify the fashionable, leisured elite, he travelled throughout Britain performing ceremonial public duties, represented Britain on visits abroad. His tours of North America in 1860 and the Indian subcontinent in 1875 were popular successes, but despite public approval his reputation as a playboy prince soured his relationship with his mother; as king, Edward played a role in the modernisation of the British Home Fleet and the reorganisation of the British Army after the Second Boer War.
He reinstituted traditional ceremonies as public displays and broadened the range of people with whom royalty socialised. He fostered good relations between Britain and other European countries France, for which he was popularly called "Peacemaker", but his relationship with his nephew, the German Emperor Wilhelm II, was poor; the Edwardian era, which covered Edward's reign and was named after him, coincided with the start of a new century and heralded significant changes in technology and society, including steam turbine propulsion and the rise of socialism. He died in 1910 in the midst of a constitutional crisis, resolved the following year by the Parliament Act 1911, which restricted the power of the unelected House of Lords. Edward was born at 10:48 in the morning on 9 November 1841 in Buckingham Palace, he was the eldest son and second child of Queen Victoria and her husband Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He was christened Albert Edward at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, on 25 January 1842.
He was named Albert after his father and Edward after his maternal grandfather Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn. He was known as Bertie to the royal family throughout his life; as the eldest son of the British sovereign, he was automatically Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay at birth. As a son of Prince Albert, he held the titles of Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Saxony, he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 8 December 1841, Earl of Dublin on 10 September 1849 or 17 January 1850, a Knight of the Garter on 9 November 1858, a Knight of the Thistle on 24 May 1867. In 1863, he renounced his succession rights to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in favour of his younger brother, Prince Alfred. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were determined that their eldest son should have an education that would prepare him to be a model constitutional monarch. At age seven, Edward embarked on a rigorous educational programme devised by Prince Albert, supervised by several tutors.
Unlike his elder sister Victoria, Edward did not excel in his studies. He to no avail. Although Edward was not a diligent student—his true talents were those of charm and tact—Benjamin Disraeli described him as informed, intelligent and of sweet manner. After the completion of his secondary-level studies, his tutor was replaced by a personal governor, Robert Bruce. After an educational trip to Rome, undertaken in the first few months of 1859, he spent the summer of that year studying at the University of Edinburgh under, among others, the chemist Lyon Playfair. In October, he matriculated as an undergraduate at Oxford. Now released from the educational strictures imposed by his parents, he enjoyed studying for the first time and performed satisfactorily in examinations. In 1861, he transferred to Trinity College, where he was tutored in history by Charles Kingsley, Regius Professor of Modern History. Kingsley's efforts brought forth the best academic performances of Edward's life, Edward looked forward to his lectures.
In 1860, Edward undertook the first tour of North America by a Prince of Wales. His genial good humour and confident bonhomie made the tour a great success, he inaugurated the Victoria Bridge, across the St Lawrence River, laid the cornerstone of Parliament Hill, Ottawa. He watched Charles Blondin traverse Niagara Falls by highwire, stayed for three days with President James Buchanan at the White House. Buchanan accompanied the Prince to Mount Vernon, to pay his respects at the tomb of George Washington. Vast crowds greeted him everywhere, he met Ralph Waldo Emerson and Oliver Wendell Holmes. Prayers for the royal family were said in Trinity Church, New York, for the first time since 1776; the four-month tour throughout Canada and the United States boosted Edward's confidence and self-esteem, had many diplomatic benefits for Great Britain. Edward had hoped to pursue a career in the British Army, but his mother vetoed an active military career, he had been gazetted colonel on 9 November 1858—to his disappointment, as he had wanted to earn his commission by examination.
In September 1861, Edward was sent to Germany to watch military manoeuvres, but in order to engineer a meeting between him and Princess Alexandra of Denmark, the eldest daughter of Prince Christian of Denmark and his wife Louise. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert had decided that Edward and Alexandra should marry, they met at Speyer on 24 September under the auspices of his elder sister, who ha
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea