El Reno, Oklahoma
El Reno is a city in and county seat of Canadian County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 16,729; the city was named for the nearby Fort Reno. It is located in the central part of the state 25 miles west of downtown Oklahoma City, is part of the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Statistical Area; the city was located about five miles north of its present location, on the banks of the North Canadian river, bearing the name Reno City, which caused its mail to get mixed up with mail for Reno, Nevada. After the second time the town flooded, it was moved to its present location and changed its name to El Reno; this word is Spanish for "the reindeer". The land of Canadian County belonged to Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes but in 1874 Fort Reno was established and General Philip Sheridan took commanded. Sheridan named the fort in honor of his friend, Gen. Jesse L. Reno, killed in the Civil War at the hands of the regiment of General John Bell Hood; the grounds of the old fort became home to a research laboratory for the U.
S. Department of Agriculture in 1948; the laboratory studies environmentally sustainable forage and livestock production, contributing to preservation of the great plains of North America. El Reno is located on the 98th Meridian, which allowed the eastern side to be opened to non-Indian settlement in the Land Run of 1889; the western side was opened in the 1892 opening of the Arapaho lands. It was subsequently selected as the land district office for the 1901 land lottery drawings. During WWII, Fort Reno, about 5 mi north west of El Reno, was the site of a prisoner of war camp, today contains a P. O. W. Cemetery, with stones bearing the names of German and Italian prisoners who died there. Southwestern Federal Reformatory, restricted to male prisoners under the age of 35, was constructed about 2 miles west of El Reno in 1935. Renamed the Federal Correctional Institution of El Reno in the mid-1970s, the population expanded to include men of all ages, it became the fifth largest prison in the U. S, it is still one of the largest employers in El Reno.
It is the only city in Oklahoma to have a streetcar in operation in the downtown area. At one time it possessed a terminal and repair facility for the CRI&P railroad, which employed a large number of people; the CRI&P went bankrupt in 1979. The railroad yards have remained vacant property; the old depot and some other buildings were acquired by the Canadian County Historical Society for use as part of a museum complex. The 1954 film noir Human Desire includes locomotive and yard scenes filmed in the El Reno rail yards. El Reno is a Main Street community; the Oklahoma Main Street Program is a downtown revitalization program and the El Reno Program won the Great American Main Street Award in 2006. The town is noted for its annual Fried Onion Burger Day Festival, always the first Saturday in May. Burger Day is where you can witness the cooking of the world’s largest fried onion hamburger, weighing over 850 pounds; the giant burger contains all the important parts of the famous El Reno fried onion burgers which includes meat, fried onions, sliced pickles, mustard all between two giant buns.
Not only do festival goers get to watch the massive burger be built and cooked, but they are allowed to help eat the monstrosity. Volunteers divide the giant burger into individual sized portions with burger-sized cookie cutters. Other volunteers shuttle back and forth from the burger to the crowd, delivering the free portions to anyone wanting a piece; the idea of the fried onion burger was born out of necessity during the Great Depression, where onions were used to stretch out the meat supply. On June 15, 2015, Sid's Diner was featured on the Food Network series Top 5 Restaurants, with the Fried-Onion Burger being highlighted. Sid's Diner has been featured on the Travel Channel series Man v. Food. On May 31, 2013, El Reno was hit by a multiple-vortex tornado; the tornado set a record with a width of 2.6 miles. The Weather Channel's Mike Bettes survived it. Tim Samaras, his son Paul, TWISTEX colleague Carl Young lost their lives near the Regional Airport. Paul and Young were ejected from their Chevrolet Cobalt by the tornado's sub-vortex while Tim was still buckled in the passenger's seat next to Young's driving seat.
Local amateur chaser, Richard Henderson lost his life in that same area. Before the tornado struck him, Henderson snapped a picture of it from his cellular phone and sent that picture to a friend. Dan Robinson of St. Louis, Missouri escaped the tornado with a few injuries, he was a few hundred meters ahead of the TWISTEX crew. El Reno is located at 35°31′49″N 97°57′27″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 80.4 square miles, of which, 80.0 square miles of it is land and 0.4 square miles of it is water. El Reno is located in the United States at the interchange of I-40 and U. S. Route 81. At one time it sat on the boundary between Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory, sits about 20 miles west of the old Chisholm Trail. Jesse Chisholm is buried nearby. In 1952, a magnitude 5.5 earthquake struck near El Reno, causing damage to several buildings in the city. It is Oklahoma's third-strongest earthquake on record, it was the strongest earthquake in Oklahoma history prior to the November 5, 2011 earthquake near Sparks.
El Reno has endured numerous weather-related incidents in recent years: On January 30, 2002, El Reno was hit by a severe ice storm that left most of the city without power for several da
Medicine Lodge Treaty
The Medicine Lodge Treaty is the overall name for three treaties signed between the Federal government of the United States and southern Plains Indian tribes in October 1867, intended to bring peace to the area by relocating the Native Americans to reservations in Indian Territory and away from European-American settlement. The treaty was negotiated after investigation by the Indian Peace Commission, which in its final report in 1868 concluded that the wars had been preventable, they determined that the United States government and its representatives, including the United States Congress, had contributed to the warfare on the Great Plains by failing to fulfill their legal obligations and to treat the Native Americans with honesty. The U. S. government and tribal chiefs met at a place traditional for Native American ceremonies, at their request. The first treaty was signed October 1867, with the Kiowa and Comanche tribes; the second, with the Kiowa-Apache, was signed the same day. The third treaty was signed with the Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho on October 28.
Under the Medicine Lodge Treaty, the tribes were assigned reservations of diminished size compared to territories defined in an 1865 treaty. The treaty tribes never ratified the treaty by vote of adult males. In addition, by changing allotment policy under the Dawes Act and authorizing sales under the Agreement with the Cheyenne and Arapaho and the Agreement with the Comanche and Apache signed with the Cherokee Commission, the Congress further reduced their reservation territory; the Kiowa chief Lone Wolf filed suit against the government for fraud on behalf of the tribes in Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock. In 1903 the U. S. Supreme Court ruled against the tribes, determining that the Congress had "plenary power" and the political right to make such decisions. In the aftermath of that case, Congress acted unilaterally on land decisions related to other reservations as well; because of the outstanding issues with the treaty and subsequent government actions, in the mid-20th century, the Kiowa and Comanche filed several suits for claims against the U.
S. government. Over decades, they won substantial settlements of monetary compensation in the amount of tens of millions of dollars, although it took years for the cases to be resolved. On July 20, 1867, Congress established the Indian Peace Commission to negotiate peace with Plains Indian tribes who were warring with the United States; the Peace Commission met in St. Louis, Missouri, on August 6, 1867, where it elected Nathaniel G. Taylor, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, as its president. Commissioners agreed that lasting peace was contingent upon separating Indians regarded as "hostile" from those regarded as friendly, removing all Indian tribes onto reservations away from the routes of U. S. westward expansion, making provision for their maintenance. The official report of the Commission to the President of the United States, dated January 7, 1868, describes detailed histories of the causes of the Indian Wars including: numerous social and legal injustices to Indians, repeated violations of numerous treaties, acts of corruption by many of the local agents, culpability of Congress in failing to fulfill certain legal obligations.
The report asserts that the Indian Wars were preventable had the United States government and its representatives acted with legal and moral honesty in dealing with the Indians. Other members of the peace commission were Lieutenant General William T. Sherman, commander of the Military Division of the Missouri. S. Army's investigation of the Sand Creek massacre. Sanborn commander of the Upper Arkansas District, who had helped to negotiate the Little Arkansas Treaty of 1865. Sherman, having made public remarks indicating his disagreement with the peace policy, was called to Washington, D. C. and could not be present at the councils on the southern plains, including the council at Medicine Lodge Creek. Major General Christopher C. Augur, commander of the Military Department of the Platte, replaced him as a temporary appointment. After an abortive meeting with northern Plains Indians in September, the commission gathered at Fort Leavenworth in early October and traveled from there by rail to Fort Harker.
There it was joined by an escort of five hundred troops of the 7th U. S. Cavalry Regiment and Battery B of the 4th artillery, armed with two Gatling guns, they were under the command of Maj. Joel H. Elliott, excused from attending the court martial proceedings for Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer underway at Fort Leavenworth; the commission was accompanied by numerous newspaper reporters, who provided detailed coverage of the people and events related to the commission's work. The commission arrived at Fort Larned on October 11, where some chiefs were present, including Black Kettle of the Cheyenne, Little Raven of the Arapaho, Satanta of the Kiowa. At the insistence of the tribes, the meetings were moved from Larned to Medicine Lodge River, a traditional Indian ceremonial site. Preliminary discussions beginning on October 15 concluded that the Hancock expedition led earlier in 1867 by Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock, during which a large Cheyenne and Sioux village
North Canadian River
The North Canadian River is a tributary of the Canadian River 441 miles long, that flows through New Mexico and Oklahoma in the United States. The North Canadian River rises just south of Des Moines, New Mexico in Union County, New Mexico on the slopes of Sierra Grande, where it is known as the North and South Branches of Corrumpa Creek; the branches join 8 miles east of Des Moines. From there it flows eastwardly through northeast New Mexico, changing names at the state line, eastward through the Oklahoma Panhandle starting in Cimarron County, where it is known for some distance as the Beaver River, it flows into Sherman County in the Texas Panhandle for about 15 miles back to the Oklahoma Panhandle in Texas County, where it has a confluence with Coldwater Creek just above the dam at the Optima Lake project near Hardesty. Because the source of the river in this area is the Ogallala Aquifer, because of increasing irrigation and other demands on said aquifer, the flow of the river in the Panhandle is light and intermittent, the Optima Lake impoundment contains little water.
Below the dam, the river continues through the Oklahoma counties of Beaver and Harper before being joined in Woodward County by Wolf Creek just south of the town of Fort Supply, Oklahoma. It is dammed at Oklahoma in Blaine County where it forms Canton Lake, it flows past Oklahoma City, joining the Canadian River in McIntosh County at Eufaula Lake. A seven-mile portion of the river flowing through Oklahoma City was renamed the Oklahoma River in 2004; this portion has several locks that have created a series of small lakes in which rowing and canoeing regattas take place. Regatta activities include: 2.5 mile head races, 2000 meter sprints, 500 meter sprints. It is the only location in the US conducting sanctioned night sprints under lights; the Oklahoma River was profiled in The New York Times on April 22, 2008. List of rivers of New Mexico List of rivers of Oklahoma List of rivers of Texas Oklahoma River Bike Trails Grand Blvd Bike Trail Starting at the Oklahoma River Oklahoma River Chesapeake Boat House Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory U.
S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: North Canadian River
The Territory of Oklahoma was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 2, 1890, until November 16, 1907, when it was joined with the Indian Territory under a new constitution and admitted to the Union as the State of Oklahoma. The 1890 Oklahoma Organic Act organized the western half of Indian Territory and a strip of country known as No Man's Land into Oklahoma Territory. Reservations in the new territory were opened to settlement in land runs that year and in 1891 and 1893. Seven counties were defined upon the creation of the territory. Although they were designated by number, they would become Logan, Oklahoma, Kingfisher and Beaver counties; the Land Run of 1893 led to the addition of Kay, Woods, Garfield and Pawnee counties. The territory acquired an additional county through the resolution of a boundary dispute with the U. S. state of Texas, which today is split into Greer, Jackson and part of Beckham counties. Oklahoma Territory's history began with the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834 when the United States Congress set aside land for Native Americans.
At the time, the land was unorganized territory that consisted of the federal land "west of the Mississippi and not within the states of Missouri and Louisiana, or the territory of Arkansas..." By 1856, the territory had been reduced to the modern-day borders of the State of Oklahoma, except for the Oklahoma Panhandle and Old Greer County. These lands became known as Indian Territory, as they had been granted to certain Indian nations under the Indian Removal Act, in exchange for their historic territories east of the Mississippi River; until this point, Native Americans had used the land. In 1866, after the American Civil War, the federal government required new treaties with the tribes that had supported the Confederacy, forced them into land and other concessions; as a result of the Reconstruction Treaties, The Five Civilized Tribes were required to emancipate their slaves and offer them full citizenship in the tribes if they wanted to stay in the Nations. This forced many of the tribes in Indian Territory into making concessions.
U. S. officials forced the cession of some 2,000,000 acres of land in the center of the Indian Nation Territory. Elias C. Boudinot a railroad lobbyist, wrote an article, published in the Chicago Times on February 17, 1879, that popularized the term Unassigned Lands to refer to this tract. Soon the popular press began referring to the people agitating for its settlement as Boomers. To prevent settlement of the land by European-Americans, President Rutherford B. Hayes, issued a proclamation forbidding unlawful entry into Indian Territory in April 1879. Despite federal obstruction, popular demands for the land did not end. Captain David L. Payne was one of the main supporters of the opening of Oklahoma to white settlement. Payne traveled to Kansas, where he founded the Boomer "Colonial Association." Payne's organization of 10,000 members hoped to establish a white colony in the Unassigned Lands. The formation of the group prompted President Hayes to issue a proclamation ordering Payne not to enter Indian Territory on February 12, 1880.
In response and his group traveled to Camp Alice in the Unassigned Lands, east of Oklahoma City. There, they made plans for a city, which they named "Ewing." The Fourth Cavalry arrested them, escorted them back to Kansas. Payne was furious, as public law prohibited the military from interfering in civil matters; the federal government freed Payne and his party denying them access to the courts. Anxious to prove his case in court, Payne and a larger group returned to Ewing in July; the Army again escorted them back to Kansas. Again they were freed but this time the federal government charged Payne with trespassing under the Indian Intercourse Act. Judge Isaac Parker fined him the maximum amount of one thousand dollars. Since Payne had no money and no property, the government could not collect the fine; the ruling settled nothing on the question of the public domain lands, Payne continued his activities. Payne tried a third time to enter the Unassigned Lands. In December and his group moved along the northern border of Indian Territory.
They were followed by a unit of cavalry under the command of Colonel J. J. Copinger. Colonel Copinger warned Payne that if he crossed the border that they would be "forcibly resisted." As the number of Boomers grew as people joined Payne, they sent a messenger to President Hayes asking permission to enter Indian Territory. After weeks of no response, Payne led his followers to the Unassigned Lands. Once again, they were arrested and Payne was sent back to Fort Smith, he was sentenced to pay a $1,000 fine. Upon his release, he returned to Kansas. During Payne's last venture, this time into the Cherokee Outlet in 1884, the Army again arrested him, they took him several hundred miles under severe physical circumstances over a tortuous route to Ft. Smith; the public was outraged about his treatment by the military, the US government decided to try his case. Payne was turned over to the United States District Court at Kansas, he was indicted for the crime of bringing whiskey into a Federal offense. In the fall term, Judge Cassius G. Foster quashed the indictments and ruled that settling on the Unassigned Lands was not a criminal offense.
The Boomers celebrated. Payne planned another expedition, but he would not lead it. On November 28, 1884, i
Oklahoma's 3rd congressional district
Oklahoma's Third Congressional District is the largest congressional district in the state, covering an area of 34,088.49 square miles, over 48 percent the state's land mass. The district is bordered by New Mexico, Colorado and the Texas panhandle. Altogether, the district includes a total of 32 counties, covers more territory than the state's other four districts combined, it is one of the largest districts in the nation. As of 2015, the district is represented by Republican Frank Lucas. Prior to 2003, most of the territory now in the 3rd district was in the 6th district. Meanwhile, from 1915 to 2003, the 3rd district was located in southeastern Oklahoma, an area known as Little Dixie, it had a different voting history from the current 3rd. It was the district of Carl Albert, Speaker of the House from 1971 to 1977; the district borders New Mexico to the west and Kansas to the north, the Texas panhandle to the south. To the far west, the district includes the three counties of the Oklahoma Panhandle, Harper, Woodward, Major, Grant, Kay, Osage, Creek, Lincoln, Kingfisher, Canadian, Custer, Rogers Mills, Washita, Kiowa, Greer and Jackson.
Some of the principal cities in the district include Guymon, Ponca City, Enid, Yukon, Guthrie and Altus. It includes portions of Oklahoma City and Tulsa. Half of the district's inhabitants are urban and 3 percent of adults working in the district use public transportation, ride a bike, or walk; the district's population is 3 percent foreign-born. The political success of the Republican party in the region is tied to the state's settlement patterns. Northwest Oklahoma was settled out of Kansas while southeast was settled by Southerners that brought with them Democratic traditions; the Great Depression hurt the GOP, but it has since regained its place in the state, the growing social conservative bent in the state has allowed it to overtake the Democrats. It is now one of the most Republican districts in the nation. George W. Bush received 72 percent of the district's vote in 2004. Oklahoma's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Oklahoma County, Oklahoma
Oklahoma County is a county located in the central part of the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 718,633; the county seat is the state capital and largest city. Oklahoma County is at the heart of the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Statistical Area. Oklahoma County is one of seven counties in the United States to share the same name as the state it is located in, the only one of the seven to contain the state capital. Oklahoma County was called County Two and was one of seven counties established by the Organic Act of 1890. County business took place in a building at the intersection of California Avenue and Robinson Street until the construction of the first Oklahoma County Courthouse at 520 West Main Street in the 1900s. In 1937, the county government was moved to a building at 321 Park Avenue, which now serves only as the county courthouse. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 718 square miles, of which 709 square miles is land and 9.6 square miles is water.
I-35 I-40 I-44 I-235 I-240 US-62 US-66 US-77 US-270 Turner Turnpike Kilpatrick Turnpike SH-3 SH-3A SH-66 SH-74 SH-77H SH-152 SH-270 Oklahoma City National Memorial As of the Census of 2010, there were 718,633 people, 277,615 households, 172,572 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,013 people per square mile. There were 319,828 housing units at an average density of 416 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 64.6% White, 15.4% Black or African American, 3.5% Native American, 3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 8.1% from other races, 5.3% from two or more races. 15.1% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 12.4% were of German, 12.3% Mexican, 10.1% Irish, 7.9% English, 7.7% American ancestries according to the Census 2010. 84.4% spoke English and 11.5% Spanish as their first language. There were 277,615 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 15.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.8% were non-families.
31.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.26. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.60% under the age of 18, 10.90% from 18 to 24, 30.00% from 25 to 44, 21.40% from 45 to 64, 12.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,916, the median income for a family was $54,721; the per capita income for the county was $25,723. About 11.70% of families and 15.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.70% of those under age 18 and 8.60% of those age 65 or over. Oklahoma County, as is typical for the state, is conservative for an urban county. Reflecting the state's turn toward the GOP in the second half of the 20th century, it swung from a 20-point victory for Harry Truman in 1948 to a 15-point victory for Dwight Eisenhower in 1952.
It has gone Republican in all but one presidential election since then. Contrasting with earlier years, in the 2018 Oklahoma gubernatorial election, Oklahoma County gave Democratic candidate Drew Edmondson the largest vote share of any county. In the 2018 United States House of Representatives elections in Oklahoma, Oklahoma County 52.3% for Kendra Horn and was the only county in the state to vote for a Democratic candidate. Newalla List of counties in Oklahoma National Register of Historic Places listings in Oklahoma County, Oklahoma Oklahoma County Government's website Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census