Canadian English is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada. According to the 2016 census, English was the first language of more than 19.4 million Canadians, or 58.1% of the total population. A larger number, 28 million people, reported using English as their dominant language. Of Canadians outside the province of Quebec, 82% reported speaking English natively, but within Quebec the figure was just 7.7% as most of its residents are native speakers of Quebec French. Canadian English contains major elements of both British English and American English, as well as many uniquely Canadian characteristics. While, broadly speaking, Canadian English tends to be closest to American English in terms of linguistic distance, the precise influence of American English, British English and other sources on Canadian English varieties has been the ongoing focus of systematic studies since the 1950s. Phonologically and American English are classified together as North American English, emphasizing the fact that the vast majority of outsiders other native English speakers, cannot distinguish the typical accents of the two countries by sound alone.
There are minor disagreements over the degree to which Canadians and Americans themselves can differentiate their own two accents, there is evidence that some Western American English is undergoing a vowel shift coinciding with a vowel shift occurring in mainland Canadian English, first reported in the early 1990s. The term "Canadian English" is first attested in a speech by the Reverend A. Constable Geikie in an address to the Canadian Institute in 1857. Geikie, a Scottish-born Canadian, reflected the Anglocentric attitude that would be prevalent in Canada for the next hundred years when he referred to the language as "a corrupt dialect", in comparison with what he considered the proper English spoken by immigrants from Britain. Canadian English is the product of five waves of immigration and settlement over a period of more than two centuries; the first large wave of permanent English-speaking settlement in Canada, linguistically the most important, was the influx of Loyalists fleeing the American Revolution, chiefly from the Mid-Atlantic States—as such, Canadian English is believed by some scholars to have derived from northern American English.
Canadian English has been developing features of its own since the early 19th century. The second wave from Britain and Ireland was encouraged to settle in Canada after the War of 1812 by the governors of Canada, who were worried about American dominance and influence among its citizens. Further waves of immigration from around the globe peaked in 1910, 1960 and at the present time had a lesser influence, but they did make Canada a multicultural country, ready to accept linguistic change from around the world during the current period of globalization; the languages of Aboriginal peoples in Canada started to influence European languages used in Canada before widespread settlement took place, the French of Lower Canada provided vocabulary, with words such as toque and portage, to the English of Upper Canada. While the process of the making of Canadian English—its documentation and codification—goes back to the 1930s, the 1960s were the key period. Like other social developments in Canada, the general acceptance of Canadian English has taken its time.
According to a recent study, a noticeable shift in public discourse can only be seen in the middle of the first decade of the 2000s, when Canadian English was seen as a "given" accepted default variety, while before such statements were "balanced" by doubts. Studies on earlier forms of English in Canada are rare, yet connections with other work to historical linguistics can be forged. An overview of diachronic work on Canadian English, or diachronically relevant work, is Dollinger; until the 2000s all commentators on the history of CanE have argued from the "language-external" history, i.e. social and political history. An exception has been in the area of lexis, where Avis et al.'s 1967 Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles offered real-time historical data through its quotations. Historical linguists have started to study earlier Canadian English with historical linguistic data. DCHP-1 is now available in open access. Most notably, Dollinger pioneered the historical corpus linguistic approach for English in Canada with CONTE and offers a developmental scenario for 18th- and 19th-century Ontario.
Reuter, with a 19th-century newspaper corpus from Ontario, has confirmed the scenario laid out in Dollinger. Canadian English included a class-based sociolect known as Canadian dainty. Treated as a marker of upper-class prestige in the 19th and early 20th centuries, Canadian dainty was marked by the use of some features of British English pronunciation, resulting in an accent similar to the Mid-Atlantic accent known in the United States; this accent faded in prominence following World War II, when it became stigmatized as pretentious, is now never heard in contemporary Canadian life outside of archival recordings used in film, television or radio documentaries. Canadian spelling of the English language combines British and American conventions, the two dominant varieties, adds some domestic idiosyncrasies. Spelling in Canadian English co-varies with regional and social variables, somewhat more so than in the two dominant varieties of English, yet general trends have emerged sin
The Grumman F7F Tigercat is a heavy fighter aircraft that served with the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps from late in World War II until 1954. It was the first twin-engine fighter to be deployed by the USN. While the Tigercat was delivered too late to see combat in World War II, it saw action as a night fighter and attack aircraft during the Korean War. Designed for service on Midway-class aircraft carriers, early production F7Fs were land-based variants; the type was too large to operate from older and smaller carriers, only a late variant was certified for carrier service. Based on the earlier Grumman XP-50, canceled, the company developed the XP-65 further for a future "convoy fighter" concept. In 1943, work on the XP-65 was terminated in favor of the design that would become the F7F; the contract for the prototype XF7F-1 was signed on 30 June 1941. Grumman's aim was to produce a fighter that outperformed and outgunned all existing fighter aircraft, that had an auxiliary ground attack capability.
Performance of the prototype and initial production aircraft met expectations. Captain Fred Trapnell, one of the premier USN test pilots of the era, stated: "It's the best damn fighter I've flown." The F7F was to be heavily-armed: four 20 mm cannon and four 50 caliber machine guns, as well as underwing and under-fuselage hardpoints for bombs and torpedoes. This speed and firepower was bought at the cost of heavy weight and a high landing speed, but what caused the aircraft to fail carrier suitability trials was poor directional stability with only one engine operational, as well as problems with the tailhook design; the initial production series was, used only from land bases by the USMC, as night fighters with APS-6 radar. While the F7F was also known as the Grumman Tomcat, this name was abandoned, because it was considered at the time to have excessively sexual overtones; the first production variant was the single-seat F7F-1N aircraft. A second production version, the F7F-3, was modified to correct the issues that caused the aircraft to fail carrier acceptance and this version was again trialled on the USS Shangri-La.
A wing failure on a heavy landing caused the failure of this carrier qualification, too. F7F-3 aircraft were produced in day fighter, night fighter, photo-reconnaissance versions; the final production version, the F7F-4N, was extensively rebuilt for additional strength and stability, did pass carrier qualification, but only 12 were built. Marine Corps night fighter squadron VMF-513 flying F7F-3N Tigercats saw action in the early stages of the Korean War, flying night interdiction and fighter missions and shooting down two Polikarpov Po-2 biplanes; this was the only combat use of the aircraft. Most F7F-2Ns were modified to control drones for combat training, these gained bubble canopies over the rear cockpit for the drone controller. An F7F-2D used for pilot transitioning had a rear sliding, bubble canopy. In 1945, two Tigercats, serial numbers TT346 and TT349, were evaluated, but rejected by the British Royal Navy, who preferred a naval version of the de Havilland Hornet. XP-65 Proposed United States Army Air Forces pursuit fighter.
XF7F-1 Prototype aircraft, two built. F7F-1 Tigercat Twin-engine fighter-bomber aircraft, powered by two Pratt & Whitney R-2800-22W radial piston engines. First production version, 34 built. F7F-1N Tigercat Single-seat night fighter aircraft, fitted with an APS-6 radar. XF7F-2N Night-fighter prototype, one built. F7F-2N Tigercat Two-seat night fighter, 65 built. F7F-2D Small numbers of F7F-2Ns converted into drone control aircraft; the aircraft were fitted with a Grumman F8F Bearcat windshield behind the cockpit. F7F-3 Tigercat Single-seat fighter-bomber aircraft, powered by two Pratt & Whitney R-2800-34W radial piston engines and featuring an enlarged tailfin for improved stability at high altitudes, 189 built. F7F-3N Tigercat Two-seat night fighter aircraft, 60 built. F7F-3E Tigercat Small numbers of F7F-3s were converted into electronic warfare aircraft. F7F-3P Tigercat Small numbers of F7F-3s were converted into photo-reconnaissance aircraft. F7F-4N Tigercat Two-seat night-fighter aircraft, fitted with a tailhook and other naval equipment, 13 built.
United StatesUnited States Marine Corps United States Navy Beginning in 1949, F7Fs were flown to the then-U. S. Navy storage facility at Naval Air Station Litchfield Park, Arizona. Although the vast majority of the airframes were scrapped, a number of examples were purchased as surplus; the surviving Tigercats were used as water bombers to fight wildfires in the 1960s and 1970s and Sis-Q Flying Services of Santa Rosa, operated an F7F-3N tanker in this role until retirement in the late 1980s. AirworthyF7F-380374: owned in Wilmington, Delaware. 80375: owned in Bellevue, Washington. 80390: based at Lewis Air Legends in San Antonio, Texas. 80411: based at Palm Springs Air Museum in Palm Springs, California. 80425: owned in Seattle, Washington. 80483: owned in Houston, Texas. 80503: based at Lewis Air Legends in San Antonio, Texas. 80532: owned in Bentonville, Arkansas. On displayF7F-380373: National Naval Aviation Museum in Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida. 80382: Planes of Fame Air Museum in Chino, California.
80410: Pima Air & Space Museum, adjacent to Da
Folker is Paul Westerberg's sixth solo album. It peaked at number 178 on number 18 on the Top Independent Album charts. Folker marks the final chapter in a trilogy of albums for the previous leader of The Replacements, which started back in 2002 with the release of the double album Stereo/Mono. Much like that set, Folker was written and recorded by Westerberg in his basement studio, with the recording kept as simple and lo-fi as possible. Westerberg has stated in interviews that he wanted to create a folk album in the vein of Rod Stewart's earliest solo work, consisting of an acoustic bass with minimal instrumentation layered on top of the tracks. Westerberg shopped "Jingle" around to major retailers like Target and Best Buy for use in advertising, but they passed. All songs by Paul Westerberg. "Jingle" – 1:28 "Now I Wonder" – 4:35 "My Dad" – 3:28 "Lookin' Up in Heaven" – 3:12 "Anyway's All Right" – 4:41 "$100 Groom" – 5:15 "23 Years Ago" – 5:35 "As Far as I Know" – 3:03 "What About Mine?" – 3:43 "How Can You Like Him?"
– 4:04 "Breathe Some New Life" – 5:30 "Gun Shy" – 3:14 "Folk Star" – 4:17