The North-West Rebellion of 1885 was a brief and unsuccessful uprising by the Métis people under Louis Riel and an associated uprising by First Nations Cree and Assiniboine of the District of Saskatchewan against the government of Canada. Many Métis felt Canada was not protecting their rights, their land and their survival as a distinct people. Riel had been invited to lead the movement of protest, he turned it into a military action with a religious tone. This alienated Catholic clergy, most Indigenous tribes and some Métis, but he had the allegiance of a couple hundred armed Métis, a smaller number of other Indigenous warriors and at least one white man at Batoche in May 1885, confronting 900 Canadian militia plus some armed local residents. About 91 people would die in the fighting that occurred that spring, before the rebellion's collapse. Despite some notable early victories at Duck Lake, Fish Creek and Cut Knife, the rebellion ended when the Métis were defeated at the Siege of Batoche; the remaining Aboriginal allies scattered.
Riel was put on trial. He was convicted of treason and despite many pleas across Canada for amnesty, he was hanged. Riel became a heroic martyr to Francophone Canada, ethnic tensions escalated into a major national division whose repercussions continue to be felt. Due to the key role that the Canadian Pacific Railway played in transporting troops, Conservative political support for it increased and Parliament authorized funds to complete the country's first transcontinental railway. Although only a few hundred people were directly affected in Saskatchewan, the rebellion's lack of success contributed to the eventual assurance that the Prairie Provinces would be controlled by English speakers with a limited francophone presence, to the alienation French speakers across Canada who were embittered by the repression of their countrymen. After the Red River Rebellion of 1869–1870, many of the Métis moved from Manitoba to the Fort Carlton region of the Northwest Territories, where they founded the Southbranch settlements of Fish Creek, Batoche, St. Laurent, St. Louis, Duck Lake on or near the South Saskatchewan River.
In 1882, surveyors began dividing the land of the newly formed District of Saskatchewan in the square concession system. The Métis lands were laid out in the seigneurial system of strips reaching back from a river which the Métis were familiar with in their French-Canadian culture. A year after the survey the 36 families of the parish of St. Louis found that their land and village site that included a church and a school had been sold by the Government of Canada to the Prince Albert Colonization Company. Not having clear title the Métis feared losing their land which, now that the buffalo herds were gone, was their primary source of sustenance. In 1884, the Métis asked Louis Riel to return from the United States, where he had fled after the Red River Rebellion, to appeal to the government on their behalf; the government gave a vague response. In March 1885, Gabriel Dumont, Honoré Jackson, others set up the Provisional Government of Saskatchewan, believing that they could influence the federal government in the same way as they had in 1869.
The role of aboriginal peoples prior to—and during—the outbreak of the rebellion is misunderstood. A number of factors have created the misconception that the Métis were acting in unison. By the end of the 1870s, the stage was set for discontent among the aboriginal people of the prairies: the bison population was in serious decline and, in an attempt to assert control over aboriginal settlement, the federal government violated the terms of the treaties it had signed during the latter part of the decade. Thus, widespread dissatisfaction with the treaties and rampant poverty spurred Big Bear, a Cree chief, to embark on a diplomatic campaign to renegotiate the terms of the treaties; when the Cree initiated violence in the spring of 1885, it was certainly unrelated to the revolt of Riel and the Métis. In both the Frog Lake Massacre and the Siege of Fort Battleford, small dissident groups of Cree men revolted against the authority of Big Bear and Poundmaker. Although he signalled to Ottawa that these two incidents were the result of desperate and starving people and were, as such, unrelated to the rebellion, Edgar Dewdney, the lieutenant-governor of the territories, publicly claimed that the Cree and the Métis had joined forces.
For Riel and the Métis, several factors had changed since the Red River Rebellion. The railway had been completed across the prairies in 1883, though sections were still under construction north of Lake Superior, making it easier for the government to get troops into the area. In addition, the North-West Mounted Police had been created. Riel lacked support from English settlers of the area as well as the great majority of tribes. Riel's claim that God had sent him back to Canada as a prophet caused Catholic officials to try to minimize his support; the Catholic priest, Albert Lacombe, worked to obtain assurances from Crowfoot that his Blackfoot warriors would not participate in a rebellion. The District of Saskatchewan, part of the Northwest Territories in 1885, was divided into three sub-districts and had a population of 10,595. To the east, the Carrot River sub-district with 1,770 people remained quiet; the Prince Albert sub-district locate
History of the Royal Canadian Air Force
The history of the Royal Canadian Air Force begins in 1920, when the air force was created as the Canadian Air Force. In 1924 the CAF was renamed the Royal Canadian Air Force when it was granted the royal title by King George V; the RCAF existed as an independent service until 1968. Prior attempts at forming an air force for Canada were the Canadian Aviation Corps, attached to the Canadian Expeditionary Force, a two-squadron Canadian Air Force, attached to the Royal Air Force; the modern Royal Canadian Air Force known as Canadian Forces Air Command, traces its history to the unification of Canada's armed services in 1968, is one of three environmental commands of the Canadian Forces. The Royal Canadian Air Force has served in the Second World War, the Korean War, several United Nations peacekeeping missions and NATO operations; the force maintained a presence in Europe through the second half of the 20th century. The first heavier-than-air, powered aircraft flight in Canada and the British Empire occurred on 23 February 1909 when Alexander Graham Bell's Silver Dart took off from the ice of Bras d'Or Lake at Baddeck, Nova Scotia with J.
A. D. McCurdy at the controls; the 1/2-mile flight was followed by a longer flight of 20 miles on 10 March 1909. McCurdy and his partner F. W. "Casey" Baldwin had formed the Canadian Aerodrome Company, they hoped that the Department of Militia and Defence would be interested in buying the company's aircraft. Two staff officers at Militia Headquarters were interested in using aircraft for military use, so the aviators were invited to Camp Petawawa to demonstrate their aircraft. On 2 August 1909, the Silver Dart made four successful flights; the Silver Dart never flew again. A second aircraft, the Baddeck No.1, was flown a few days but was damaged on its second landing. Before the accidents, the Silver Dart made the first passenger flight aboard a heavier-than-air aircraft in Canada when McCurdy flew with Baldwin. After the crashes, the militia department showed no interest in aircraft, it was not until the First World War that the Canadian government became interested in military aviation. At the beginning of the First World War on 4 August 1914, Canada became involved in the conflict by virtue of Britain's declaration.
Some European nations were using aircraft for military purposes and Canada's Minister of Militia and Defence, Sam Hughes, organizing the Canadian Expeditionary Force, inquired how Canada could assist military aviation. London answered with a request for six experienced pilots but Hughes was unable to fill the requirement. Hughes did authorize the creation of a small aviation unit to accompany the CEF to Britain and on 16 September 1914, the Canadian Aviation Corps was formed with two officers, one mechanic, $5000 to purchase an aircraft from the Burgess Company in Massachusetts, for delivery to Valcartier, near Quebec City; the Burgess-Dunne biplane was delivered on 1 October 1914, was shipped to England. On arrival, the biplane was transported to Salisbury Plain where the CEF was marshalled for training; the craft never flew. It deteriorated in the damp winter climate. By May 1915, the CAC no longer existed. During the First World War over 20,000 Canadians volunteered to serve with the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service, producing such aces as William Barker, W.
A. "Billy" Bishop, Naval Pilot Raymond Collishaw, Roy Brown, Donald MacLaren, Frederick McCall, Wilfrid "Wop" May. In 1917 the RFC opened training airfields in Canada to train Canadian airmen; the Canadian government advanced the RFC money to open an aircraft factory in Toronto, Canadian Aeroplanes, but did not otherwise take part. In 1915, Britain suggested. However, it was not until spring 1918, that the Canadian government proposed forming a wing of eight squadrons for service with the Canadian Corps in France. Rather than the proposed eight squadrons, the British Air Ministry formed two Canadian squadrons. On 19 September 1918, the Canadian government authorized the creation of the Canadian Air Force to take control of these two squadrons under the command of Canada's Lieutenant-Colonel W. A. Bishop, the leading ace of the British Empire and the first Canadian aviator awarded the Victoria Cross. In June 1919 the British government cut funding to the squadrons, in February 1920, the Canadian Air Force in Europe was disbanded, never having flown any operations.
There had been some thought that these two European squadrons would be the nucleus of a new Canadian air force. Indeed, some members of the CAF believed. However, on 30 May 1919 the Canadian government decided against a new military air force because it was felt none was needed. After the war, Britain committed Canada to the International Convention for Air Navigation, part of the Peace Convention signed by Britain in Paris in 1919. Canada was required to control air traffic within its borders. To accomplish this, Canada instituted the Air Board, whose task was regulatory but it was responsible for controlling civil aviation and handling air defence. One of the Air Board's first responsibilities was managing the operation of over 100 surplus aircraft that been gifted to Canada by the British Government to help Canada with air defence. Several flying boat aircraft and other equipment had been donated to Canada by the Americans who had temporarily established naval air stations on the east coast pending formation of the Royal Canadian Naval Air Service.
The Air Bo
Canada and the Vietnam War
The Vietnam War had considerable effects on Canada – and Canada and Canadians affected the war. The Canadian government did not participate in the war. However, it contributed peacekeeping forces in 1973 to help enforce the Paris Peace Accords; some Canadians contributed to the war effort. Canadian corporations sold war materiel to the Americans. In addition, at least 30,000 Canadians volunteered to serve in the American armed forces during the war. At least 134 Canadians were reported missing in Vietnam. Meanwhile, tens of thousands of American Vietnam War resisters emigrated to Canada to avoid the draft. Middle class and educated, they had a significant impact on Canadian life. After the war, tens of thousands of Vietnamese boat people were admitted and became a unique part of Canadian life. During the First Indochina War between France and the Indo-Chinese nationalist and communist parties, Canada remained militarily uninvolved but provided modest diplomatic and economic support to the French.
Canada was, part of the International Control Commission that oversaw the 1954 Geneva Agreements that divided Vietnam, provided for French withdrawal and would have instituted elections for reunification by 1956. Behind the scenes, Canadian diplomats tried to discourage both France and the United States from escalating the conflict in a part of the world Canadians had decided was not strategically vital. Canada laid out six prerequisites to joining a war effort or Asian alliance like SEATO: It had to involve cultural and trade ties in addition to a military alliance, it had to demonstrably meet the will of the people in the countries involved. Other free Asian states had to support it directly or in principle. France had to refer the conflict to United Nations. Any multilateral action must conform to the UN charter. Any action had to be divorced from all elements of colonialism; these criteria guaranteed Canada would not participate in the Vietnam War. At the start of the Vietnam War, Canada was a member of the International Control Commission overseeing the implementation of the Geneva Agreements, thus attempted to maintain an air of neutrality.
However, the Canadian negotiators were on the side of the Americans. One representative was involved in secretly exchanging messages between the U. S. and North Vietnam on behalf of the Americans, with the approval of the Canadian government. Canada sent foreign aid to South Vietnam, while humanitarian, was directed by the Americans. Canada tried to mediate between the warring countries, aiming for a conclusion that could allow the U. S. to leave the conflict honorably, but publicly criticized American war methods. Meanwhile, Canadian industry exported military supplies and raw materials useful in their manufacture, including ammunition and Agent Orange, to the United States, as trade between the two countries carried on unhindered. "500 firms sold $2.5 billion of war materials to the Pentagon. Another $10 billion in food, beverages and boots for the troops was exported to the U. S. as well as nickel, lead, brass for shell casings, plate armour and military transport. In Canada unemployment fell to record low levels of 3.9%".
Although these exports were sales by Canadian companies, not gifts from the Canadian government, they benefited the American war effort nonetheless. The first official response to the economic support being given to the United States military from the government was by Lester B. Pearson on March 10, 1967 that the export of goods to their southern ally was "necessary and logical" due to the extreme integration of both economies, that an embargo would be a notice of withdrawal from North American defense arrangements; as the war escalated, relations between Canada and the United States deteriorated. On April 2, 1965, Pearson gave a speech at Temple University in the United States which, in the context of firm support for U. S. policy, called for a pause in the bombing of North Vietnam. In a apocryphal story, when a furious President Lyndon B. Johnson met with Pearson the next day, he grabbed the much smaller Canadian by his lapels and talked angrily with him for an hour. After this incident, the two men somehow found ways to resolve their differences over the war—in fact, they both had further contacts, including twice meeting in Canada.
Canada's official diplomatic position in relation to the Vietnam War was that of a non-belligerent, which imposed a ban on the export of war-related items to the combat areas. Nonetheless, Canadian industry was a major supplier of equipment and supplies to the American forces, not sending these directly to South Vietnam but to the United States. Sold goods included benign items like boots, but aircraft, munitions and commercial defoliants, the use of, fiercely opposed by anti-war protesters at the time. In accordance with the 1956 Defence Production Sharing Agreement, Canadian industry sold $2.47 billion in materiel to the United States between 1965 and 1973. Many of the companies were owned by US parent firms, but all export sales over $100,000 US were arranged through the Canadian Commercial Corporation, a crown corporation which acted as an intermediary between the United States Department of Defense and Canadian industry. In some cases Canadian defence contractors were sent to the theatre of war to carry out company work such as when de Havilland Canada sent mobile repair teams from the Downsview plant to carry out depot level repair on battle damaged de Havilland Caribou aircraft that were owned and
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Military history of the Acadians
Acadian militias were units of Acadian part-time soldiers who fought in coordination with the Wabanaki Confederacy and French forces during the colonial period, to defend Acadia against encroachment by the English. Some other Acadians provided military intelligence and logistical support to the resistance movement; the Acadian militias achieved effective resistance for more than 75 years and through six wars before their eventual demise. According to Acadian historian Maurice Basque, the story of Evangeline continues to influence historic accounts of the deportation, emphasising neutral Acadians and de-emphasising those who resisted the British. While Acadian militia was active during the American Revolution, the militias were dormant throughout the nineteenth century. After confederation, Acadians joined the Canadian War efforts in World War I and World War II; the most well-known colonial leaders of these militias were Joseph Broussard and Joseph-Nicolas Gautier. The first war to influence the Acadians is now known as King William's War, began in 1688.
Much of the local conflict was orchestrated by the Governor of Acadia and Baron de St Castin, who raided Protestant villages along the Acadia-New England border at the Kennebec River in present-day Maine. The crews of the French privateer Pierre Maisonnat dit Baptiste were Acadian; the Acadians resisted during the Raid on Chignecto. Colonel Benjamin Church and four hundred men arrived offshore of Beaubassin on September 20; when they came ashore, the Acadians and Mi’kmaq opened fire on them. Church lost several of his men, they managed to surprise the Acadians. Many fled while one confronted Church with papers showing they had signed an oath of allegiance in 1690 to the English King. Church was unconvinced after he discovered the proclamation heralding the French success at Pemaquid posted on the church door. On October 18 Church and his troops arrived opposite the capital of Acadia, in the Siege of Fort Nashwaak, landed three cannons and assembled earthworks on the south bank of the Nashwaak River.
Pierre Maisonnat dit Baptiste was there to defend the capital. Baptiste joined the Maliseet from Meductic for the duration of the siege. There was a fierce exchange of gun fire for two days, with the advantage going to the better sited French guns; the New Englanders were defeated, having suffered seventeen wounded. The French lost two wounded. Letters from an Acadian official censured and requested the removal of certain priests, called "do nothings", who took no part in the King William's War but attended to their religious duties and were therefore suspected of favouring the British. After the Siege of Pemaquid, d'Iberville led a force of 124 Canadians, Acadians, Mi’kmaq and Abenaki in the Avalon Peninsula Campaign, they destroyed every British settlement in Newfoundland, killed more than 100 British and captured many more. They deported 500 British colonists to Britain or France. During Queen Anne's War, the members of the Wabanaki Confederacy from Acadia raided Protestant settlements along the Acadia/ New England border in present-day Maine in the Northeast Coast Campaign.
Mi’kmaq and Acadians resisted the New England retaliatory Raid on Grand Pré, Piziquid and Chignecto in 1704. The raid was led by Benjamin Church, fired on by the local militia, who had gathered in the woods along the banks. According to Church, on the first day of the raid, the Acadians and Mi’kmaq "fired smartly at our forces". Church had a small cannon on his boat, which he used to fire grape shot at the attackers on the shore, who withdrew, suffering one Mi’kmaq killed and several wounded. Church was unable to come ashore. Having withdrawn from the village, the next morning the Acadian and Mi’kmaq militia waited in the woods for Church and his men to arrive. At the break of day, the New Englanders again set off toward the village, under orders from Church to drive any resistance before them; the largest body of defenders fired on the raiders' right flank from behind trees and logs, but their fire was ineffective and they were driven off. Acadians joined the French privateer Pierre Maisonnat dit Baptiste as crew members in his victories over British vessels.
Acadians fought alongside the Confederacy and French soldiers to protect the capital in the Siege of Port Royal and the final Conquest of Acadia. Acadians and the Wabanaki Confederacy were successful in the Battle of Bloody Creek; the victory at Bloody Creek rallied the local resistance, prompted many of the Acadians who were nominally under British protection to withdraw to the north. Soon thereafter a force of some 600 warriors, including Acadians, Mi’kmaq, under the leadership of Gaulin and Saint-Castin and blockaded Fort Anne; the defending garrison was small, but the attackers had no artillery and were thus unable to make an impression on the fort, the fort was still accessible by sea. Gaulin went to Plaisance in Newfoundland for supplies and equipment to advance the siege; that same expedition abandoned its goal of attacking Quebec when eight of its ships were lost on the shores of the Saint Lawrence River. In the March 1713 Treaty of
New France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763 under the Treaty of Paris. At its peak in 1712, the territory of New France sometimes known as the French North American Empire or Royal New France, consisted of five colonies, each with its own administration: Canada, the most developed colony and divided into the districts of Québec, Trois-Rivières and Montréal. In the sixteenth century, the lands were used to draw from the wealth of natural resources such as furs through trade with the various indigenous peoples. In the seventeenth century, successful settlements began in Acadia, in Quebec by the efforts of Champlain. By 1765, the population of the new Province of Quebec reached 70,000 settlers; the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht resulted in France relinquishing its claims to mainland Acadia, the Hudson Bay and Newfoundland to England.
France established the colony of Île Royale, now called Cape Breton Island, where they built the Fortress of Louisbourg. Acadia had a difficult history, with the British causing the Great Upheaval with the forced expulsion of the Acadians in the period from 1755 to 1764; this has been remembered on July 28 each year since 2003. Their descendants are dispersed in the Maritime Provinces of Canada, in Maine and Louisiana in the United States, with small populations in Chéticamp, Nova Scotia and the Magdalen Islands; some went to France. In 1763, France had ceded the rest of New France, except the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, to Great Britain and Spain at the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years' War. Britain received Canada and the parts of French Louisiana which lay east of the Mississippi River – except for the Île d'Orléans, granted to Spain, along with the territory to the west – the larger portion of Louisiana. In 1800, Spain returned its portion of Louisiana to France under the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso.
However, French leader Napoleon Bonaparte in turn sold it to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, permanently ending French colonial efforts on the North American mainland. New France became absorbed within the United States and Canada, with the only vestige remaining under French rule being the tiny islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon. In the United States, the legacy of New France includes numerous placenames as well as small pockets of French-speaking communities. In Canada, institutional bilingualism and strong Francophone identities are arguably the most enduring legacy of New France. Around 1523, the Florentine navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano convinced King Francis I to commission an expedition to find a western route to Cathay. Late that year, Verrazzano set sail in Dieppe. After exploring the coast of the present-day Carolinas early the following year, he headed north along the coast anchoring in the Narrows of New York Bay; the first European to visit the site of present-day New York, Verrazzano named it Nouvelle-Angoulême in honour of the king, the former count of Angoulême.
Verrazzano's voyage convinced the king to seek to establish a colony in the newly discovered land. Verrazzano gave the names Francesca and Nova Gallia to that land between New Spain and English Newfoundland. In 1534, Jacques Cartier planted a cross in the Gaspé Peninsula and claimed the land in the name of King Francis I, it was the first province of New France. The first settlement of 400 people, Fort Charlesbourg-Royal, was attempted in 1541 but lasted only two years. French fishing fleets continued to sail to the Atlantic coast and into the St. Lawrence River, making alliances with Canadian First Nations that became important once France began to occupy the land. French merchants soon realized the St. Lawrence region was full of valuable fur-bearing animals the beaver, which were becoming rare in Europe; the French crown decided to colonize the territory to secure and expand its influence in America. Another early French attempt at settlement in North America took place in 1564 at Fort Caroline, now Jacksonville, Florida.
Intended as a haven for Huguenots, Caroline was founded under the leadership of René Goulaine de Laudonnière and Jean Ribault. It was sacked by the Spanish led by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés who established the settlement of St. Augustine on 20 September 1565. Acadia and Canada were inhabited by indigenous nomadic Algonquian peoples and sedentary Iroquoian peoples; these lands were full of valuable natural resources, which attracted all of Europe. By the 1580s, French trading companies had been set up, ships were contracted to bring back furs. Much of what transpired between the indigenous population and their European visitors around that time is not known, for lack of historical records. Other attempts at establishing permanent settlements were failures. In 1598, a French trading post was established on Sable Island, off the coast of Acadia, but was unsuccessful. In 1600, a trading post was established at Tadoussac. In 1604, a settlement w
History of the Canadian Army
The history of the Canadian Army, began when the title first came into official use in November 1940, during the Second World War, is still used today. Although the official titles, Mobile Command, Land Force Command, were used from February 1968 to August 2011, "Canadian Army" continued to be unofficially used to refer to the ground forces of the Canadian Armed Forces, much as it has been from Confederation in 1867 to the present; the term was even used in official military publications, for example in recruiting literature and the official newspaper of the Canadian Forces, The Maple Leaf. On August 16, 2011, the title, "Canadian Army", was restored, once again bringing the official designation in line with common and historical usage. Prior to Canadian Confederation in 1867, defence for the colonies that comprise present-day Canada was dependent on the armies of colonial powers; the military of New France was dependent on the French Royal Army. Conversely, the defence of the English/British colonies of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia was dependent on the English/British Army.
After the British conquest of New France in 1760, defence for the French colony of Canada, St. John's Island was reliant on the British Army. Both the British and French Armies were augmented by locally recruited regulars and the Canadian militia. Many of these units remained inactive in between. During the War of 1812, locally raised Canadian units, including fencibles, militia units from the Canadas, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia served alongside regular units of the British Army; these fencible and militia units played an instrumental role during the conflict. The history and heritage, as well as the War of 1812 battle honours awarded to many of these units, are perpetuated by current units within the Canadian Army. While Canada developed a volunteer militia force of trained and unpaid amateurs, defence of the country was dependent on a contingent of regular British soldiers, as well as naval defence through the Royal Navy; the Canadian Militia evolved from the various British garrison forces on the North American continent in the 19th century.
In 1854, with the outbreak of the Crimean War the entire British garrison was pulled out of British North America to fight against Russia, with many American politicians saying this was the opportune moment for the United State to realize its "manifest destiny" by annexing British North America, the government of the United Canadas, consisting of Canada West and Canada East passed the Militia Act of 1855 to create an active militia, a professional army, through not labelled as such. The "active militia" consisted of 5,000 men; the Canadian Army is a direct descendant of the "active duty militia" force created in 1855. Upon Canadian Confederation in 1867, the ground forces in Canada continued to be referred to as the Militia. Using the "active duty militia" of the United Canadas as its core, Parliament passed the Militia Act of 1868 merging the militias of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia into the militia of the United Canadas. In February 1869, the Defence minister, Sir George-Étienne Cartier, told the House of Commons that the Militia had 37,170 men under arms and 618, 896 in reserve.
The primary action that the newly formed militia saw was from the Fenians, a group of Irish radicals who made several attempts in the late 19th century to invade some parts of southern Canada from the United States. The period of the Fenian raids in the 1860s and early 1870s was the peak of the efficiency of the Canadian militia. In 1866, at the Battle of Ridgeway the Fenians defeated the Canada West militia owing to the inexperience of the militiamen, but in 1870 the Quebec militia drove back the Fenians at Trout River and Eccles Hill with little trouble. In 1869, Canada purchased for $1.5 million the vast proprietary colony of Rupert's Land run by the Hudson's Bay Company that comprised all of northern Quebec, northern Ontario, Saskatchewan, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut. The 10,000 people, many of them Métis in the Red River Colony in what is now southern Manitoba, were not consulted about the sale, under the leadership of Louis Riel rebelled, setting up a provisional government to negotiate their admission to Confederation.
Donald Smith of the Hudson's Bay Company had been appointed to negotiate with Riel by Ottawa and arranged a settlement under which Canada would create a new province called Manitoba in exchange for the Métis laying down their arms. However, the execution of Thomas Scott, an Orangeman from Ontario, by the Métis, created much fury in Ontario, a province where the Loyal Orange Order was a major political force. To placate voters in Ontario, an expedition was sent to down the Red River Rebellion. In 1870, an Anglo-Canadian force consisting of the 400 men from British King's Royal Rifle Corps with the rest being Ontario militiamen, consisting of 1,044 men in total under the command of General Garnet Wolseley made an gruelling march across northern Ontario to the Red River colony. Riel fled and the rebellion ended without any fighting, the terms agreed upon between Smith and Riel were implemented with Manitoba becoming the 5th provinceAfter the Treaty of Washington and the end of the Fenian raids, the British began to downsize their garrisons in Canada to move troops to other areas of the Empire, but due to friendlier relations with the United States, Canada's immediate neighbour, the only country capable of launching an armed invasion of the country.
In 1871, the British garrisons in Canada were completely pulled out with British garr