Douglas Joseph Cardinal, OC is a Canadian architect based in Ottawa, Canada. C. Born of Métis Blackfoot/Kainai and Algonquin heritage, Cardinal grew up in Calgary, in 1953, he attended the University of British Columbia, he attended the University of Texas at Austin, from which he graduated with a degree in Architecture in 1963. Cardinal was one of the first North American architects to use computers to assist in the design process and his curvilinear designs reflect the landscape around them, so that people making use of the building can retain a sense of the land that surrounds them. In 1993, he was hired by The Smithsonian Institution as the Primary Design Architect for the National Museum of the American Indian, the NMAI is situated on the National Mall in Washington, D. C. and directly faces the Capital of the United States of America. After contractual disputes, Cardinal was removed from the project in 1998 before it was completed, in 2001, Cardinal received a Governor Generals Award in Visual and Media Arts in recognition of his contribution to Canadian and international architecture.
In 2008, his firm was hired by the Kirkland Foundation to design a museum/convention center in Union City, early in 2009 the firms contract was terminated with the owner, and all construction activity was halted, due to undisclosed differences between the two parties
The Pacific Northwest, sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and loosely, by the Rocky Mountains on the east. Though no agreed boundary exists, a common conception includes the U. S. states of Oregon and Washington and the Canadian province of British Columbia. Broader conceptions reach north into Alaska and Yukon, south into far northern California and east to the Continental Divide, thus including Idaho, Western Montana, narrower conceptions may be limited to the northwestern US or to the coastal areas west of the Cascade and Coast mountains. The variety of definitions can be attributed to partially overlapping commonalities of the history, society. The Northwest Coast is the region of the Pacific Northwest. The term Pacific Northwest should not be confused with the Northwest Territory or the Northwest Territories of Canada. The border — in two sections, along the 49th parallel south of British Columbia and the Alaska Panhandle west of northern British Columbia — has had an effect on the region.
According to Canadian historian Ken Coates, the border has not merely influenced the Pacific Northwest—rather, definitions of the Pacific Northwest region vary, and there is no commonly agreed-upon boundary, even among Pacific Northwesterners. A common conception of the Pacific Northwest includes the U. S. states of Oregon and Washington as well as the Canadian province of British Columbia. Broader definitions of the region may include the U. S. state of Alaska, the Canadian territory of Yukon, the portion of the state of California. Definitions based on the historic Oregon Country reach east to the Continental Divide, thus including all of Idaho and parts of western Montana. Sometimes the Pacific Northwest is defined as being the Northwestern United States, often these definitions are made by government agencies whose scope is limited to the United States. Some definitions include, in addition to Washington, Oregon and British Columbia, Southeast Alaska, western Montana, the coast of northern California, the Pacific Northwest has been occupied by a diverse array of indigenous peoples for millennia.
The Pacific Coast is seen by scholars as a major coastal migration route in the settlement of the Americas by late Pleistocene peoples moving from northeast Asia into the Americas. Other evidence for human occupation dating back as much as 14,500 years ago is emerging from Paisley Caves in south-central Oregon, despite such research, the coastal migration hypothesis is still subject to considerable debate. Due in part to the richness of Pacific Northwest Coast and river fisheries, in the interior of the Pacific Northwest, the indigenous peoples, at the time of European contact, had a diversity of cultures and societies. Some areas were home to mobile and egalitarian societies, especially along major rivers such as the Columbia and Fraser, had very complex, sedentary societies rivaling those of the coast. In British Columbia and Southeast Alaska, the Tlingit and Haida erected large, throughout the Pacific Northwest, thousands of indigenous people live, and some continue to practice their rich cultural traditions, organizing their societies around cedar and salmon
Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast
The term Pacific Northwest is largely used in the American context. Prior to the contact with Westerners, warfare between nations, and the enslaving of captives was a common to many of the groups. At one point the region had the highest population density of a region inhabited by Aboriginal peoples in Canada, the Pacific Northwest Coast at one time had the most densely populated areas of indigenous people ever recorded in Canada. The land and waters provided rich natural resources through cedar and salmon, within the Pacific Northwest, many different nations developed, each with their own distinct history and society. Some cultures in this region were similar and share certain elements, such as the importance of salmon to their cultures. Prior to contact, and for a time after colonization, some of these groups regularly conducted war against each other through raids. Through warfare they gathered captives for slavery, the Tlingit are one of the furthest north indigenous nations in the Pacific Northwest Coast.
Their autonym is Lingít, meaning Human being, the Russian name for them, was derived from an Aleut term for the labret, and the related German name, may be encountered in older historical literature. The Tlingit are a matrilineal society and they developed a complex hunter-gatherer culture in the temperate rainforest of the Alaska Panhandle and adjoining inland areas of present-day British Columbia and Yukon. The Tsetsaut were an Athabaskan people whose territory was at the head of the Portland Canal, decimated by raiding and disease, their survivors were absorbed into the Nisgaa. The latter people now hold their territories as they are now extinct. The Haida people are known as skilled artisans of wood, metal. They have shown much perseverance and resolve in the area of forest conservation, the vast forests of cedar and spruce where the Haida make their home are on pre-glacial land, which is believed to be almost 14,000 years old. Haida communities located in Prince of Wales Island and Haida Gwaii share a border with other indigenous peoples, such as the Tlingit.
The Haida were famous for their raiding and slaving, reaching as far as Mexico. There are about 10,000 Tsimshian, of which about 1,300 live in Alaska, succession in Tsimshian society is matrilineal, and ones place in society was determined by ones clan or phratry. Four main Tsimshian clans form the basic phratry, the Laxsgiik and Ganhada form one half. Gispwudwada and Laxgibuu form the other half, prior to European contact, marriage in Tsimshian society could not take place within a half-group, for example between a Wolf and a Killer Whale
Abstract art uses a visual language of shape, form and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world. Western art had been, from the Renaissance up to the middle of the 19th century, underpinned by the logic of perspective, the arts of cultures other than the European had become accessible and showed alternative ways of describing visual experience to the artist. By the end of the 19th century many artists felt a need to create a new kind of art which would encompass the fundamental changes taking place in technology and philosophy. The sources from which individual artists drew their theoretical arguments were diverse, Abstract art, non-figurative art, non-objective art, and nonrepresentational art are loosely related terms. They are similar, but perhaps not of identical meaning, Abstraction indicates a departure from reality in depiction of imagery in art. This departure from accurate representation can be slight, partial, or complete, even art that aims for verisimilitude of the highest degree can be said to be abstract, at least theoretically, since perfect representation is likely to be exceedingly elusive.
Artwork which takes liberties, altering for instance color and form in ways that are conspicuous, total abstraction bears no trace of any reference to anything recognizable. In geometric abstraction, for instance, one is unlikely to find references to naturalistic entities, Figurative art and total abstraction are almost mutually exclusive. But figurative and representational art often contains partial abstraction, both geometric abstraction and lyrical abstraction are often totally abstract. It is at level of visual meaning that abstract art communicates. One can enjoy the beauty of Chinese calligraphy or Islamic calligraphy without being able to read it, in Chinese painting, abstraction can be traced to the Tang dynasty painter Wang Mo, who is credited to have invented the splashed-ink painting style. While none of his paintings remain, this style is seen in some Song Dynasty Paintings. A late Song painter named Yu Jian, adept to Tiantai buddhism and his paintings show heavily misty mountains in which the shapes of the objects are barely visible and extremely simplified.
This type of painting was continued by Sesshu Toyo in his years, another instance of abstraction in Chinese painting is seen in Zhu Deruns Cosmic Circle. The painting is a reflection of the Daoist metaphysics in which chaos, in Tokugawa Japan some zen monk-painters created Enso, a circle who represents the absolute enlightenment. Usually made in one spontaneous brush stroke, it became the paradigm of the minimalist aesthetic that guided part of the zen painting, three art movements which contributed to the development of abstract art were Romanticism and Expressionism. Artistic independence for artists was advanced during the 19th century, patronage from the church diminished and private patronage from the public became more capable of providing a livelihood for artists. Expressionist painters explored the use of paint surface, drawing distortions and exaggerations
Canadian War Museum
The Canadian War Museum is Canadas national museum of military history. There is a storage area displaying large objects from the Museums collection, from naval guns to tanks. Much of the Museums public exhibition space is devoted to its Canadian Experience Galleries and these displays underline the profound effect that war has had on Canadas development and the significant role Canadians have played in international conflicts. Their content is a mixture of some 2,500 objects from war art to armoured vehicles, as well as scores of audio-visual displays. A changing program of temporary or special exhibitions, plus public programs and special events, besides exhibitions, the Museum supports educational outreach such as Lest We Forget Project. Its current building opened in May 2005 and is located less than 2 km west of Canadas Parliament Buildings, the buildings architecture has received professional and public acclaim. The Museum originated in 1880 as a collection of artifacts in the possession of the Canadian federal government.
Its first facility was a series of rooms in the Cartier Square Drill Hall, the collection was adopted by the Public Archives of Canada. The Canadian War Museum was officially established in 1942, the collection of war artifacts gained its own dedicated facility in 1967 when it moved to the former Public Archives building on Sussex Drive in Ottawa. That location was too small for the Museums growing post-war collection, in the 1990s, the federal government made plans to relocate the War Museum to a new site east of central Ottawa, near the Canada Aviation Museum. The proposed site was criticized for its distance from the core. The new location allowed for ceremonial processions between the National War Memorial and the new War Museum, and was situated in an urban space soon to begin redevelopment. The new, modern building emerges from the ground just west of Booth Street and rises higher at its eastern end. The building rises in the east to a large fin, clad in copper that matches the rooftops of other prominent public buildings in the national capital, the small windows on the fin spell out in Morse code Lest we forget and its French equivalent, Noublions jamais.
The copper used on the interior of the building was recovered from the Library of Parliament during refurbishment of the Librarys roof in 2004. On 6 May 2005, Canada Post issued a 50¢ stamp, designed by Tiit Telmet and Marko Barac, in its first year of operation the museum attracted 500,000 visitors and in 2010 there were 470,000 visitors. The Canadian War Museum contains several permanent galleries and other important display spaces and this gallery explores the history of war on Canadian soil and the way in which armed conflict affected the evolution of the country and its peoples. Content includes the Seven Years War, the American Revolution, the War of 1812, Canadian forces went abroad in 1899 and again in 1914 to fight in wars as part of the British Empire
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, the two form the core of the Ottawa–Gatineau census metropolitan area and the National Capital Region. The 2016 census reported a population of 934,243, making it the fourth-largest city in Canada, the City of Ottawa reported that the city had an estimated population of 960,754 as of December 2015. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, and incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city name Ottawa was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River nearby, the name of which is derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning to trade. The city is the most educated in Canada, and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, Ottawa has the highest standard of living in the nation and low unemployment. It ranked second out of 150 worldwide in the Numbeo quality of life index 2014–2015, with the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago the Ottawa Valley became habitable.
The area was used for wild harvesting, fishing, travel. The Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads, the area has three major rivers that meet, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years. The Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning Great River or Grand River, Étienne Brûlé, the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years later, Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls of the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, the early explorers and traders were followed by many missionaries. The first maps of the area used the word Ottawa to name the river, philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from Ottawa in Hull. He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create a community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City, the following year, the town would soon be named after British military engineer Colonel John By who was responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project.
Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of todays Parliament Hill and he laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named Upper Town west of the canal and Lower Town east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes, historically Upper Town was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas Lower Town was predominantly French, bytowns population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. In 1855 Bytown was renamed Ottawa and incorporated as a city, William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Years Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic, in reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock
Indigenous peoples in Canada
Aboriginal peoples in Canada, are the indigenous peoples within the boundaries of present-day Canada. They comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis, although Indian is a term still commonly used in legal documents, the descriptors Indian and Eskimo have somewhat fallen into disuse in Canada and are pejorative. Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are some of the earliest known sites of habitation in Canada. The Paleo-Indian Clovis and Pre-Dorset cultures pre-date current indigenous peoples of the Americas, projectile point tools, pottery, bangles and scrapers mark archaeological sites, thus distinguishing cultural periods and lithic reduction styles. The characteristics of Canadian Aboriginal culture included permanent settlements, agriculture and ceremonial architecture, complex societal hierarchies, the Métis culture of mixed blood originated in the mid-17th century when First Nation and Inuit people married Europeans. The Inuit had more limited interaction with European settlers during early period.
Various laws and legislation have been enacted between European immigrants and First Nations across Canada, Aboriginal Right to Self-Government provides opportunity to manage historical, political, health care and economic control aspects within first peoples communities. National Aboriginal Day recognizes the cultures and contributions of Aboriginal peoples to the history of Canada, First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples of all backgrounds have become prominent figures and have served as role models in the Aboriginal community and help to shape the Canadian cultural identity. The terms First Peoples and First Nations are both used to refer to peoples of Canada. The terms First Peoples or Aboriginal peoples in Canada are normally broader terms than First Nations, as they include Inuit, Métis, First Nations has come into general use for the indigenous peoples of North America in Canada, and their descendants, who are neither Inuit nor Métis. On reserves, First Nations is being supplanted by members of various nations referring to themselves by their group or ethnical identity, in conversation this would be I am Haida, or we are Kwantlens, in recognition of their First Nations ethnicities.
In this Act, Aboriginal peoples of Canada includes the Indian, Indian remains in place as the legal term used in the Canadian Constitution. Its usage outside such situations can be considered offensive, Aboriginal peoples is more commonly used to describe all indigenous peoples of Canada. It refers to self-identification of Aboriginal people who live within Canada claiming rights of sovereignty or Aboriginal title to lands, the term Eskimo has pejorative connotations in Canada and Greenland. Indigenous peoples in those areas have replaced the term Eskimo with Inuit, the Yupik of Alaska and Siberia do not consider themselves Inuit, and ethnographers agree they are a distinct people. They prefer the terminology Yupik, Yupiit, or Eskimo, the Yupik languages are linguistically distinct from the Inuit languages. Linguistic groups of Arctic people have no universal replacement term for Eskimo, inclusive of all Inuit and Yupik people across the area inhabited by the Inuit. Besides these ethnic descriptors, Aboriginal peoples are divided into legal categories based on their relationship with the Crown
Canadian Children's Museum
The Canadian Childrens Museum is located inside the Canadian Museum of History, in Gatineau, Quebec. The CCM is among the most popular museums in the country and it is Canadas largest exhibition centre designed specifically for children up to age 14 and their adult companions. Most of the space is devoted to the permanent exhibition. The CCM presents a changing line-up of special exhibitions curated internally or acquired from other institutions, the museum describes its permanent exhibition, The Great Adventure, as an interactive, intercultural journey of discovery. With a museum-issued passport and an imagination, visitors can travel to Nigeria, India, Indonesia. They can visit a kids café, stroll through a market bazaar, trek across a desert and they can step aboard a brightly decorated bus from Pakistan, which is perhaps the museums most beloved artifact. The CCM says its goal is to provide a fun, hands-on environment in which children can learn about the world. The Childrens Museum has a permanent collection of more than 15,000 items for use in its exhibitions and programs.
The items include artefacts, games, art and other objects from around the world relate to the lives of children, past. The Museum is affiliated with, Canadian Museums Association, Canadian Heritage Information Network, the CCM is a member of the international Association of Childrens Museums, and the only Canadian member of the Youth Museums Exhibit Collaborative. The Childrens Museum opened in 1989 when the Museum of History moved into its current building on the bank of the Ottawa River. The CCM has expanded twice since then, first in 1994, at the end of July 2007 it welcomed its eight-millionth visitor
Gatineau, officially Ville de Gatineau, is a city in western Quebec, Canada. It is the fourth largest city in the province after Montreal, Quebec City and it is located on the northern bank of the Ottawa River, immediately across from Ottawa, together with which it forms Canadas National Capital Region. As of 2011 Gatineau had a population of 265,349, the Ottawa–Gatineau census metropolitan area had a population of 1,236,324. Gatineau is coextensive with an equivalent to a regional county municipality and census division of the same name. It is the seat of the district of Hull. The current city of Gatineau is centred on an area called Hull, Wright brought his family, five other families and twenty-five labourers and a plan to establish an agriculturally based community to what was a mosquito-infested wilderness. But soon after and his family took advantage of the large lumber stands, the original settlement was called Wrightstown, it became Hull and in 2002, after amalgamation, the City of Gatineau.
In 1820, before immigrants from Great Britain arrived in numbers, Hull Township had a population of 707, including 365 men,113 women. Note the discrepancy in the number of men and women, owing to the work of the timber trade. In 1824, there were 106 families and 803 persons, during the rest of the 1820s, the population of Hull doubled, owing to the arrival of Ulster Protestants. By 1851, the population of the County of Ottawa was 11,104, by comparison, Bytown had a population of 7,760 in 1851. By 1861, Ottawa County now had a population of 15,671, the gradual move to the Township by French Canadians continued over the years, with the French Canadians growing from 10% of the population in 1850, to 50% in 1870, and 90% in 1920. The Gatineau River, like the Ottawa River, was much the preserve of the draveurs. Ottawa was founded later, as the terminus of the Rideau Canal built under the command of Col. John By as part of fortifications and its greater distance from the Canada–US border left the new parliament less vulnerable to foreign attack.
In the 1940s, during World War II, along various other regions within Canada, such as the Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean. Hulls prison was simply labelled with a number and remained unnamed just like Canadas other war prisons, the prisoners of war were sorted and classified into categories by nationality and civilian or military status. In this camp, POWs were mostly Italian and German nationals, during the Conscription Crisis of 1944 the prison eventually included Canadians who had refused conscription. Also, prisoners were forced into hard labour which included farming and lumbering the land, during the 1970s and early 1980s, the decaying old downtown core of Hull was transformed by demolition and replacement with a series of large office complexes
The First Nations are the predominant Aboriginal peoples of Canada south of the Arctic. Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit, the Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations primarily between First Nations people and Europeans. There are currently 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. Under the Employment Equity Act, First Nations are a group, along with women, visible minorities. First Nations are not defined as a minority under the Act or by the criteria of Statistics Canada. Within Canada, First Nations has come into general use—replacing the deprecated term Indians—for the indigenous peoples of the Americas, individuals using the term outside Canada include supporters of the Cascadian independence movement, as well as U. S. tribes within the Pacific Northwest. The singular, commonly used on culturally politicized reserves, is the term First Nations person, North American indigenous peoples have cultures spanning thousands of years.
Some of their oral traditions accurately describe historical events, such as the Cascadia earthquake of 1700, written records began with the arrival of European explorers and colonists during the Age of Discovery, beginning in the late 15th century. European accounts by trappers, traders and missionaries give important evidence of early contact culture, in addition and anthropological research, as well as linguistics, have helped scholars piece together understanding of ancient cultures and historic peoples. Combined with development, this relatively non-combative history has allowed First Nations peoples to have an influence on the national culture. Collectively, First Nations, and Métis peoples constitute Aboriginal peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, First Nations came into common usage in the 1980s to replace the term Indian band in referring to groups of Indians with common government and language. Elder Sol Sanderson says that he coined the term in the early 1980s, others say that the term came into common usage in the 1970s to avoid using the word Indian, which some Canadians considered offensive.
No legal definition of the term exists, some Aboriginal peoples in Canada have adopted the term First Nation to replace the word band in the formal name of their community. While the word Indian is still a term, its use is erratic. Some First Nations people consider the term offensive, while others prefer it to Aboriginal person/persons/people, the term is a misnomer given to indigenous peoples of North America by European explorers who erroneously thought they had landed on the Indian subcontinent. The use of the term Native Americans, which the United States government and it refers more specifically to the Aboriginal peoples residing within the boundaries of the United States. The parallel term Native Canadian is not commonly used, but Natives and autochthones are, under the Royal Proclamation of 1763, known as the Indian Magna Carta, the Crown referred to indigenous peoples in British territory as tribes or nations. The term First Nations is capitalized, unlike alternative terms and nations may have slightly different meanings
The Haida, historically sometimes spelled Hydah, are an indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America. In British Columbia, the term Haida Nation refers both to the people as a whole and their government, the Council of the Haida Nation, the Kaigani are part of the Central Council Tlingit Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska government. The Haida language has sometimes been classified as one of the Na-Dene group, Haida society continues to produce a robust and highly stylized art form, a leading component of Northwest Coast art. While frequently expressed in large carvings, Chilkat weaving, or ornate jewellery. Haida span the boundary between British Columbia and Alaska and their heartland is the two large and many smaller islands known as Haida Gwaii, which means island of the people in Haida. The name Queen Charlotte Islands was subsequently given back to the Crown in a ceremony between the British Columbia government and the Council of the Haida Nation. Haida live in Southeast Alaska, particularly on the half of Prince of Wales Island in communities such as Hydaburg.
Haida live in cities in mainland British Columbia and the western United States. The Haida are known for their craftsmanship, trading skills, and seamanship and they are thought to have been warlike and to practice slavery. Canadian Museum of Civilization anthropologist Diamond Jenness has compared the tribe to Vikings, oral histories and archaeological evidence indicate that the Haida have occupied Haida Gwaii for over 17,000 years. In that time they have established a connection with the islands lands and oceans, established highly structured societies. The Haida have occupied southern Alaska for over the last 200 years, the Haida were important trading partners with Russian, Spanish and American fur traders and whalers. According to sailing records they diligently maintained strong trade relationships with westerners, coastal people, like other groups on the Northwest Coast, the Haida defended themselves with fortifications, including palisades and platforms. They took to water in large ocean-going canoes, big enough to accommodate as many as 60 paddlers, the aggressive tribe were particularly feared in sea battles, although they did respect rules of engagement in their conflicts.
The Haida took captives from defeated enemies, between 1780 and 1830, the Haida turned their aggression towards European and American traders. Among the half-dozen ships the tribe captured were the Eleanor and the Susan Sturgis, the tribe made use of the weapons they so acquired, utilizing cannons and canoe-mounted swivel guns. In 1856, an expedition in search of a route across Vancouver Island was at the mouth of the Qualicum River when they observed a fleet of Haida canoes approaching. They observed these attackers holding human heads, ebeys scalp was purchased from the Kake by an American trader in 1860