Du Maurier (cigarette)
Du Maurier is a Canadian brand of cigarettes, produced by Imperial Tobacco Canada, a subsidiary of British American Tobacco. The brand is named after the noted British actor; the brand is produced under license by the West Indian Tobacco Company in Trinidad and Tobago. The brand was launched in 1930 after the actor Sir Gerald du Maurier had made requests for "a cigarette less irritating to his throat", because he had troubles with his taxes and lend his name to the creation of a cigarette brand, which he used to earn money with.. Peter Jackson were a subsidiary of the International Tobacco Co. which company was taken over by Gallaher in 1934. In 1979, the brand passed to British American Tobacco, who had owned the trade mark overseas since they acquired Peter Jackson Ltd. in 1955. The brand became the best-selling cigarette brand in Canada with a market share of 40%, was sold in various other countries. In 2005, Du Maurier changed the aesthetic of their packs and cigarette vending machines to compete with the introduction of new text and picture warnings, which covered 50% of the packs.
It is presume this was done to keep up with the changing cigarette market, which saw the introduction of new, cheaper brands as well as an increase in taxes and to give the brand a "new and fresh look". Various advertising posters were made for this brand, promoting the filter which would make for an "improved flavour and a cool and satisfying smoke... with no bits in the mouth". The brand is sold in Canada, but was or still is sold in the United Kingdom, Malta, South Africa, United States and Tobago, Guyana, South Vietnam, Japan and New Zealand Du Maurier was the sponsor of the Canadian Women's Open golf from 1988 until 2000, as well as the Canadian Open's women tennis from 1997 until 2000, when new anti-tobacco legislation came into force in Canada and prohibited tobacco companies from sponsoring major sport events. Du Maurier markets the following varieties of cigarettes: Du Maurier Signature Du Maurier Distinct Du Maurier Distinct Silver Du Maurier Mellow Du Maurier Menthol Du Maurier Fine Cut Blend Du Maurier Master Blend Du Maurier Fresh Blend Du Maurier Special Blend Cigarette Tobacco smoking Caballero
Nicotine marketing is the marketing of nicotine-containing products or use. Traditionally, the tobacco industry markets cigarette smoking, but it is marketing other products, such as e-cigarettes. Products are marketed through social media, stealth marketing, mass media, sponsorship. Expenditures on nicotine marketing are in the tens of billions a year. Nicotine marketing is regulated; the World Health Organization recommends a complete tobacco advertising ban. The effectiveness of tobacco marketing in increasing consumption of tobacco products is documented. Advertisements cause new people to become addicted when they are minors. Ads keep established smokers from quitting. Advertising peaks in January, when the most people are trying to quit, although the most people take up smoking in the summer; the tobacco industry has claimed that ads are only about "brand preference", encouraging existing smokers to switch to and stick to their brand. There is, substantial evidence that ads cause people to become, stay, addicted.
Marketing is used to oppose regulation of nicotine marketing and other tobacco control measures, both directly and indirectly, for instance by improving the image of the nicotine industry and reducing criticism from youth and community groups. Industry charity and sports sponsorships are publicized, portraying the industry as sharing the values of the target audience. Marketing is used to normalize the industry. Marketing is used to give the impression that nicotine companies are responsible, "Open and Honest"; this is done through an emphasis on informed choice and "anti-teen-smoking" campaigns, although such ads have been criticized as counterproductive by independent groups. Magazines, but not newspapers, that get revenue from nicotine advertising are less to run stories critical of nicotine products. Internal documents show that the industry used its influence with the media to shape coverage of news, such as a decision not to mandate health warnings on cigarette packages or a debate over advertising restrictions.
Counter-marketing is used by public health groups and governments. The addictiveness and health effects of nicotine use are described, as these are the themes missing from pro-tobacco marketing; because it harms public health, nicotine marketing is regulated. Advertising restrictions shift marketing spending to unrestricted media. Banned on television, ads move to print. Unlike conventional advertising, stealth marketing is not attributed to the organization behind it; this neutralizes mistrust of tobacco companies, widespread among children and the teenagers who provide the industry with most new addicts. Another method of evading restrictions is to sell less-regulated nicotine products instead of the ones for which advertising is more regulated. For instance, while TV ads of cigarettes are banned in the United States, similar TV ads of e-cigarettes are not; the most effective media are banned first, meaning advertisers need to spend more money to addict the same number of people. Comprehensive bans can make it impossible to substitute other forms of advertising, leading to actual falls in consumption.
However, skillful use of allowed media can increase advertising exposure. S. children to nicotine advertising is increasing as of 2018. Nicotine advertising uses specific techniques, but uses multiple methods simultaneously. For instance, the ad illustrated in this section uses many of the techniques discussed below, its tagline reads making use of reactance. The model's gesture echoes earlier ads; the 1999-2000 "Find your voice" ad campaign, of which this ad was a part, was criticized as offensive to smokers who have lost their voices to throat cancer, as targeting minority women and seeking to associate itself with empowerment, self-expression, women's rights, sexual allure. Nicotine marketing makes extensive use of reactance, the feeling that one is being unreasonably controlled. Reactance motivates rebellion, in behaviour or belief, which demonstrates that the control was ineffective, restoring the feeling of freedom. Ads thus explicitly tell the viewer to use nicotine. Instead, they suggest using nicotine as a way to rebel and be free.
This marketing message is at odds with the feelings of smokers, who feel trapped by their addiction and unable to quit. Mention of addiction is avoided in nicotine advertising. Reactance can be eliminated by concealing attempts to manipulate or control behaviour. Unlike conventional advertising, stealth marketing is not attributed to the organization behind it; this neutralizes mistrust of tobacco companies, widespread among children and the teenagers who provide the industry with most new addicts. The internet and social media are suited to stealth an
Women's British Open
The Women's British Open is a major championship in women's professional golf. It is recognized by both the Ladies European Tour as a major; the reigning champion is Georgia Hall, who won by two shots at Royal Lytham & St Annes in 2018 to earn her first major title. Since it became an LPGA major in 2001 it has been played in late July or early August; the 2012 edition was scheduled for mid-September, due to the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, while the 2014 event was played in mid-July, the week prior to the Open Championship. In 2019 it will be known as the AIG Women's British Open. From 2007 to 2018, it was called the Ricoh Women's British Open while the previous twenty editions were sponsored by Weetabix, a breakfast cereal; the Women's British Open was established by the Ladies' Golf Union in 1976 and was intended to serve as the women's equivalent of The Open Championship. At first, it was difficult for the organisers to get the most prestigious courses to agree to host the event, with the exception of Royal Birkdale, which hosted it twice during its early days — in 1982 and 1986.
After nearly folding in 1983, the tournament was held at the best of the "second-tier" courses, including Woburn Golf and Country Club for seven straight years, 1990 through 1996, as well as in 1984 and 1999. As its prestige continued to increase, more of the links courses that are in the rotation for The Open Championship, such as Turnberry and Royal Lytham & St Annes hosted the tournament, in addition to Royal Birkdale. In 2007, the tournament took place at the Old Course at St Andrews for the first time. In the 2010s, two additional Open Championship venues became first-time hosts for the women's event: Carnoustie and Royal Liverpool; the tournament has yet to be played at four Open Championship courses: Muirfield and Royal Troon in Scotland, Royal St. George's in southeastern England, Royal Portrush in Northern Ireland. Unlike its male counterpart, the Women's British Open has not adopted a links-only policy; this increases the number of potential venues the number close to the major population centres of England.
Through 1993, the tournament was an official stop only on the Ladies European Tour, with the exception of the 1984 edition, co-sanctioned by the LPGA Tour. Starting in 1994, it became a permanent LPGA Tour event, which increased both the quality of the field and the event's prestige, it has been an official LPGA major since 2001. In 2005, the starting field size was increased to 150, but only the low 65 survive the cut after the second round. In both 2007 and 2008 the prize fund was £1.05 million. Starting in 2009, the prize fund changed from being fixed in pounds to U. S. dollars, is now $3.25 million. Tied for most victories in the Women's British Open with three each are Karrie Webb of Australia and Sherri Steinhauer of the United States. Both won the tournament twice. Yani Tseng of Taiwan and Jiyai Shin of South Korea are the multiple winners as a major championship; the other multiple winner is Debbie Massey of the U. S. with consecutive wins well. Winners of the championship as an LPGA major: Winners as a co-sanctioned LPGA tournament, but not an LPGA major: Winners before the tournament became an LPGA tournament: In 1992 the second day was washed-out and the event reduced to 54 holes.
In 1990 Alfredsson won with a par at the fourth extra hole. In 1988 Dibnah won with a birdie at the second extra hole; the 1984 tournament was co-sanctioned by the LPGA Tour. Prize money for this event was in US dollars; the 1977 event was decided on "countback". Saunders won the title. Denotes amateur This table lists the total number of titles won by golfers of each nationality as an LPGA major. Source: The Smyth Salver is awarded to the leading amateur, provided that the player completes all 72 holes, for one year; the winner receives a silver medal. The salver was donated by a past president of the Ladies' Golf Union. Official website Coverage on the LPGA official site Coverage on the Ladies European Tour official site
Alexis Noel "Lexi" Thompson is an American professional golfer who plays on the LPGA Tour. At age 12, she was the youngest golfer to qualify to play in the U. S. Women's Open, she turned professional in June 2010 at age 15. On September 18, 2011, Thompson set a new record as the youngest-ever winner of an LPGA tournament, at age 16 years, seven months, eight days, when she won the Navistar LPGA Classic. Three months she became the second-youngest winner of a Ladies European Tour event, capturing the Dubai Ladies Masters by four strokes on December 17, 2011, she won her first major championship at the 2014 Kraft Nabisco Championship at the age of 19 years, 1 month and 27 days, making her the second youngest LPGA golfer to win a major. Thompson's two brothers are professional golfers: Nicholas Thompson plays on the PGA and Web.com Tours and Curtis Thompson plays on the Web.com Tour. She was home-schooled and told an interviewer in September 2012 that she had "graduated a few months ago"; as a 12-year-old in 2007, she became the youngest player to qualify for the U.
S. Women's Open. At the tournament, she failed to make the cut; the record was surpassed in 2014 by Lucy Li. In 2007, she won the Aldila Junior Classic to become the second-youngest winner in American Junior Golf Association, she won the Westfield Junior PGA Championship to become the youngest winner in Junior PGA Championship history. In 2008, she won the U. S. Girls' Junior, she qualified again in 2008 for U. S. Women's Open where she shot 75-77 and she again failed to make the cut, this time by two strokes; as a 14-year-old in 2009, she qualified for a third time for the U. S. Women's Open and made the cut for the first time, finishing tied for 34th, +11; that year she Monday-qualified for the Navistar LPGA Classic, where she shot 65 in the first round and finished tied for 27th, 12 strokes behind winner, Lorena Ochoa. In 2010 Thompson kept her amateur status for the first half of the year; as an amateur, she played in the Women's Australian Open, where she finished T16, 12 strokes behind the winner, Yani Tseng.
She made the cut at the 2010 Kraft Nabisco Championship, finishing T24, +2, 15 shots behind winner, Yani Tseng. She won the 2009 Verizon Junior Heritage after a sudden-death playoff with Laetitia Beck, she represented the winning United States team in the Curtis Cup competition and went undefeated, winning four matches and tying in a fifth. She turned pro the next week, stating she believed her game was ready to make the jump to the LPGA Tour. 2003 – Won U. S. Kids Golf World Championship 2004 – Won U. S. Kids Golf World Championship 2007 – second round, U. S. Girls' Junior 2007 quarterfinalist, U. S. Women's Amateur 2008 – Won U. S. Girls' Junior 2009 third round, U. S. Girls' Junior 2009 semifinalist, U. S. Women's Amateur Thompson announced that she had turned professional on June 16, 2010, she signed sponsorship deals with Red Bull. Lacking official status as an LPGA Tour member, Thompson had to rely on sponsors' exemptions to gain entry into tournaments, her first sponsor's exemption was entry into the ShopRite LPGA Classic where she missed the cut by four strokes.
She played qualifiers held in Florida in May to gain entry to the U. S. Women's Open played July 8–11, she finished T10 at the tournament, +6, nine shots behind winner Paula Creamer, collected her first professional check for $72,131. Two weeks at the Evian Masters, Thompson finished T2, −13, one shot behind the winner, made $242,711. After three professional events, her earnings were $314,842, which would have ranked 18th on the official LPGA money list if she had been a member of the LPGA Tour, her result from the Evian Masters caused her to rise 75 places to number 74 in the Women's World Golf Rankings. She played three more events on the LPGA Tour in 2010, missing the cut at the CN Canadian Women's Open, finishing T16 and T57 in two additional events. In December 2010, Thompson petitioned the LPGA to allow her to play in up to 12 LPGA tournaments in 2011 using sponsor exemptions instead of the six allowed to non-members by LPGA rules. In January 2011, Commissioner Mike Whan denied Thompson's petition, but announced that the LPGA rules would be changed to allow non-members to participate in Monday qualifying.
In effect this gave Thompson the opportunity to play in more than 12 tournaments in 2011. Thompson began playing in one-day tournaments in October 2010 on the Fuzion Minor League Golf Tour, a developmental tour aimed at men trying to move up to the next level of professional golf. On the Fuzion Tour, women play with tees moved up so that they play 94% of the distance that the men play, she returned to play against women in February 2011 at the Women's Australian Open and the ANZ Ladies Masters, where she missed the cut and finished T42 respectively. Returning to the United States, she won a one-round Fuzion Tour event, on February 21, at her home course in Coral Springs, Florida. Tied after 18 holes, she beat Brett Bergeron on the second playoff hole, for her first professional win. In March, Thompson failed to qualify. Thompson's first LPGA tournament in 2011 was the Avnet LPGA Classic, with a sponsor's exemption. After three rounds, she was tied for the lead with Song-Hee Kim. On Sunday, her score soared including back-to-back double bogeys on the 14th and 15th holes.
Thompson finished tied for 19th at − 1, nine strokes behind Maria Hjorth. She missed the cut at the ShopRite LPGA Classic, at the LPGA Championship and at the U. S. Women's Open and tried but fail
Imperial Tobacco Canada
Imperial Tobacco Canada Limited is a cigarette manufacturing company operating in Canada. It is a wholly-owned subsidiary of British American Tobacco, it was created in 1908 and bought out the Canadian interests of the American Tobacco Company, a monopoly in the United States until it was reorganized in 1911. Imperial Tobacco Canada has had no relationship to Imperial Tobacco Group plc since 1980 though British American was established as a joint venture between Imperial Tobacco Group and American Tobacco. American Tobacco, which had acquired the Kinney Brothers Tobacco Company, makers of the then-popular cigarette brand Sweet Caporal, had entered the Canadian market by acquiring the Montreal-based American Cigarette Company and D. Ritchie and Company, forming the American Tobacco Company of Canada, Ltd. Imperial Tobacco was the first Canadian cigarette manufacturer to be sued by a governmental entity in Canada; the province of British Columbia's lawsuit against Imperial was upheld by the Supreme Court of Canada in the landmark case British Columbia v. Imperial Tobacco Canada Ltd. 2 S.
C. R. 473, 2005 SCC 49. The Supreme Court ruled that the provincial Tobacco Damages and Health Care Costs Recovery Act, which allowed the government to sue tobacco companies, was constitutionally valid. On June 1, 2015, the Quebec Superior Court ruled against Imperial Tobacco Canada, JTI-Macdonald, RBH in two Quebec class action suits; the judgment against Imperial Tobacco was in excess of $10 billion – the highest tobacco judgement in Canadian history. The court found that Imperial failed in its duty of care to Quebec consumers prior to 1998; the court required a $1 billion payment to the plaintiffs within 60 days, regardless of appeal. Imperial Tobacco Canada is a Canadian market leader in tobacco products, with 50% market share of total tobacco products. Brands that BAT Canada markets include Du Maurier, John Player Special, Matineé, Pall Mall and Vogue. BAT Canada started marketing a vaping product called Vype, an alternative to combustible tobacco. Official website
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
The Ladies Professional Golf Association is an American organization for female professional golfers. The organization is headquartered at the LPGA International in Daytona Beach, is best known for running the LPGA Tour, a series of weekly golf tournaments for elite female golfers from around the world. Other "LPGAs" exist in other countries, each with a geographical designation in its name, but the U. S. organization is the first and best known. The LPGA is an organization for female club and teaching professionals; this is different from the PGA Tour, which runs the main professional tours in the U. S. and, since 1968, has been independent of the club and teaching professionals' organization, the PGA of America. The LPGA administers an annual qualifying school similar to that conducted by the PGA Tour. Depending on a golfer's finish in the final qualifying tournament, she may receive full or partial playing privileges on the LPGA Tour. In addition to the main LPGA Tour, the LPGA owns and operates the Symetra Tour the Futures Tour, the official developmental tour of the LPGA.
Top finishers at the end of each season on that tour receive playing privileges on the main LPGA Tour for the following year. In its 70th season in 2019, the LPGA is the oldest continuing women's professional sports organization in the United States, it was founded in 1950 by a group of 13 golfers: Alice Bauer, Patty Berg, Bettye Danoff, Helen Dettweiler, Marlene Bauer Hagge, Helen Hicks, Opal Hill, Betty Jameson, Sally Sessions, Marilynn Smith, Shirley Spork, Louise Suggs, Babe Zaharias. The LPGA succeeded the WPGA, founded in 1944 but stopped its limited tour after the 1948 season and ceased operations in December 1949. In 2001, Jane Blalock's JBC Marketing established the Women's Senior Golf Tour, now called the Legends Tour, for women professionals aged 45 and older; this is affiliated with the LPGA, but is not owned by the LPGA. Michael Whan became the eighth commissioner of the LPGA in October 2009, succeeding the ousted Carolyn Bivens. Whan is a former marketing executive in the sporting goods industry.
After a lawsuit filed by golfer Lana Lawless, the rules were changed in 2010 to allow transgender competitors. In 2013, trans woman Bobbi Lancaster faced local scorn for attempting playing in Arizona's Cactus Tour and attempting to qualify in the LPGA Qualifying Tournament. In 2010, total official prize money on the LPGA Tour was $41.4 million, a decrease of over $6 million from 2009. In 2010 there were 24 official tournaments, down from 28 in 2009 and 34 in 2008. Despite the loss in total tournaments, the number of tournaments hosted outside of the United States in 2010 stayed the same, as all four lost tournaments had been hosted in the United States. By 2016, the number of tournaments had risen to 33 with a record-high total prize money in excess of $63 million. In its first four decades, the LPGA Tour was dominated by American players. Sandra Post of Canada became the first player living outside the United States to gain an LPGA tour card in 1968; the non-U. S. Contingent is now large; the last time an American player topped the money list was in 1993, the last time an American led the tour in tournaments won was in 1996, from 2000 through 2009, non-Americans won 31 of 40 major championships.
One of the notable trends seen in the early 21st century in the LPGA is the rise and dominance of Korean golfers. Se Ri Pak's early success in the LPGA sparked the boom in Korean women golfers on the LPGA Tour. In 2009, there were 122 non-Americans from 27 countries on the tour, including 47 from South Korea, 14 from Sweden, 10 from Australia, eight from the United Kingdom, seven from Canada, five from Taiwan, four from Japan. Of the 33 events in 2006, a total of 11 were won by Koreans and only seven were won by Americans. In 2007, Americans saw a relative resurgence. For the first time since 2000, two Americans won majors In 2008, Americans grew in dominance, winning 9 of 34 events, tied with Koreans, but no majors, one of, won by a Mexican player, one by Taiwanese player, the other two by teenage Korean players In 2009, Americans won 5 of 28 official events, including one major, the Kraft Nabisco Championship while Koreans won 11 events Most of the LPGA Tour's events are held in the United States.
In 2010, two tournaments were played in Mexico and one each in Singapore, France, Malaysia, South Korea and Japan. Unofficial events were held in Brazil and Jamaica. In 2011, the unofficial Jamaica event was dropped and a tournament in Mexico was canceled months in advance over security concerns; the Women's British Open rotated from England to Scotland and all other countries retained their tournaments. In addition, events were added in China and Taiwan, while the biennial USA–Europe team competition, the Solheim Cup was played in Ireland. Five of the tournaments held outside North America are co-sanctioned with other professional tours; the Ladies European Tour co-sanctions the Women's British Open, The Evian Championship in France, the Women's Australian Open. The other two co-sanctioned events—the LPGA Hana Bank Championship and Mizuno Classic —are held during the tour's autumn swing to Asia; the LPGA's annual major championships are: ANA Inspiration U. S. Women's Open Women's PGA Ch