Canadian literature has been created in Canadian English, Canadian French, Canadian Gaelic, more by First Nations and immigrants of other ancestral backgrounds. Influences on Canadian writers are broad, both geographically and representing Canada's diversity in culture and region. While written in English, "Indigenous literature" has begun to flourish and is based upon many distinct oral traditions and cultural practices. However, Canadians have been less willing to acknowledge the diverse languages of Canada, such as Canadian Gaelic; the dominant European cultures were English and Gaelic. However, in recent decades Canada's literature has been influenced by immigrants from other countries. Since the 1980s Canada's ethnic and cultural diversity has been reflected in its literature, with many of its most prominent writers focusing on ethnic minority identity and cultural differences. Indigenous peoples of Canada are culturally diverse; each group has its own literature and culture. The term "Indigenous literature" therefore can be misleading.
As writer Jeannette Armstrong states in one interview, "I would stay away from the idea of "Native" literature, there is no such thing. There is Mohawk literature, there is Okanagan literature, but there is no generic Native in Canada". In 1802, the Lower Canada legislative library was founded, being one of the first in Occident, the first in the Canadas. For comparison, the library of the British House of Commons was founded sixteen years later; the library had some rare titles about natural science and letters. All books it contained were moved to the Canadian parliament in Montreal when the two Canadas and upper, were united. On April 25, 1849, a dramatic event occurred: the Canadian parliament was burned by furious people along with thousands of French Canadian books and a few hundred of English books; this is why some people still affirm today, that from the early settlements until the 1820s, Quebec had no literature. Though historians and learned priests published, overall the total output that remain from this period and, kept out of the burned parliament is small.
It was the rise of Quebec patriotism and the 1837 Lower Canada Rebellion, in addition to a modern system of primary school education, which led to the rise of French-Canadian fiction. L'influence d'un livre by Philippe-Ignace-Francois Aubert de Gaspé is regarded as the first French-Canadian novel; the genres which first became popular were the historical novel. French authors were influential authors like Balzac. In 1866, Father Henri-Raymond Casgrain became one of Quebec's first literary theorists, he argued. However, a few authors like Louis-Honoré Fréchette and Arthur Buies broke the conventions to write more interesting works; this pattern continued until the 1930s with a new group of authors educated at the Université Laval and the Université de Montréal. Novels with psychological and sociological foundations became the norm. Gabrielle Roy and Anne Hébert began to earn international acclaim, which had not happened to French-Canadian literature before. During this period, Quebec theatre, melodramas and comedies, became far more involved.
French-Canadian literature began to expand with the turmoil of the Second World War, the beginnings of industrialization in the 1950s, most the Quiet Revolution in the 1960s. French-Canadian literature began to attract a great deal of attention globally, with Acadian novelist Antonine Maillet winning the Prix Goncourt. An experimental branch of Québécois literature developed. In 1979, Roch Carrier wrote the story The Hockey Sweater, which highlighted the cultural and social tensions between English and French speaking Canada; because Canada only became a country on July 1, 1867, it has been argued that literature written before this time was colonial. For example, Susanna Moodie and Catharine Parr Traill, English sisters who adopted the country as their own, moved to Upper Canada in 1832, they recorded their experiences as pioneers in Parr Traill's The Backwoods of Canada and Canadian Crusoes, Moodie's Roughing It in the Bush and Life in the Clearings. However, both women wrote until their deaths, placing them in the country for more than 50 years and well past Confederation.
Moreover, their books dealt with survival and the rugged Canadian environment. Moodie and Parr Traill's sister, Agnes Strickland, remained in England and wrote elegant royal biographies, creating a stark contrast between Canadian and English literatures. However, one of the earliest "Canadian" writers always included in Canadian literary anthologies is Thomas Chandler Haliburton, who died just two years before Canada's official birth, he is remembered for his comic character, Sam Slick, who appeared in The Clockmaker and other humorous works throughout Haliburton's life. A group of poets now known as the "Confederation Poets", including Charles G. D. Roberts, Archibald Lampman, Bliss Carman, Duncan Campbell Scott, William Wilfred Campbell, came to prominence in the 1880s and 1890s. Choosing the world of nature as their inspiration, their work was drawn from their own experiences and, at its best, written in their own tones. Isabella Valancy Crawford, Frederick George Scott, Francis Sherman are sometimes associated with this group.
During this period, E. Pauline Johnson and William He
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Cam Jeffrey Emig is an American former professional motocross racer. He competed in the AMA Motocross Championships from 1988 to 1999, he was one of the top American motocross racers of the 1990s. During his motorcycle racing career, Emig won four AMA Motocross Championships, an FIM World Supercross title and was a six-time member of the U. S. Motocross des Nations team, he was inducted to the AMA Motorcycle Hall of Fame in 2004. Emig was born in Kansas where he began trail riding on motorcycles with his family, he followed his older brother in taking up the sport of motocross. He was successful as an amateur racer winning four titles at the AMA Amateur Motocross Nationals at the Loretta Lynn Ranch in Tennessee. In 1990, Emig joined the Kawasaki factory racing team earning a fifth-place finish in the 1990 125cc national championship, his impressive results earned him a contract to ride for the Yamaha factory racing team in 1991. 1991 was the year in which he began his career long rivalry with Jeremy McGrath.
In 1992, Emig won his first AMA national race in the 125 class in Buchanan, Michigan went on to win six of the seven nationals to earn his first AMA National Championship. In 1996, Emig returned to the Kawasaki team and had one of his best seasons in 1997. In the 13 round series he won seven races, finished second five times, had one fifth-place finish, he won 17 of the 26 motos that year claiming the 250cc motocross national championship as well as the 250cc supercross championship. In 1999, Emig was arrested for marijuana possession. Emig pled guilty to possession of drug paraphernalia, the charges for marijuana possession were dropped however, he lost his job with the Kawasaki racing team. Emig gained respect from his peers for taking full responsibility for his actions and blaming only himself, he would return as a privateer with a few sponsors and riding a Yamaha YZ250. He had his last major victory just a few weeks after being dropped by Kawasaki. On December 30, 1999, at the track of fellow Yamaha rider and neighbor Stephane Roncada in Riverside County, Emig came up short on a triple jump snapping both forearms above the wrist.
The end of Emig's career came on May 4, 2000, when he was preparing for the National Motocross Championship that year. Emig suffered another horrific crash where he crushed a vertebra in his back and compound fractured his right lower leg, forcing him into retirement. Emig's starting prowess was legendary, his clutch control and first corner fearlessness saw him lead many races into the first turn in the 1990s. He was notoriously hard to pass, always rode with his elbows high up in an outward position. During his 11-year professional career, Emig earned 37 AMA national wins, he is still involved in motocross on several levels, including television color commentary on Speed and CBS. Emig was inducted into the AMA Motorcycle Hall of Fame in 2004. Jeff Emig's involvement with the world of motocross continues. Mid year 2016 it was announced that Jeff will become Husqvarna spokesman. Quote: Husqvarna Motorcycles believes in the importance of this foundation and Emig's involvement will only bring forward momentum to this industry-wide initiative.
Current advisor and acting president of the USMCA, Mark Blackwell sees the connection between Emig and association critical to success. Emig has announced for AMA Supercross. For 2019, Emig is tv color commentating/broadcasting the "World MotoCross GP". Multi-time Amateur National Motocross Champion 1992 125 AMA National Motocross Champion 1996 250 AMA National Motocross Champion 1997 250 AMA Supercross Champion 1997 250 AMA National Motocross Champion 1997 King of Bercy 1999 US OPEN champion 1992-1997 member of the mx of nations for team USA 13 Wins in 125/250 AMA Motocross 6-1992 5-1993 2-1994 7 Wins in 250/450 AMA Supercross 1-1995 1-1996 5-1997 16 Wins in 250/450 AMA Motocross 1-1995 4-1996 7-1997 4-1998 36 Total AMA Wins 6-1992 5-1993 2-1994 2-1995 5-1996 12-1997 4-1998 Has won his class in the Motocross of Nations on every displacement 125,250 and 500