Bettino Ricasoli, 1st Count of Brolio, 2nd Baron Ricasoli was an Italian statesman. Ricasoli was born in Florence. Left an orphan at eighteen, with an estate encumbered, he was by special decree of the grand duke of Tuscany declared of age and entrusted with the guardianship of his younger brothers. Interrupting his studies, he withdrew to Brolio, by careful management disencumbered the family possessions. In 1847 he founded the journal La Patria, addressed to the grand duke a memorial suggesting remedies for the difficulties of the state. In 1848 he was elected Gonfaloniere of Florence, but resigned on account of the anti-Liberal tendencies of the grand duke; as Tuscan minister of the interior in 1859 he promoted the union of Tuscany with Piedmont, which took place on March 12, 1860. Elected Italian deputy in 1861, he succeeded Cavour in the premiership; as premier he admitted the Garibaldian volunteers to the regular army, revoked the decree of exile against Mazzini, attempted reconciliation with the Vatican.
Disdainful of the intrigues of his rival Rattazzi, he found himself obliged in 1862 to resign office, but returned to power in 1866. On this occasion he refused Napoleon III's offer to cede Venetia to Italy, on condition that Italy should abandon the Prussian alliance, refused the Prussian decoration of the Black Eagle because La Marmora, author of the alliance, was not to receive it. Upon the departure of the French troops from Rome at the end of 1866 he again attempted to conciliate the Vatican with a convention, in virtue of which Italy would have restored to the Church the property of the suppressed religious orders in return for the gradual payment of 24,000,000. In order to mollify the Vatican he conceded the exequatur to forty-five bishops inimical to the Italian régime; the Vatican accepted his proposal, but the Italian Chamber proved refractory, though dissolved by Ricasoli, returned more hostile than before. Without waiting for a vote, Ricasoli resigned office and thenceforward disappeared from political life, speaking in the Chamber only upon rare occasions.
He died at his Castello di Brolio on 23 October 1880. The barone created the modern recipe of Chianti wine, his private life and public career were marked by the utmost integrity, by a rigid austerity which earned him the name of the Iron Baron. In spite of the failure of his ecclesiastical scheme, he remains one of the most noteworthy figures of the Italian Risorgimento. History of Chianti Discorsi dei ministri Ricasoli Bettino, Della Rovere, Menabrea, e Cordova sulla Questione Romana e Sulla Condizione Provencie Napoletane Barone Ricasoli family Chianti Classico winery's - Ricasoli history
A Chianti wine is any wine produced in the Chianti region, in central Tuscany, Italy. It was associated with a squat bottle enclosed in a straw basket, called a fiasco. However, the fiasco is only used by a few makers of the wine as most Chianti is now bottled in more standard shaped wine bottles. Baron Bettino Ricasoli created the Chianti recipe of 70% Sangiovese, 15% Canaiolo and 15% Malvasia bianca in the middle of the 19th century; the first definition of a wine-area called Chianti was made in 1716. It described the area near the villages of Gaiole and Radda. In 1932 the Chianti area was re-drawn and divided in seven sub-areas: Classico, Colli Aretini, Colli Fiorentini, Colline Pisane, Colli Senesi, Montalbano and Rùfina. Most of the villages that in 1932 were included in the new Chianti Classico area added in Chianti to their name-such as Greve in Chianti which amended its name in 1972. Wines labelled "Chianti Classico" come from the biggest sub-area of Chianti, that includes the original Chianti heartland.
Only Chianti from this sub-zone may boast the black rooster seal on the neck of the bottle, which indicates that the producer of the wine is a member of the Chianti Classico Consortium, the local association of producers. Other variants, with the exception of Rufina from the north-east side of Florence and Montalbano in the south of Pistoia, originate in the respective named provinces: Siena for the Colli Senesi, Florence for the Colli Fiorentini, Arezzo for the Colli Aretini and Pisa for the Colline Pisane. In 1996 part of the Colli Fiorentini sub-area was renamed Montespertoli. During the 1970s producers started to reduce the quantity of white grapes in Chianti. In 1995 it became legal to produce a Chianti with 100% Sangiovese. For a wine to retain the name of Chianti, it must be produced with at least 80% Sangiovese grapes. Aged Chianti may be labelled as Riserva. Chianti that meets more stringent requirements may be labelled as Chianti Superiore, although Chianti from the "Classico" sub-area is not allowed in any event to be labelled as "Superiore".
The earliest documentation of a "Chianti wine" dates back to the 13th century when viticulture was known to flourish in the "Chianti Mountains" around Florence. The merchants in the nearby townships of Castellina and Radda formed the Lega del Chianti to produce and promote the local wine. In 1398, records note. In 1716 Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany issued an edict legislating that the three villages of the Lega del Chianti as well as the village of Greve and a 3.2-kilometre-long stretch of hillside north of Greve near Spedaluzzo as the only recognised producers of Chianti. This delineation existed until July 1932, when the Italian government expanded the Chianti zone to include the outlying areas of Barberino Val d'Elsa, Robbiano, San Casciano in Val di Pesa and Strada. Subsequent expansions in 1967 would bring the Chianti zone to cover a large area all over central Tuscany. By the 18th century, Chianti was recognised as a red wine, but the exact composition and grape varieties used to make Chianti at this point is unknown.
Ampelographers find clues about which grape varieties were popular at the time in the writings of Italian writer Cosimo Villifranchi who noted that Canaiolo was planted variety in the area along with Sangiovese and Marzemino. It was not until the work of the Italian statesman Bettino Ricasoli that the modern "Chianti recipe" as a Sangiovese-based wine would take shape. Prior to Ricasoli, Canaiolo was emerging as the dominant variety in the Chianti blend with Sangiovese and Malvasia playing supporting roles. In the mid-19th century, Ricasoli developed a recipe for Chianti, based on Sangiovese, his recipe called for 15 % Canaiolo, 10 % Malvasia and 5 % other local red varieties. In 1967, the Denominazione di origine controllata regulation set by the Italian government established the "Ricasoli formula" of a Sangiovese-based blend with 10–30% Malvasia and Trebbiano; the late 19th century saw a period of political upheaval. First came oidium and the phylloxera epidemic would take its toll on the vineyards of Chianti just as they had ravaged vineyards across the rest of Europe.
The chaos and poverty following the Risorgimento heralded the beginning of the Italian diaspora that would take Italian vineyard workers and winemakers abroad as immigrants to new lands. Those that stayed behind and replanted choose high-yielding varieties like Trebbiano and Sangiovese clones such as the Sangiovese di Romagna from the nearby Romagna region. Following the Second World War, the general trend in the world wine market for cheap, easy-drinking wine saw a brief boom for the region. With over-cropping and an emphasis on quantity over quality, the reputation of Chianti among consumers plummeted. By the 1950s, Trebbiano made up to 30% of many mass-market Chiantis. By the late 20th century, Chianti was associated with basic Chianti sold in a squat bottle enclosed in a straw basket, called a fiasco. However, during the same period, a group of ambitious producers began working outside the boundaries of DOC regulations to make what they believed would be a higher quality style of Chianti.
These wines eventual
Tourbat is a white grape variety planted in the French wine region of the Côtes du Roussillon AOC where is sometimes called Malvoisie du Roussillon. It is found in the Italian wines from Sardinia where the grape is known as Torbato and in the Aragon region of Spain; as a varietal, Tourbat is known for its smokey notes. The exact origins of Tourbat are unknown, with some ampelographers and wine historian suggesting that it has a similar origins as Grenache and is a Spanish variety, its presence in Roussillon seems to trace to that area's time under the Kingdom of Majorca with James I of Aragon was lord of over a wide expanse of land that crosses the modern-day borders of southern France and northern eastern Spain. Like Grenache, Tourbat may have spread to Sardinia when the island was under the rule of the Kingdom of Aragon. Plantings of Tourbat declined in the 20th century with Sardinia remaining the one significant source of the variety for a large part of that century. There the grape was on the verge of extinction until one producer, Sella & Mosca, began focusing on the variety and propagating healthier cuttings.
Their work lead to a slight resurgence of interest in the Roussillon region in the 1980s when the new cuttings of healthier vines were imported from Sardinia. However, overall the variety is still not planted. In Sardinia, Tourbat is known as Torbato and is grown around Alghero in the province of Sassari on the northwestern reaches of the island. In France, it is most planted in the Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée AOC region of the Côtes du Roussillon where the variety is known as Malvoisie du Roussillon. Tourbat tends to produce full-bodied wines with distinctive aromas that include smokey notes. Tourbat and its wines are known under a variety of synonyms including Canina, Cuscosedda Bianca, Malvoisie des Pyrenees Orientales, Malvoisie du Roussillon, Malvoisie Tourbat, Torbat, Torbato Bianco, Trubat Iberica, Trubau and Turbau. Despite the similarities with the notable synonym of Tourbat, Malvoisie du Roussillon, Tourbat has no known relation with other grapes that share Malvoisie as a name or synonym-most notably Pinot gris but Bourboulenc, Clairette and Vermentino
Sugars in wine
Sugars in wine are at the heart of what makes winemaking possible. During the process of fermentation, sugars from wine grapes are broken down and converted by yeast into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Grapes accumulate sugars as they grow on the grapevine through the translocation of sucrose molecules that are produced by photosynthesis from the leaves. During ripening the sucrose molecules are hydrolyzed by the enzyme invertase into glucose and fructose. By the time of harvest, between 15 and 25% of the grape will be composed of simple sugars. Both glucose and fructose are six-carbon sugars but three-, four-, five- and seven-carbon sugars are present in the grape. Not all sugars are fermentable with sugars like the five-carbon arabinose and xylose still being present in the wine after fermentation. High sugar content will kill the yeast once a certain alcohol content is reached. For these reasons, no wine is fermented "dry". Sugar's role in dictating the final alcohol content of the wine sometimes encourages winemakers to add sugar during winemaking in a process known as chaptalization in order to boost the alcohol content – chaptalization does not increase the sweetness of a wine.
Glucose, along with fructose, is one of the primary sugars found in wine grapes. In wine, glucose tastes less sweet than fructose, it is a six-carbon sugar molecule derived from the breakdown of sucrose. At the beginning of the ripening stage there is more glucose than fructose present in the grape but the rapid development of fructose shifts the ratio to where at harvest there are equal amounts. Grapes that are over ripe, such as some late harvest wines, may have more fructose than glucose. During fermentation, yeast cells convert glucose first; the linking of glucose molecules with aglycone, in a process that creates glycosides plays a role in the resulting flavor of the wine due to their relation and interactions with phenolic compounds like anthocyanins and terpenoids. Fructose, along with glucose, is one of the principal sugars involved in the creation of wine. At time of harvest, there is an equal amount of glucose and fructose molecules in the grape. In wine, fructose can taste nearly twice as sweet as glucose and is a key component in the creation of sweet dessert wines.
During fermentation, glucose is converted into alcohol. A winemaker that chooses to halt fermentation will be left with a wine, high in fructose and notable residual sugars; the technique of süssreserve, where unfermented grape must is added after the wine's fermentation is complete, will result in a wine that tastes less sweet than a wine whose fermentation was halted. This is because the unfermented grape must will still have equal parts of fructose and the less sweet tasting glucose; the process of chaptalization where sucrose is added will not increase the sweetness level of the wine. In most wines, there will be little sucrose, since it is not a natural constituent of grapes and sucrose added for the purpose of chaptalisation will be consumed in the fermentation; the exception to this rule is Champagne and other sparkling wines, to which an amount of liqueur d'expédition is added after the second fermentation in bottle, a practice known as dosage. In wine tasting, humans are least sensitive to the taste of sweetness with the majority of the population being able to detect sugar or "sweetness" in wines between 1% and 2.5% residual sugar.
Additionally, other components of wine such as acidity and tannins can mask the perception of sugar in the wine. Flash release is a technique used in wine pressing; the technique allows for a better extraction of wine polysaccharides. Gluconic acid – an acid sugar found in wine
Sangiovese is a red Italian wine grape variety that derives its name from the Latin sanguis Jovis, "the blood of Jupiter". Though it is the grape of most of central Italy from Romagna down to Lazio and Sicily, outside Italy it is most famous as the only component of Brunello di Montalcino and Rosso di Montalcino and the main component of the blends Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano and Morellino di Scansano, although it can be used to make varietal wines such as Sangiovese di Romagna and the modern "Super Tuscan" wines like Tignanello. Sangiovese was well known by the 16th century. Recent DNA profiling by José Vouillamoz of the Istituto Agrario di San Michele all’Adige suggests that Sangiovese's ancestors are Ciliegiolo and Calabrese Montenuovo; the former is well known as an ancient variety in Tuscany, the latter is an almost-extinct relic from the Calabria, the toe of Italy. At least fourteen Sangiovese clones exist, of. An attempt to classify the clones into Sangiovese grosso and Sangiovese piccolo families has gained little evidential support.
Young Sangiovese has fresh fruity flavours of strawberry and a little spiciness, but it takes on oaky tarry, flavours when aged in barrels. While not as aromatic as other red wine varieties such as Pinot noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Sangiovese has a flavour profile of sour red cherries with earthy aromas and tea leaf notes. Wines made from Sangiovese have medium-plus tannins and high acidity. Early theories on the origin of Sangiovese dated the grape to the time of Roman winemaking, it was postulated that the grape was first cultivated in Tuscany by the Etruscans from wild Vitis vinifera vines. The literal translation of the grape's name, the "blood of Jove", refers to the Roman god Jupiter. According to legend, the name was coined by monks from the commune of Santarcangelo di Romagna in what is now the province of Rimini in the Emilia-Romagna region of east-central Italy; the first documented mention of Sangiovese was in the 1590 writings of Giovanvettorio Soderini. Identifying the grape as "Sangiogheto" Soderini notes that in Tuscany the grape makes good wine but if the winemaker is not careful, it risks turning into vinegar.
While there is no conclusive proof that Sangiogheto is Sangiovese, most wine historians consider this to be the first historical mention of the grape. Regardless, it would not be until the 18th century that Sangiovese would gain widespread attention throughout Tuscany, being with Malvasia and Trebbiano the most planted grapes in the region. In 1738, Cosimo Trinci described wines made from Sangiovese as excellent when blended with other varieties but hard and acidic when made as a wine by itself. In 1883, the Italian writer Giovanni Cosimo Villifranchi echoed a similar description about the quality of Sangiovese being dependent on the grapes with which it was blended; the winemaker and politician, Bettino Ricasoli formulated one of the early recipes for Chianti when he blended his Sangiovese with a sizable amount of Canaiolo. In the wines of Chianti, Brunello di Montalcino and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Sangiovese would experience a period of popularity in the late 19th and early 20th century.
In the 1970s, Tuscan winemakers began a period of innovation by introducing modern oak treatments and blending the grape with non-Italian varietals such as Cabernet Sauvignon in the creation of wines that were given the collective marketing sobriquet "Super Tuscans". In 2004, DNA profiling done by researchers at San Michele All'Adige revealed the grape to be the product of a crossing between Ciliegiolo and Calabrese Montenuovo. While Ciliegiolo has a long history tied to the Tuscan region, Calabrese Montenuovo has its origins in southern Italy, where it originated in the Calabria region before moving its way up to Campania; this means that the genetic heritage of Sangiovese is half Tuscan and half southern Italian. Where the crossing between Ciliegiolo and Calabrese Montenuovo occurred is not known, with some believing the cross happened in Tuscany while other ampelographers suggesting it may have happened in southern Italy. Evidence for this latter theory is the proliferation of seedless mutations of Sangiovese, known under various synonyms, throughout various regions of southern Italy including Campania, Corinto nero, grown on the island of Lipari just north of Sicily and Tuccanese from the Apulia region in the heel of the Italian boot.
In Campania, among the many seedless mutations of Sangiovese still growing in the region are Nerello from the commune of Savelli, Nerello Campotu from the commune of Motta San Giovanni, Puttanella from Mandatoriccio and Vigna del Conte. While the parentage of Ciliegiolo and Calabrese Montenuovo for Sangiovese was established based on 50 genetic markers and is accepted by ampelographers, some wine texts publish contradictory information that Ciliegiolo is an offspring of Sangiovese; this belief is based on a 2007 study of 38 genetic markers stating that suggested that Ciliegiolo was the product of Sangiovese crossing with an obscure Portuguese wine grape, Muscat Rouge de Madère, once grown on the island of Madeira as well as the Douro and Lisboa wine regions of Portugal. In addition to support of fewer genetic markers, this alternative theory is disputed by geneticists such as José Vouillamoz and Masters of Wine like Jancis Robinson because Muscat Rouge de Madère has no history of being cultivated in Italy.
Furthermore, while man
Aroma of wine
The aromas of wine are more diverse than its flavors. The human tongue is limited to the primary tastes perceived by taste receptors on the tongue-sourness, saltiness and savoriness; the wide array of fruit, leathery, herbal and woodsy flavor present in wine are derived from aroma notes sensed by the olfactory bulb. In wine tasting, wine is sometimes smelled before being drunk in order to identify some components of the wine that may be present. Different terms are used to describe; the most basic term is aroma which refers to a "pleasant" smell as opposed to odor which refers to an unpleasant smell or possible wine fault. The term aroma may be further distinguished from bouquet which refers to the smells that arise from the chemical reactions of fermentation and aging of the wine. In professional wine tasting, there is a distinction made between "aromas" and a wine's "bouquet" while in casual wine tasting these two terms are used interchangeably. An aroma refers to the smells unique to the grape variety and are most demonstrated in a varietal wine—such as lychees with Gewürztraminer or black currant with Cabernet Sauvignon.
These are smells that are associated with a young wine. As a wine ages, chemical reactions among acids, sugars and phenolic compounds create new smells that are known as a wine's bouquet; these can include honey in truffles in a Pinot noir. The term bouquet can be expanded to include the smells derived from fermentation and exposure to oak. In Burgundy, the aromas of wines are sub-divided into three categories-primary and tertiary aromas. Primary aromas are those specific to the grape variety itself. Secondary aromas are those derived from fermentation. Tertiary aromas are those that develop through either oak aging; the technique of microoxygenation affects the aromatic bouquet. Within wine there are volatile and non-volatile compounds that contribute to the make up of a wine's aroma. During the fermentation and for the first few months of a wine's existence, chemical reactions among these compounds occur and a wine's aroma will change more during this period than at any other point; as a wine ages and matures and developments in aroma will continue to take place but at a slower and more gradual pace.
Volatile aroma compounds are present in the skin and juice of a grape berry and will vary in composition according to the individual grape variety. It is theorized that the Vitis vine developed these compounds as an evolutionary tool to aid in procreation by attracting insects to assist with pollination and birds and other animals to eat the berries and disperse the seeds; the diverse spectrum of aromas associated with individual grape varieties is a reflection of the vine's adaptation to ecological conditions and competition among other plants. The majority of volatile compounds responsible for aroma combine with sugars in the wine to form odorless glycosides. Through the process of hydrolysis, caused by enzymes or acids in the wine, they revert into an aromatic form; the act of tasting wine is the act of smelling these vaporized aroma compounds. Olfactory receptors cells, each sensitive to a different aroma, pick up these compounds and transfer the information to the brain by way of the olfactory bulb.
In the 1980s there was renewed focus in studying the correlation between aroma/flavor compounds in grapes and the resulting quality of wine. Scientists were able to use chromatograph-mass spectrometers to identify volatile aroma compounds in various grape varieties. Study of the compounds responsible for aroma and flavor, as well as their correlation with a wine's quality, is ongoing; as understanding of these compounds grows, there is concern that wines in the future could be "manipulated" through the use of chemical additives to add complexity and additional aromas to wine. In 2004, a winery in South Africa was found to have added illegal flavoring to their Sauvignon blanc to enhance the aroma. Viticultural studies have focused on how aroma compounds develop in the grapes during the annual growth cycle of the vine and how viticultural techniques such as canopy management may contribute to developing desirable aromatics in the wine; some of the identified aroma compounds include the following: Methoxypyrazine-grassy, herbaceous aroma compound associated with Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon blanc.
Monoterpenes-responsible for the floral aromatics of varieties like Gewürztraminer and Riesling. Includes geraniol and nerol. Norisoprenoids-Carotenoid derived aromatic compounds that includes megastigmatrienone which produces some of the spice notes associated with Chardonnay and zingerone responsible for the different spice notes associated with Syrah. Other norisoprenoids include raspberry ketone which produces some of the raspberry aromas associated with red wine, damascenone which produces some of the rose oil aromas associated with Pinot noir and vanillin. Thiols/Mercaptans-sulfur contain compounds that can produce an aroma of garlic and onion, considered a wine fault, they have been found to contribute to some of the varietal aromas associated with Cabernet Sauvignon, Gewürztraminer, Muscat, Petit Manseng, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, Scheurebe and Sylvaner. Some of the aromas perceived in wine are from esters created by the reaction of acids and alcohol in the wine. Esters can develop during fermentation, with the influence of yeast, or during aging by chemical reactions.
The precise yeast strain used during fermentation and temperature are two of the strongest indicators of what kind of esters will develop and helps explain why Chardonnay grown i
Orvieto is an Italian wine region located in Umbria and Lazio, centered on the comune of Orvieto. It is known for its white wines made from a blend of Grechetto and Trebbiano, sold under the Denominazione di origine controllata Orvieto and Orvieto Classico. Blended red wine and eight varietal reds are sold under the Rosso Orvietano DOC; the region has been producing wine since the Middle Ages, when Orvieto wine was known as a sweet, golden-yellow wine. Today's white Orvieto is dry, but a semi-sweet style, known as Orvieto Abboccato, dolce, are produced in small quantities; the Orvieto zone is in the province of Terni in the south-western corner of Umbria. It extends southward into the Viterbo province of Lazio and north to the border between Terni and the province of Perugia; the Orvieto Classico region is characterised by tufa and volcanic soil. Viticulture was introduced to the Orvieto region by the early Etruscans, who carved out cellar-like caves from volcanic soil that could house wine production with long, cool fermentation and produced the type of sweet wine, popular in the ancient world.
From the Middle Ages to the mid-20th century, the Orvieto region was known for the sweet dessert wine made with the noble rot, Botrytis cinerea. Unlike most botrytized wine, such as Sauternes, where the grapes are introduced to the Botrytis cinerea fungus while they are on the vine, the grapes of Orvieto were exposed to the fungus after harvest, when they packed into crates and barrels and stored in humid grottoes carved out of the tufa stone. Made from the Trebbiano sub-variety Procanico, which produces smaller berries than the Trebbiano used in Tuscan wines, these sweet wines were deep gold in color, described by the poet Gabriele d'Annunzio as "the sun of Italy in a bottle". While the production of botrytized wine is rare, in ideal vintage years some producers will make a sweet muffato from botrytized grapes. White Orvieto is composed of Grechetto and Trebbiano and a blend of Malvasia, Drupeggio and Canaiolo bianco grapes. Grechetto is valued for weight that it brings to the wine; the wine today is radically different from the historical sweet Orvieto, with off-dry and sweet wines accounting for less than five percent of total production.
In addition to the traditional grape varieties listed, some Orvieto producers have begun experimenting with non-DOC Vino da Tavola wines made from Riesling and Sauvignon blanc. According to Joseph Bastianich and David Lynch, the Orvieto wine production tends to be divided into two camps: estates which make traditional neutral and Trebbiano-dominated wines, estates which take advantage of the liberal DOC blending policy and use as much of other permitted grapes as possible. Under the Orvieto DOC regulations, wines may contain between 40% to 60% Trebbiano Toscano, 15% to 25% Verdello, up to 20% maximum of Grechetto, Canaiolo bianco and/or Malvasia Toscana for the remainder; the Rosso Orvietano DOC covers the entire Orvieto zone and is used for the blended red wines made from Aleatico, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cesanese, Colorino, Merlot, Pinot nero and Sangiovese. Red varietal wines are permitted under their DOC as long as they contain at least 70% of Aleatico, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Ciliegiolo, Pinot nero and Sangiovese.
The advent of the Indicazione Geografica Tipica classification has given Orvieto producers the ability to experiment with non-DOC wines and sell them under one of Umbria's IGT classifications. Bella Umbria - Orvieto location map Into Wine - Orvieto Italian Made - Orvieto DOC Info and news regarding Orvieto wines - Orvieto wine