Apollo–Soyuz Test Project
The Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, conducted in July 1975, was the first joint U. S.–Soviet space flight, as a symbol of the policy of détente that the two superpowers were pursuing at the time. It involved the docking of the Soviet Soyuz 19 capsule; the unnumbered Apollo vehicle was a surplus from the terminated Apollo program and the last one to fly. This mission ceremoniously marked the end of the Space Race that had begun in 1957 with the Sputnik launch; the mission included both joint and separate scientific experiments, provided useful engineering experience for future joint US–Russian space flights, such as the Shuttle–Mir Program and the International Space Station. ASTP was the last manned US space mission until the first Space Shuttle flight in April 1981, it was U. S. astronaut Donald "Deke" Slayton's only space flight. He was chosen as one of the original Mercury Seven astronauts in April 1959, but had been grounded until 1972 for medical reasons, it was the last space mission for Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov, who had become the first person to walk in space during the March, 1965, Voskhod 2 mission.
The purpose and catalyst of the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project was the policy of détente between the two Cold War superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. Prior to this mission, tensions remained high between the two world superpowers while the United States was engaged in the Vietnam War. Meanwhile, the Soviet press was critical of the Apollo space missions, printing "the armed intrusion of the United States and Saigon puppets into Laos is a shameless trampling underfoot of international law" over a photograph of the Apollo 14 launch in 1971. Although Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev made the Soviet Union's policy of détente official in his 1956 doctrine of peaceful coexistence at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the two nations seemed to be in perpetual conflict. After John Glenn's 1962 orbital flight, an exchange of letters between President John F. Kennedy and Soviet Premiere Nikita Khrushchev led to a series of discussions led by Dryden and Soviet scientist Anatoli Blagonravov.
Their 1962 talks led to the Dryden-Blagonravov agreement, formalized in October of that year, the same time the two countries were in the midst of the Cuban Missile Crisis. The agreement was formally announced at the United Nations on December 5, 1962, it called for cooperation on the exchange of data from weather satellites, a study of the Earth's magnetic field, joint tracking of the U. S. Echo II balloon satellite.. As the competition between the two nation's manned space programs heated up, efforts to further cooperation at that point came to an end. Due to tense relations, space cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union was unlikely in the early 1970s. On June 7, 1971, the USSR had launched the first piloted orbital space station, Salyut 1. Meanwhile, the United States had launched the Apollo 14 mission several months prior, the third spacecraft to land humans on the Moon; each side gave the other little coverage of their achievements. Both sides had severe criticisms of the other side's engineering.
Soviet spacecraft were designed with automation in mind. By contrast, the Apollo spacecraft was designed to be operated by humans and required trained astronauts in order to operate; the Soviet Union criticized the Apollo spacecraft as being "extremely complex and dangerous". The Americans had their own concerns about Soviet spacecraft. Christopher C. Kraft, director of the Manned Spacecraft Center, criticized the design of the Soyuz: "We in NASA rely on redundant components—if an instrument fails during flight, our crews switch to another in an attempt to continue the mission; each Soyuz component, however, is designed for a specific function. The Apollo vehicle relied on astronaut piloting to a much greater extent than did the Soyuz machine". American and Soviet engineers settled their differences for a possible docking of American and Soviet spacecraft in meetings between June and December 1971 in Houston and Moscow, including Bill Creasy's design of the Androgynous Peripheral Attach System between the two ships that would allow either to be active or passive during docking.
With the close of the Vietnam War, relations between the United States and the USSR began to improve, as did the prognosis for a potential cooperative space mission. The Apollo–Soyuz Test Project was made possible by the thaw in these relations, the project itself endeavored to amplify and solidify the improving relations between the United States and the Soviet Union. According to Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, "The Soviet and American spacemen will go up into outer space for the first major joint scientific experiment in the history of mankind, they know that from outer space our planet looks more beautiful. It is big enough for us to live peacefully on it, but it is too small to be threatened by nuclear war". Thus, both sides recognized ASTP as a political act of peace. In October 1970, Soviet Academy of Sciences president Mstislav Keldysh responded to NASA Administrator Thomas O. Paine's letter proposing a cooperative space mission, there was subsequently a meeting to discuss techni
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in La Cañada Flintridge, United States, though it is referred to as residing in Pasadena, because it has a Pasadena ZIP Code. Founded in the 1930s, the JPL is owned by NASA and managed by the nearby California Institute of Technology for NASA; the laboratory's primary function is the construction and operation of planetary robotic spacecraft, though it conducts Earth-orbit and astronomy missions. It is responsible for operating NASA's Deep Space Network. Among the laboratory's major active projects are the Mars Science Laboratory mission, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, the Juno spacecraft orbiting Jupiter, the NuSTAR X-ray telescope, the SMAP satellite for earth surface soil moisture monitoring, the Spitzer Space Telescope, it is responsible for managing the JPL Small-Body Database, provides physical data and lists of publications for all known small Solar System bodies. The JPL's Space Flight Operations Facility and Twenty-Five-Foot Space Simulator are designated National Historic Landmarks.
JPL traces its beginnings to 1936 in the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology when the first set of rocket experiments were carried out in the Arroyo Seco. Caltech graduate students Frank Malina, Qian Xuesen, Weld Arnold, Apollo M. O. Smith, along with Jack Parsons and Edward S. Forman, tested a small, alcohol-fueled motor to gather data for Malina's graduate thesis. Malina's thesis advisor was engineer/aerodynamicist Theodore von Kármán, who arranged for U. S. Army financial support for this "GALCIT Rocket Project" in 1939. In 1941, Parsons, Martin Summerfield, pilot Homer Bushey demonstrated the first jet-assisted takeoff rockets to the Army. In 1943, von Kármán, Malina and Forman established the Aerojet Corporation to manufacture JATO rockets; the project took on the name Jet Propulsion Laboratory in November 1943, formally becoming an Army facility operated under contract by the university. During JPL's Army years, the laboratory developed two deployed weapon systems, the MGM-5 Corporal and MGM-29 Sergeant intermediate-range ballistic missiles.
These missiles were the first US ballistic missiles developed at JPL. It developed a number of other weapons system prototypes, such as the Loki anti-aircraft missile system, the forerunner of the Aerobee sounding rocket. At various times, it carried out rocket testing at the White Sands Proving Ground, Edwards Air Force Base, Goldstone, California. In 1954, JPL teamed up with Wernher von Braun's engineers at the Army Ballistic Missile Agency's Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama, to propose orbiting a satellite during the International Geophysical Year; the team lost that proposal to Project Vanguard, instead embarked on a classified project to demonstrate ablative re-entry technology using a Jupiter-C rocket. They carried out three successful sub-orbital flights in 1956 and 1957. Using a spare Juno I, the two organizations launched the United States' first satellite, Explorer 1, on January 31, 1958. JPL was transferred to NASA in December 1958, becoming the agency's primary planetary spacecraft center.
JPL engineers designed and operated Ranger and Surveyor missions to the Moon that prepared the way for Apollo. JPL led the way in interplanetary exploration with the Mariner missions to Venus and Mercury. In 1998, JPL opened the Near-Earth Object Program Office for NASA; as of 2013, it has found 95% of asteroids that are a kilometer or more in diameter that cross Earth's orbit. JPL was early to employ female mathematicians. In the 1940s and 1950s, using mechanical calculators, women in an all-female computations group performed trajectory calculations. In 1961, JPL hired Dana Ulery as the first female engineer to work alongside male engineers as part of the Ranger and Mariner mission tracking teams. JPL has been recognized four times by the Space Foundation: with the Douglas S. Morrow Public Outreach Award, given annually to an individual or organization that has made significant contributions to public awareness of space programs, in 1998; when it was founded, JPL's site was west of a rocky flood-plain – the Arroyo Seco riverbed – above the Devil's Gate dam in the northwestern panhandle of the city of Pasadena.
While the first few buildings were constructed in land bought from the city of Pasadena, subsequent buildings were constructed in neighboring unincorporated land that became part of La Cañada Flintridge. Nowadays, most of the 177 acres of the U. S. federal government-owned NASA property that makes up the JPL campus is located in La Cañada Flintridge. Despite this, JPL still uses a Pasadena address as its official mailing address; the city of La Cañada Flintridge was incorporated in 1976, well after JPL attained international recognition as a Pasadena institution. There has been occasional rivalry between the two cities over the issue of which one should be mentioned in the media as the home of the laboratory. There are 6,000 full-time Caltech employees, a few thousand additional contractors working on any given day. NASA has a resident office at the facility staffed by federal managers who oversee JPL's activities and work for NASA. There are some Caltech graduate students, college student interns and co-op students.
The JPL Education Office serves educators and students by providi
OTC Satellite Earth Station Carnarvon
The OTC Satellite Earth Station Carnarvon, an Earth station in Australia was established to meet the need for more reliable and higher quality communications for NASA's Apollo Moon project. NASA contracted Australia's Overseas Telecommunications Commission "to provide an earth station near Carnarvon, Western Australia to link the NASA tracking station in that area to the control centre in the USA" contracting the COMSAT Corporation to launch three Intelsat-2 communications satellites. The'sugar scoop' antenna became operational on 29 October 1966 when Intelsat-2A, the first of the three satellites launched, gave OTC and the ABC a brief chance to test satellite TV communications as the satellite drifted to ignominious failure over the Indian Ocean. On 24 November 1966, test patterns for the first live telecasts from Australia to England were successful; the next day, a live BBC television broadcast from a studio in London featured interviews linking UK families with their British migrant relatives standing in Robinson Street, Carnarvon.
The'sugar scoop' became famous again on 21 July 1969, the day of the Apollo 11 Moon landing, relaying Neil Armstrong's first steps on the Moon from NASA's Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Station, Canberra, to Perth's TV audience via Moree earth station - the first live telecast into Western Australia. The OTC station's eight years of communications support for the Carnarvon Tracking Station began on 4 February 1967, three weeks after Intelsat-2B was launched. A larger parabolic antenna was commissioned in late 1969 to upgrade the support for the Apollo missions. OTC continued to provide communications support for NASA space programs until the NASA station closed early in 1975. Thereafter it tracked some NASA missions on its own account. During OTC's last years of operation in Carnarvon, multiple tracking contracts were completed including: prime responsibility for controlling the European Space Agency Giotto mission probe which sampled the tail of Halley's Comet; the station was decommissioned in April 1987, but the site is still'actively' involved in solar scientific research, hosting a node of the Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network.
OTC Satellite Earth Station Carnarvon is a registered heritage site with the Heritage Council of Western Australia. It has local and international cultural-heritage significance; the Carnarvon Space and Technology Museum opened in 2012. Carnarvon and Apollo: one giant leap for a small Australian town by Paul Dench & Alison Gregg. Springer, 2001, p. 92ff OTVA Website exOTC website and Carnarvon construction images and information Information courtesy Paul Dench, ex Chief Engineer and contractor Company Manager of the Carnarvon Tracking Station Carnarvon Space and Technology Museum
Beam waveguide antenna
A beam waveguide antenna is a particular type of large steerable parabolic antenna in which the radio waves are transported in a beam between the movable dish and the stationary transmitter or receiver using multiple reflective surfaces. Beam waveguide antennas are used in large radio telescopes and satellite communication stations as an alternative to the most common parabolic antenna design, the conventional "front fed" parabolic antenna. In front feed, the antenna feed, the small antenna that transmits or receives the radio waves reflected by the dish, is suspended at the focus, in front of the dish. However, this location causes a number of practical difficulties. In high performance systems, complex transmitter and receiver electronics must be located at the feed antenna; this feed equipment requires high maintenance. With the large dishes used in these systems, the focus is high off the ground, servicing requires cranes or scaffolds, outdoor work with delicate equipment high off the ground.
Furthermore, the feeds themselves have to be designed to handle outdoor conditions such as rain and large temperature swings, to work while tipped at any angle. The beam waveguide antenna addresses these problems by locating the feed antenna in a "feed house" at the base of the antenna, instead of in front of the dish; the radio waves collected by the dish are focused into a beam and reflected by metal surfaces in a path through the supporting structure to the stationary feed antenna at the base. The path is complicated because the beam must pass through both axes of the altazimuth mount of the antenna, so turning the antenna does not disturb the beam. Beam waveguides, which propagate a microwave beam using a series of reflectors, were proposed as early as 1964. By 1968, there were proposals to handle some of the signal path in pointable antennas by these techniques. By 1970, a beam-waveguide approach was proposed for satellite communication antennas. At first, it was believed the complicated signal path with its multiple reflecting surfaces would result in unacceptable signal loss but further analysis showed the waveguide system could be built with low losses.
The first full scale beam waveguide antenna was the 64 meter antenna at the Usuda Deep Space Center, built in 1984 by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. After the Jet Propulsion Lab tested this antenna and found it better than their conventional 64-meter antennas, they too switched to this method of construction for all subsequent antennas of their Deep Space Network
Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, was an Australian politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1939 to 1941 and again from 1949 to 1966. He played a central role in the creation of the Liberal Party of Australia, defining its policies and its broad outreach, he is Australia's longest-serving prime minister, serving over 18 years in total. Menzies became one of Melbourne's leading lawyers, he was Deputy Premier of Victoria from 1932 to 1934, transferred to federal parliament, subsequently becoming Attorney-General and Minister for Industry in the government of Joseph Lyons. In April 1939, following Lyons's death, Menzies was elected leader of the United Australia Party and sworn in as prime minister, he authorised Australia's entry into World War II in September 1939, in 1941 spent four months in England to participate in meetings of Churchill's war cabinet. On his return to Australia in August 1941, Menzies found that he had lost the support of his party and resigned as prime minister.
He subsequently helped to create the new Liberal Party, was elected its inaugural leader in August 1945. At the 1949 federal election, Menzies led the Liberal–Country coalition to victory and returned as prime minister, his appeal to the home and family, promoted via reassuring radio talks, matched the national mood as the economy grew and middle-class values prevailed. After 1955, his government received support from the Democratic Labour Party, a breakaway group from the Labor Party. Menzies won seven consecutive elections during his second term retiring as prime minister in January 1966, his legacy has been debated, but his government is remembered today for its development of Canberra, its expanded post-war immigration scheme, its emphasis on higher education, its national security policies, which saw Australia contribute troops to the Korean War, the Malayan Emergency, the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation, the Vietnam War. Robert Gordon Menzies was born on 20 December 1894 at his parents' home in Victoria.
He was the fourth of five children born to James Menzies. Menzies was the first Australian prime minister to have two Australian-born parents: his father was born in Ballarat and his mother in Creswick, his grandparents on both sides had been drawn to Australia by the Victorian gold rush. His maternal grandparents were born in Cornwall, his paternal grandfather named Robert Menzies, was born in Renfrewshire and arrived in Melbourne in 1854. The following year he married the daughter of a cobbler from Fife. Menzies was proud of his Scottish heritage, preferred his surname to be pronounced in the traditional Scottish manner rather than as it is spelled; this gave rise to his nickname "Ming", expanded to "Ming the Merciless" after the comic strip character. His middle name was given in honour of Charles George Gordon; the Menzies family had moved to Jeparit, a small Wimmera township, in the year before Robert's birth. At the 1891 census, the settlement had a population of just 55 people, his elder siblings had been born in Ballarat, where his father was a locomotive painter at the Phoenix Foundry.
Seeking a new start, he moved the family to Jeparit to take over the general store, which "survived rather than prospered". During Menzies's childhood, three of his close relatives were elected to parliament, his uncle Hugh was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly in 1902, followed by his father in 1911, while another uncle, Sydney Sampson, was elected to the federal House of Representatives in 1906. Each of the three represented rural constituencies, were defeated after a few terms. Menzies's maternal grandfather John Sampson was active in the trade union movement, he was the inaugural president of the Creswick Miners' Association, which he co-founded with future Labor MP William Spence, was prominent in the Amalgamated Miners' Association. Growing up, Menzies and his siblings "had the normal enjoyments and camaraderies of a small country town", he began his formal education in 1899 at a single-teacher one-room school. When he was about eleven, he and his sister were sent to Ballarat to live with his paternal grandmother.
In 1906, Menzies began attending the Humffray Street State School in Bakery Hill. The following year, aged 13, he ranked first in the state-wide scholarship examinations; this feat financed the entirety of his secondary education, which had to be undertaken at private schools as Victoria did not yet have a system of public secondary schools. In 1908 and 1909, Menzies attended a small private school in Ballarat Central, he and his family moved to Melbourne in 1910. Menzies was "not interested in and incompetent at sport", but excelled academically. In his third and final year at Wesley he won a £40 exhibition for university study, one of 25 awarded by the state government. In 1913, Menzies entered the Melbourne Law School, he won a variety of prizes and scholarships during his time as a student, graduating as a Bachelor of Laws in 1916 and a Master of Laws in 1918. He did, fail Latin in his first year. One of his prize-winning essays, The Rule of Law During the War, was published as a brochure with an introduction by Harrison Moore, the law school dean.
In 1916, Menzies was elected president of the Student Representatives' Council and editor of the Melbourne University Mag
The Apollo program known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, which succeeded in landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972. First conceived during Dwight D. Eisenhower's administration as a three-man spacecraft to follow the one-man Project Mercury which put the first Americans in space, Apollo was dedicated to President John F. Kennedy's national goal of "landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth" by the end of the 1960s, which he proposed in an address to Congress on May 25, 1961, it was the third US human spaceflight program to fly, preceded by the two-man Project Gemini conceived in 1961 to extend spaceflight capability in support of Apollo. Kennedy's goal was accomplished on the Apollo 11 mission when astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed their Apollo Lunar Module on July 20, 1969, walked on the lunar surface, while Michael Collins remained in lunar orbit in the command and service module, all three landed safely on Earth on July 24.
Five subsequent Apollo missions landed astronauts on the Moon, the last in December 1972. In these six spaceflights, twelve men walked on the Moon. Apollo ran from 1961 to 1972, with the first manned flight in 1968, it achieved its goal of manned lunar landing, despite the major setback of a 1967 Apollo 1 cabin fire that killed the entire crew during a prelaunch test. After the first landing, sufficient flight hardware remained for nine follow-on landings with a plan for extended lunar geological and astrophysical exploration. Budget cuts forced the cancellation of three of these. Five of the remaining six missions achieved successful landings, but the Apollo 13 landing was prevented by an oxygen tank explosion in transit to the Moon, which destroyed the service module's capability to provide electrical power, crippling the CSM's propulsion and life support systems; the crew returned to Earth safely by using the lunar module as a "lifeboat" for these functions. Apollo used Saturn family rockets as launch vehicles, which were used for an Apollo Applications Program, which consisted of Skylab, a space station that supported three manned missions in 1973–74, the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, a joint US-Soviet Union Earth-orbit mission in 1975.
Apollo set several major human spaceflight milestones. It stands alone in sending manned missions beyond low Earth orbit. Apollo 8 was the first manned spacecraft to orbit another celestial body, while the final Apollo 17 mission marked the sixth Moon landing and the ninth manned mission beyond low Earth orbit; the program returned 842 pounds of lunar rocks and soil to Earth contributing to the understanding of the Moon's composition and geological history. The program laid the foundation for NASA's subsequent human spaceflight capability and funded construction of its Johnson Space Center and Kennedy Space Center. Apollo spurred advances in many areas of technology incidental to rocketry and manned spaceflight, including avionics, telecommunications, computers; the Apollo program was conceived during the Eisenhower administration in early 1960, as a follow-up to Project Mercury. While the Mercury capsule could only support one astronaut on a limited Earth orbital mission, Apollo would carry three astronauts.
Possible missions included ferrying crews to a space station, circumlunar flights, eventual manned lunar landings. The program was named after Apollo, the Greek god of light and the sun, by NASA manager Abe Silverstein, who said that "I was naming the spacecraft like I'd name my baby." Silverstein chose the name at home one evening, early in 1960, because he felt "Apollo riding his chariot across the Sun was appropriate to the grand scale of the proposed program."In July 1960, NASA Deputy Administrator Hugh L. Dryden announced the Apollo program to industry representatives at a series of Space Task Group conferences. Preliminary specifications were laid out for a spacecraft with a mission module cabin separate from the command module, a propulsion and equipment module. On August 30, a feasibility study competition was announced, on October 25, three study contracts were awarded to General Dynamics/Convair, General Electric, the Glenn L. Martin Company. Meanwhile, NASA performed its own in-house spacecraft design studies led by Maxime Faget, to serve as a gauge to judge and monitor the three industry designs.
In November 1960, John F. Kennedy was elected president after a campaign that promised American superiority over the Soviet Union in the fields of space exploration and missile defense. Up to the election of 1960, Kennedy had been speaking out against the "missile gap" that he and many other senators felt had developed between the Soviet Union and United States due to the inaction of President Eisenhower. Beyond military power, Kennedy used aerospace technology as a symbol of national prestige, pledging to make the US not "first but, first and, first if, but first period." Despite Kennedy's rhetoric, he did not come to a decision on the status of the Apollo program once he became president. He knew little about the technical details of the space program, was put off by the massive financial commitment required by a manned Moon landing; when Kennedy's newly appointed NASA Administrator James E. Webb requested a 30 percent budget increase for his agency, Kennedy supported an acceleration of NASA's large booster program but deferred a decision on the broader issue.
On April 12, 1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person to fly in space, reinforcing American fears about being left behind in a technological competition with the Soviet Union. At a meeting of the US House Committee on Science and Astronaut