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A candle is an ignitable wick embedded in wax, or another flammable solid substance such as tallow, that provides light, in some cases, a fragrance. A candle can provide heat or a method of keeping time. A person who makes candles is traditionally known as a chandler. Various devices have been invented to hold candles, from simple tabletop candlesticks known as candle holders, to elaborate candelabra and chandeliers. For a candle to burn, a heat source is used to light the candle's wick, which melts and vaporizes a small amount of fuel. Once vaporized, the fuel combines with oxygen in the atmosphere to form a constant flame; this flame provides sufficient heat to keep the candle burning via a self-sustaining chain of events: the heat of the flame melts the top of the mass of solid fuel. As the fuel is melted and burned, the candle becomes shorter. Portions of the wick that are not emitting vaporized fuel are consumed in the flame; the incineration of the wick limits the length of the exposed portion of the wick, thus maintaining a constant burning temperature and rate of fuel consumption.

Some wicks require regular trimming with scissors to about one-quarter inch, to promote slower, steady burning, to prevent smoking. Special candle-scissors called "snuffers" were produced for this purpose in the 20th century and were combined with an extinguisher. In modern candles, the wick is constructed; this ensures that the end of the wick gets oxygen and is consumed by fire—a self-trimming wick. The word candle comes from Middle English candel, from Old English and from Anglo-Norman candele, both from Latin candēla, from candēre, to shine. Prior to the candle, people used oil lamps. Liquid oil lamps had a tendency to spill, the wick had to be advanced by hand. Romans began making true dipped candles from tallow, beginning around 500 BC. European candles of antiquity were made from various forms of natural fat and wax. In Ancient Rome, candles were made of tallow due to the prohibitive cost of beeswax, it is possible that they existed in Ancient Greece, but imprecise terminology makes it difficult to determine.

The earliest surviving candles originated in Han China around 200 BC. These early Chinese candles were made from whale fat. During the Middle Ages, tallow candles were most used. By the 13th century, candle making had become a guild craft in France; the candle makers went from house to house making candles from the kitchen fats saved for that purpose, or made and sold their own candles from small candle shops. Beeswax, compared to animal-based tallow, burned cleanly, without smoky flame. Beeswax candles were expensive, few people could afford to burn them in their homes in medieval Europe. However, they were used for church ceremonies. In the 18th and 19th centuries, spermaceti, a waxy substance produced by the sperm whale, was used to produce a superior candle that burned longer and gave off no offensive smell. In the 18th century, colza oil and rapeseed oil came into use as much cheaper substitutes; the manufacture of candles became an industrialized mass market in the mid 19th century. In 1834, Joseph Morgan, a pewterer from Manchester, patented a machine that revolutionised candle making.

It allowed for continuous production of molded candles by using a cylinder with a moveable piston to eject candles as they solidified. This more efficient mechanized production produced about 1,500 candles per hour; this allowed candles to be an affordable commodity for the masses. Candlemakers began to fashion wicks out of braided strands of cotton; this technique makes wicks curl over as they burn, maintaining the height of the wick and therefore the flame. Because much of the excess wick is incinerated, these are referred to as "self-trimming" or "self-consuming" wicks. In the mid-1850s, James Young succeeded in distilling paraffin wax from coal and oil shales at Bathgate in West Lothian and developed a commercially viable method of production. Paraffin could be used to make inexpensive candles of high quality, it was a bluish-white wax, which left no unpleasant odor, unlike tallow candles. By the end of the 19th century, candles were made from stearic acid. By the late 19th century, Price's Candles, based in London, was the largest candle manufacturer in the world.

Founded by William Wilson in 1830, the company pioneered the implementation of the technique of steam distillation, was thus able to manufacture candles from a wide range of raw materials, including skin fat, bone fat, fish oil and industrial greases. Despite advances in candle making, the candle industry declined upon the introduction of superior methods of lighting, including kerosene and lamps and the 1879 invention of the incandescent light bulb. From this point on, candles came to be marketed as more of a decorative item. Before the invention of electric lighting and oil lamps were used for illumination. In areas without electricity, they are still used routinely; until the 20th century, candles were more common in northern Europe. In southern Europe and the Mediterranean, oil lamps predominated. In the developed world today, candles are used for their aesthetic value and scent to set a soft, warm, or romantic ambiance, for emergency lighting during electrical power failures, for religious or ritual purposes.


Isle of View

Isle of View is a fantasy novel by American writer Piers Anthony, published in 1989. It is the thirteenth book of the Xanth series. Che, Chex Centaur’s winged foal, has been kidnapped by a group of goblins, it is up to a girl from the world of Two Moons, to save him. Dolph has to decide whom to marry: Electra or Naga Nada; the book begins in mid-crisis: Che Centaur has been foalnapped. Jenny Elf, wandering in a myopic haze through the World of Two Moons with her cat Sammy, accidentally stumbles through a giant hole between dimensions and ends up in Xanth. Jenny discovers Che being held hostage by a group of goblins, her attempt to rescue him results in them both being captured by another band of goblins. Nada Naga and the original goblin gang work together and succeed in retrieving Che and Sammy from the new goblin kidnappers. Nada and Electra play a game of chance with the goblins to determine to; the four goblins, Che and Sammy go back to Goblin Mountain where Che is to live. There and Jenny learn why the goblins had kidnapped Che in the first place: they wanted him to be the tutor and companion to Gwendolyn, a young goblin princess, lame and blind.

Because the goblins only respect strength and power, Gwendolyn needed to be able to conceal her physical disabilities by riding on Che's back - otherwise she would be overthrown and killed. As Che and Jenny are getting to know Gwendolyn, Che's parents call together all the winged monsters in Xanth to start a siege on Goblin Mountain. After much chaos, it is decided that Che will return to his parents, provided that they will take care of Gwendolyn as well. Prince Dolph has to decide which one of his fiancees to marry: Electra or Nada. Jenny Elf is named after a real reader, a twelve-year-old girl named Jenny Gildwarg, the victim of a hit-and-run accident that left her paralyzed; the story is chronicled in the non-fiction account, Letters To Jenny. The title is an oronym of "I love you"

Pieter Quast

Pieter Jansz. Quast was a Dutch Golden Age painter and draughtsman producing small social genre paintings, ranging from elegant merry companies to guardroom scenes and groups of peasants, in a variety of styles which can be related to those of leading artists in these genres, but with personal aspects in the colouring and style, they "are and powerfully rendered in warm shades of brown, set off by strong local colouring in the principal figures. His successful peasant scenes are characterized by the use of strong chiaroscuro and a gentle, harmonious palette; the caricatural quality of Quast’s peasants recalls the work of his fellow-resident of The Hague, Adriaen van de Venne, but Quast’s looser style and many of his individual types are closer to the paintings of Adriaen Brouwer, as well as of Adriaen van Ostade, to whom Quast’s best work has sometimes been ascribed". He produced finished drawings for sale on parchment, these included landscapes and cityscapes; some of his works were engraved.

Quast was born and died in Amsterdam, but from 1634 to 1641 he lived at The Hague, where he was admitted to the local Guild of Saint Luke in 1634. His pupil was Jan Jansz Buesem, he died like many artists of the period. Leistra, J. E. P. "Quast, Pieter" in Grove Art Online, Oxford Art Online, Oxford University Press, accessed 16 Oct. 2013 Gallery of works Biography

Jungle Records

Jungle Records is a UK-based independent record label formed in 1982, specialising in punk rock, post punk and alternative releases. From 1982 to 1986 they were active as a record distributor and were'unofficial' members of the Cartel, they held the exclusive right to sell all indie records to the Our Price Records chain, including by Depeche Mode, New Order and The Smiths. They recorded albums by Johnny Thunders such as'Copy Cats' and'Que Sera Sera' and are licensors of the Johnny Thunders & The Heartbreakers tape library, including their L. A. M. F. Album, they discovered and released the first recordings by Mercury Rev:'Yerself Is Steam' and'Car Wash Hair', the first recordings by Fields of the Nephilim,'Burning The Fields'. They are licensors of the legendary French label Skydog Records, including Iggy & the Stooges' notorious'Metallic KO', numerous other Iggy Pop releases, albums by Flamin' Groovies, MC5, Kim Fowley, New York Dolls, amongst others, they have released recordings by Alternative TV, Sid Vicious, Sky Saxon, & The Seeds, The Newtown Neurotics, Jimi Hendrix, Play Dead, March Violets, UK Subs, King Kurt, The Adicts, Broken Bones, Sigue Sigue Sputnik, A Popular History Of Signs, Test Dept, Nina Simone, Family Fodder, Christian Death, The Eden House, The Slits, Wendy James, Tyla Gang, Wasted Youth, Cuddly Toys, London Cowboys, Ducks Deluxe, ex-Spacemen 3 Sterling Roswell, ex-Dr.

Feelgood guitarist & songwriter Wilko Johnson, NFD, Walter Lure's The Waldos, The Hillbilly Moon Explosion and many others. On their sub-label imprint Goldtop Recordings in collaboration with Goldtop Studio, they've released albums by Geraint Watkins, Martin Belmont, Boyd & Wain and Hillbilly Moon Explosion. Other labels that they own or administer include Fall Out Records, Ministry Of Power, Fresh Records, Red Records, Mint Films and Middle Earth, they are a music publisher, trading as Jungle Music, publish over a quarter of their music catalogue. As a book publisher, they issued Johnny Thunders... In Cold Blood by Nina Antonia in 1987. In 2014 they co-produced a film, Looking For Johnny: The Legend of Johnny Thunders, directed by Danny Garcia. List of record labels Official site

Seule Soromon

Seule Soromon is an association football striker from Vanuatu who plays for Wairarapa United in the Central Premier League. He hails from Mele, located northwest of Port Vila; the prolific Soromon played for Suva F. C. in Fiji and for New Zealand Central Premier League side Wairarapa United. In October 2008 he trained with NZFC side Team Wellington but joined fellow NZFC outfit Hawke's Bay United, he signed up with Manawatu for the 2009–2010 season to form an all South Pacific strikeforce with Samoan striker Desmond Fa'aiuaso. He ended, he made his debut for the Vanuatu national football team in an August 2007 World Cup qualification match against Samoa. He scored four goals against American Samoa. Seule Soromon – FIFA competition record

Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force

The Chief of Staff of the Air Force is a statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Air Force, as such is the principal military advisor to the Secretary of the Air Force for Air Force activities. The Chief of Staff is the highest-ranking officer on active duty in the Air Force unless the Chairman and/or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are Air Force officers; the Chief of Staff of the Air Force is an administrative position based in the Pentagon, while the Chief of Staff does not have operational command authority over Air Force forces, the Chief of Staff does exercise supervision of Air Force units and organizations as the designee of the Secretary of the Air Force. The current Chief of Staff of the Air Force is General David L. Goldfein. Under the authority and control of the Secretary of the Air Force, the Chief of Staff presides over the Air Staff, acts as the Secretary's executive agent in carrying out approved plans, exercises supervision, consistent with authority assigned to Commanders of the Combatant Commands, over organizations and members of the Air Force as determined by the Secretary.

The Chief of Staff may perform other duties as assigned by either the President, the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of the Air Force. The Vice Chief of Staff of the Air Force a four-star general, is the Chief of Staff's principal deputy; the Chief of Staff of the Air Force is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff as prescribed by 10 U. S. C. § 151. When performing his JCS duties the Chief of Staff is responsible directly to the Secretary of Defense. Like the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the CSAF is an administrative position, with no operational command authority over the United States Air Force; the CSAF is nominated for appointment by the President and must be confirmed via majority vote by the Senate. By statute, the CSAF is appointed as a four-star general; the Chief of Staff is authorized to wear a special service cap with clouds and lightning bolts around the band of the hat. This cap is different from those worn by other general officers of the Air Force and it is for use by the Chief of Staff and Air Force officers serving as Chairman or Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Prior to the creation of this position, General Henry H. Arnold was designated first Chief of the Army Air Forces and Commanding General of the Army Air Forces during World War II. *Three former chiefs of staff would serve as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: Twining served as the Chairman from August 1957 to September 1960. Brown served as the Chairman from July 1974 to June 1978. Jones served as the Chairman from June 1978 to June 1982; the fourth Air Force officer to have served as the Chairman, General Richard B. Myers, did not serve as Chief of Staff of the Air Force. McPeak is the only Chief of Staff of the Air Force to date who has served as Acting Secretary of the Air Force, thus being the only uniformed Air Force officer to have been the "head of the Air Force". Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force Air Force History Support Office: Air Force Chiefs of Staff