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Canes Venatici

Canes Venatici is one of the 88 official modern constellations. It is a small northern constellation, created by Johannes Hevelius in the 17th century, its name is Latin for "hunting dogs", the constellation is depicted in illustrations as representing the dogs of Boötes the Herdsman, a neighboring constellation. Cor Caroli is the constellation's brightest star, with an apparent magnitude of 2.9. La Superba is one of one of the brightest carbon stars; the Whirlpool Galaxy is a spiral galaxy tilted face-on to observers on Earth, was the first galaxy whose spiral nature was discerned. The stars of Canes Venatici are not bright. In classical times, they were listed by Ptolemy as unfigured stars below the constellation Ursa Major in his star catalogue. In medieval times, the identification of these stars with the dogs of Boötes arose through a mistranslation; some of Boötes's stars were traditionally described as representing the club of Boötes. When the Greek astronomer Ptolemy's Almagest was translated from Greek to Arabic, the translator Hunayn ibn Ishaq did not know the Greek word and rendered it as a similar-sounding Arabic word for a weapon, writing al-`aşā dhāt al-kullāb, which means "the spearshaft having a hook".

When the Arabic text was translated into Latin, the translator Gerard of Cremona mistook kullāb, meaning "hook", for kilāb, meaning "dogs", writing hastile habens canes. In 1533, the German astronomer Peter Apian depicted Boötes as having two dogs with him; these spurious dogs floated about the astronomical literature until Hevelius decided to specify their presence in the sky by making them a separate constellation in 1687. Hevelius chose the name Asterion for the northern dog and Chara for the southern dog, as Canes Venatici, the Hunting Dogs, in his star atlas. In his star catalogue, the Czech astronomer Bečvář assigned the names Asterion to β CVn and Chara to α CVn. Canes Venatici is bordered by Ursa Major to the north and west, Coma Berenices to the south, Boötes to the east; the three-letter abbreviation for the constellation, as adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1922, is "CVn". The official constellation boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined by a polygon of 14 sides.

In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 12h 06.2m and 14h 07.3m, while the declination coordinates are between +27.84° and +52.36°. Covering 465 square degrees, it ranks 38th of the 88 constellations in size. Canes Venatici contains no bright stars and Beta Canum Venaticorum being only of 3rd and 4th magnitude respectively. Flamsteed catalogued 25 stars in the constellation, labelling them 1 to 25 Canum Venaticorum, however 1 turned out to be in Ursa Major, 13 was in Coma Berenices, 22 did not exist. Alpha Canum Venaticorum known as Cor Caroli, is the constellation's brightest star, named by Sir Charles Scarborough in memory of King Charles I, the deposed king of Britain. Legend has it that α CVn was brighter than usual during the Restoration, as Charles II returned to England to take the throne. Cor Caroli is a wide double star, with a primary of magnitude 2.9 and a secondary of magnitude 5.6. The primary has an unusually strong variable magnetic field.

Beta Canum Venaticorum, or Chara, is a yellow-hued main sequence star of magnitude 4.2, 27 light-years from Earth. Its common name comes from the word for "joy". Y Canum Venaticorum is a semiregular variable star that varies between magnitudes 5.0 and 6.5 over a period of around 158 days. It is deep red in color. AM Canum Venaticorum, a blue star of magnitude 14, is the prototype of a special class of cataclysmic variable stars, in which the companion star is a white dwarf, rather than a main sequence star. RS Canum Venaticorum is the prototype of a special class of binary stars of chromospherically active and optically variable components. R Canum Venaticorum is a Mira variable that ranges between magnitudes 6.5 and 12.9 over a period of 329 days. The Giant Void, an large void is within the vicinity of this constellation, it may be the largest void discovered larger than the Eridanus Supervoid and 1,200 times the volume of expected typical voids. It was discovered in 1988 in a deep-sky survey.

Canes Venatici contains five Messier objects, including four galaxies. One of the more significant galaxies in Canes Venatici is the Whirlpool Galaxy and NGC 5195, a small barred spiral galaxy, seen face on; this was the first galaxy recognised as having a spiral structure, this structure being first observed by Lord Rosse in 1845. It is a face-on spiral galaxy 37 million light-years from Earth. Considered to be one of the most beautiful galaxies visible, M51 has many star-forming regions and nebulae in its arms, coloring them pink and blue in contrast to the older yellow core. M51 has a smaller companion, NGC 5195, that has few star-forming regions and thus appears yellow, it may be the cause of the larger galaxy's prodigious star formation. Other notable spiral galaxies in Canes Venatici are the Sunflower Galaxy, M94, M106. M63, the Sunflower Galaxy, was named for its appearance in large amateur telescopes, it is a spiral galaxy with an integrated magnitude of 9.0. M94 is a small face-on spiral

List of Interstate Highways in California

This is a list of Interstates in the U. S. state of California that have existed since the 1964 renumbering. It includes routes that were defined by the California State Legislature but never built, as well as routes that have been relinquished to local governments; each state highway in California is maintained by the California Department of Transportation and is assigned a Route number in the Streets and Highways Code. Under the code, the state assigns a unique Route X to each highway, does not differentiate between state, US, or Interstate highways. Lengths for each state route were measured as they were during the 1964 state highway renumbering based alignment that existed at the time, do not reflect the current mileage. Portions of some routes have been relinquished to or are otherwise maintained by local or other governments, may not be included in the length listed below. Several routes are broken into non-contiguous pieces, their lengths may not reflect the overlaps that would be required to make them continuous.

Some routes may have a gap because it is either explicitly defined in the California Streets and Highways Code or due to an unconstructed portion, the listed length may or may not reflect the gap. If a route was renumbered, the old or new number is given in the "notes" column; the years are not when real-world changes were made. Concurrences are not explicitly codified in the Streets and Highways Code; when a highway is broken into such segments, the total length recorded by Caltrans only reflects those non-contiguous segments, does not include those overlaps that would be required to make the route continuous. Since the 1990s, a number of piecemeal relinquishments have been made; these are reflected in the length but not the termini. Former termini are not shown if they are along the current route, meaning that the route was extended. One Interstate Highway—Interstate 305—is defined only federally, it was signed as part of Business Interstate 80, the only state-maintained Interstate business route in California.

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No. 127 Squadron RAF

No. 127 Squadron RAF was a squadron of the United Kingdom's Royal Flying Corps and Royal Air Force. It was first formed as a day bomber unit in February 1918, but was disbanded on 4 July of that year without seeing service. From 29 June to 12 July 1941, the designation was assigned to a detachment of Hawker Hurricanes and Gloster Gladiators in service in Iraq before they were renumbered No. 261 Squadron. Thereafter, the designation was the squadron who served in Egypt, it returned to the UK for Operation Overlord when it was equipped with the Spitfire IX HF operating from RAF Lympne in Air Defence of Great Britain, though under the operational control of RAF Second Tactical Air Force. The squadron disbanded on 30 April 1945. Ken Delve, D-Day: The Air Battle, London: Arms & Armour Press, 1994, ISBN 1-85409-227-8. "127 Squadron". Historic Squadrons. Royal Air Force

Weekend Nachos

Weekend Nachos were an American powerviolence band from DeKalb, Illinois. Weekend Nachos began after releasing a collection of demos that they had recorded; the band released their debut EP Torture the following year via Tooth Decay Records. In 2006, the band recorded and released a split album with the band Chronic Bleeding Syndrome via Force Fed Records. In 2007, the band released their debut full-length album titled Punish and Destroy via Cowabunga Records, they released titled Unforgivable, in 2009 via Relapse Records. The band released titled Worthless, in 2011 via Relapse Records; the band released a 12" EP titled Bleed via Relapse Records. In 2011, the band released a 7" EP titled Black Earth via A389 recordings; the band released a split EP with Lack of Interest in 2012 via Deep Six Records. In 2013, the band released their fourth full-length album, titled Still via Relapse Records. On January 1, 2016, Weekend Nachos announced via Facebook; the band announced various tour dates, as well as the title of their fifth and final album, "Apology.", to be released in May 2016, via Relapse Records, Cosmic Note and Deep Six Records.

Weekend Nachos played their last show on January 2017 at Subterranean in Chicago, Illinois. Studio albums Punish and Destroy Unforgivable Worthless Still Apology EPs, demos and splits Demo #1 Torture Weekend Nachos / Chronic Bleeding Syndrome - It's A Wonderful Life Bleed Black Earth Weekend Nachos / Lack of Interest Watch You Suffer Weekend Nachos / Wojczech - Live At Fluff Fest Weezer Nachos Compilations Two Things At Once Miscellaneous Untitled Punish and Destroy / Torture High Pressure

The Crocodile's Dilemma

"The Crocodile's Dilemma" is the pilot episode and series premiere of the FX anthology series Fargo. The episode aired on April 15, 2014 in the United States on FX, it was directed by Adam Bernstein. The title refers to the paradox in logic known as the crocodile dilemma. In the episode, a strange man named Lorne Malvo arrives in Minnesota. Living their daily lives, the town's inhabitants, including zealous police Deputy Molly Solverson, police officer and single father Gus Grimly, insecure insurance salesman Lester Nygaard, are unaware that this man will impact their lives forever. "The Crocodile's Dilemma" was seen by 2.65 million viewers. It received seven Primetime Emmy Award nominations, including Outstanding Directing for a Limited Series, Movie, or Dramatic Special and Outstanding Writing for a Limited Series, Movie, or Dramatic Special. In January 2006, a drifter named Lorne Malvo crashes a car at night on a wintry rural highway outside Bemidji, after hitting a deer, cuts his forehead after banging it into the steering wheel.

A nearly naked man jumps from bolts through the snow into the woods. Malvo calmly watches as the man makes no attempt at pursuit. In town, a put-upon insurance salesman named Lester Nygaard runs into Sam Hess, a former high school bully who intimidates Lester into accidentally running into a window and breaking his nose. At the hospital, Lester meets Malvo and tells him about Sam, Malvo offers to murder him. Lester fails to respond, but Malvo goes to Sam's workplace, to get a glimpse of him, that night murders him at a strip club by throwing a knife into his head. Lester confronts him about the murder. Malvo tells Lester that if Lester does not stand up to "the boss, will get washed away". Meanwhile, Chief Vern Thurman and Deputy Molly Solverson investigate the car wreck and find the nearly naked man's frozen body in the nearby woods, they look into Sam's death. While they are questioning Sam's wife Gina, Malvo calls the elder son pretending to be an attorney, claims the younger brother inherited everything, leading the elder son to beat his brother with a hockey stick before Molly tackles him.

The police learn that Lester was overheard discussing Sam at the hospital. Lester tries to impress his wife, Pearl, by repairing the couple's washing machine, but he fails at it, Pearl mocks him. Lester, reaching his breaking point after years of her psychological abuse, hits her with a hammer and kills her. A panicked Lester summons Malvo to help with the aftermath. Vern arrives at Lester's house to question him about Sam, but discovers Pearl’s body in the basement. Vern radios for backup. Malvo disappears before Molly shows up, Lester intentionally knocks himself out to make the killings look like a home invasion, he wakes up in the hospital with a gun pellet lodged in his hand. In Duluth, police officer Gus Grimly converses over radio with his daughter Greta, until he pulls Malvo over for running a stop sign. Malvo overhears the radio and threatens Gus to either press the issue and face death, or allow Malvo to leave and live. Malvo drives away. In its initial premiere on FX, the first episode of Fargo had 2.65 million viewers.

The show premiered in the UK on Channel 4 on April 20, 2014, was seen by 1.6 million viewers. The first episode of the series was critically acclaimed; the A. V. Club writer Emily VanDerWerff gave the episode an A− rating but stated: "as much as I like this first episode, it will be hard for anything in this series to match my love of the film, perfection". IGN reviewer Roth Cornet gave the series premiere a 9 out of 10 "Amazing" rating, saying: "with rich and zany characters, darkly comedic violence, a tantalizing mystery on tap, Fargo is well-worth watching". Dan Snierson of Entertainment Weekly named it the second best television episode of 2014. For the 66th Primetime Emmy Awards, Noah Hawley was nominated for Outstanding Writing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Dramatic Special and Adam Bernstein was nominated for Outstanding Directing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Dramatic Special, for this episode. "The Crocodile's Dilemma" on IMDb "The Crocodile's Dilemma" at TV.com

Chamacoco

The Chamacoco people are an indigenous people of Paraguay. Some live in Brazil; the Chamacoco have two major divisions, the Ebytoso, who lived along the Paraguay River, the Tomáraho, who traditionally lived in the forests. The Ebytoso converted to Christianity, while the Tomáraho have lived in marginal areas in order to preserve their traditional world views and lifeways. In the 1980s the Instituto Nacional del Indigena resettled the Tomáraho in a community called Puerto Esperanza with the Ebytoso; the Chamacoco are known as the Ishiro, Jeywo, Xamicoco, Xamacoco, or Yshyr people. Their autonym is Ishír; the term ɨshɨr properly means'person', but now is used with the meaning of'indigenous' in opposition to the Paraguayan people, who are called Maro. According to the 2002 census the population yshyr in Paraguay that identified themselves as ysyr was 1571 people located in the district of Fuerte Olimpo in Paraguay, being the largest migrant group, in the district Ygatimí. According to data from the brazilian Social and Environmental Institute, in 1994, 40 individuals were living in the Indian Reservation of Kadiwéu in Brazil.

During the 80's, the yshyr were displaced from their lands and relocated by the National Indigenous Institute of Paraguay confining them to small riparian areas. In 1986 the tomáraho were moved from San Carlos to Potrerito, to land belonging to the ybytoso, were given land in Maria Elena. Yshyr people speak a Zamuco language; the designation "chamacoco" is related to "chamóc" or "zamúc," the ethnonym for the group of the Zamuco Family. The language is called Yshyr ahwoso by the speakers. Yshyr language was studied and described by the Jesuits in the eighteenth century, includes the dialects tomáraho and orio. In 1930 it was estimated; the speakers of the variants ybytoso and orio were estimated at 800 in 1970, while fewer than 200 people spoke Tomáraho in that times. The yshyr language is considered endangered by the UNESCO and could disappear in a few generations, under pressure from the culturally dominant languages in the region, like Spanish and guaraní; the language shows remarkable morphological similarities with Ayoreo.

Possessed nouns agree in person with the possessor. Chamacoco presents rare para-hypotactical structures documented at an early stage of many romance languages. Several ysyr groups lived in the Gran Chaco in the nineteenth century, both inside the territory, settled on the banks of the Paraguay River; the ybytosos have lived for centuries along the Paraguay River, the tomárahos, lived inside the Gran Chaco and until the 1970s were believed to be hostile. During the Chaco War, the yshyr fight with Paraguayan soldiers against the Bolivians, but when the war ended, they lost their territories and had to negotiate ethnic survival with the Paraguayan settlers; the remaining tomáraho were living in debt slavery in the remote San Carlos logging camp—and were dying from disease and starvation. Whereas the ebytoso had abandoned their rituals as a result of pressure from evangelical missionaries belonging to the New Tribes Mission, the tomáraho still practiced the boys initiation ceremony and had retained a detailed knowledge of myth and shamanism.“Now our territory is that of the company”, a tomáraho man said, “we live there but it isn’t ours.

Before we were brave and strong, but cohabitation with Paraguayans has tamed us” The Tomáraho worked in the logging camps of the tannin company Carlos Casado and survived and malnourished. Their first contact with the ebytoso was in 1981, when Bruno Barrás and Guillermo Mallero, Ishir from Fuerte Olimpo, walked to San Carlos to carry out the first National Indigenous Census; when Escobar visited the tomáraho in 1985 they numbered only 87 people. These groups are now on the verge of disappearing due to the poverty resulting from the transformation of their habitat, degradation of natural resources, the pressure out of the expansion of economic activity. Young people move to the cities of Paraguay and Brazil, abandoning their beliefs and denying their origin to avoid being victims of discrimination. In 2009, only three ybytoso communities had legal status and own land, the tomáraho community and has legal status and allocated land without legal property with a total of 25,828 hectares; the largest populations are in the smallest in Puerto Caballo.

Traditionally, the Chamacoco were hunter-gatherers. They farm and raise animals, such as sheep, pigs, cows and poultry, they work as ranch hands, day laborers, domestic servants. They create crafts for sale such as baskets, wood carvings, other creations. Yshyr dissident groups, known as "yacareceros" are engaged in alligator poaching, a prohibited activity, to survive. "contingents of fifteen to twenty men leave in canoes up the river, interns by the marshlands of río Negro. They hunt for a month, sleeping in their boats and exposed to all dangers: brazilian rangers, most of them ex-convicts, use to shoot to kill before asking". While stories told by ybytoso differ from that from Tomáraho in many respects, the "Big Myth" yshyr can be summarized as follows: On the occasion of traveling through the jungle, a group of yshyr women met the ahnapzöro, powerful and terrible gods, strange-looking, that had no factions in their faces; each of them had different unique characters, covered with hair, or strange colors.

The ahnapsoro lived with yshyr