Trade Unions Building (Kiev)

The Trade Unions Building, or Budynok Profspilok, is a large office building in Kiev, Ukraine. Located on the city's main Khreshchatyk Street, its façade faces the central Maidan Nezalezhnosti square and contains the city's main clock tower; the building was built in place of the Noble Assembly building that stood in its place during 1851–1976 and survived World War II. Maidan Nezalezhnosti's northern half is a unique layout that's topped with a semi-circle with six radial roads. After the destruction of several Khrestchatyk buildings by the Soviet diversion groups during World War II on 24 September 1941, the square was rebuilt in the mid 1950s in a project presided over by architect Alexander Dobrovolsky, in a style to resemble the dominant revival architecture trend, known as Stalinist baroque. In 1956 Moscow issued a decree that challenged the use of excessive decorations in architecture, which stopped existing work before the project could be finished leaving the square with obvious asymmetry, with only the western part completed.

After nearly two decades of such visual dissemblance, in 1974 the XXVth Kiev's city conference gave a go-ahead to re-develop the city centre and finish the ensemble. The Ukrainian Republican Soviet of Trade Unions was awarded this prize spot in a draw, was to sponsor the construction, carried out by the Kyivmiskbud-4 trust; the building's project, work of Kievan-native architects Oleksandr Malynovsky and Oleksandr Komarovsky, was a fine crafted design. This was because it had to match the imposing Kiev Post Office building opposite not only in proportions, but in such a style that would blend in with the milieu, yet be visibly a modern structure. One feature that punctuated the latter, was a 24-metre tower with four 7.2 x 4.3 metre screens displaying the current time, temperature and other information. This became the official clock tower of Ukraine, chimed the famous melody Yak tebe ne lyubyty, Kyyeve miy. In 2011 the tower was renovated and the screens, being a matrix of five thousand 127-Volt, 40 W light bulbs were replaced by diode matrices, providing multi-colour digital image with much greater resolution.

Most of the building was used as offices by the Trade Unions federation, however it contains several auditoriums and banquet rooms that allowed it to be used as a permanent multi-purpose venue. During the late 2013 to early 2014 Euromaidan protest campaigns, the Budynok Profspilok was occupied by protesters and turned into their main center housing political headquarters, the press center, security center and the main kitchen. A number of important Euromaidan events, including recurrent attacks and provocations by police, occurred in and around the building; the building was burnt down during the night of 18–19 February, the day before the mass sniping fire took place during the 2014 Ukrainian Revolution. Due to the severe damages the building suffered from the fire, it was covered with large canvas screens on two sides with the words "Glory to Ukraine" printed on them in large letters; the building is since rebuilt and wil include a museum dedicated to the Euromaidan events. The reopening was scheduled to be before 1 March 2018.

On 21 November 2018 a new KFC restaurant opened in the renovated Trade Unions House. In memory of the Trade Unions Building. PHOTO. Ukrayinska Pravda. 19 February 2014

392d Training Squadron

The United States Air Force's 392d Training Squadron was an intercontinental ballistic missile training unit at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Its first predecessor was the 592d Bombardment Squadron, which trained aircrews on Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses during World War II, its second predecessor was the 392d Missile Training Squadron, which conducted training for Royal Air Force launch crews, on the PGM-17 Thor missile at Vandenberg from 1958 to 1963. The two squadrons were consolidated in 1985 and activated again in 1993 to train missile crews at Vandenberg; the squadron was inactivated in 2010. The 392d Training Squadron traces its lineage through two different units, the 592nd Bombardment Squadron and the 392nd Missile Training Squadron; the 592d Bombardment Squadron was first activated at Mountain Home Army Air Field, Idaho on 16 February 1943 as one of the four original squadrons of the 396th Bombardment Group. After initial organization and equipping with Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombers, the squadron moved to Moses Lake Army Air Base, Washington.

There the squadron acted as an Operational Training Unit for B-17 units. The OTU program involved the use of an oversized parent unit to provide cadres to "satellite groups" In August 1943, the unit's mission changed to being a Replacement Training Unit. Like OTUs, RTUs were an oversized units, their mission, however was to train individual aircrews. In November 1943, the 592d moved to Drew Field, where it would remain for the duration of its active service. However, the Army Air Forces was finding that standard military units, based on inflexible tables of organization were not well adapted to the training mission. Accordingly it adopted a more functional system in which each base was organized into a separate numbered unit; the 592d was inactivated on 1 May 1944 at Florida. Its personnel and equipment became part of the 326th AAF Base Unit; the 392d Missile Training Squadron was activated at Cooke Air Force Base, California on 15 September 1957. The unit conducted training on SM-75 Thor intermediate range ballistic missiles.

Although developed and manufactured in the United States, the only operator of the Thor missile was the Royal Air Force and training for Thor operations and maintenance was provided for RAF personnel. The squadron was inactivated on 1 February 1963. In September 1985, the 592d Bombardment Squadron and the 392d Missile Training Squadron were consolidated as the 392d Tactical Missile Squadron, but the consolidated unit was never active under that designation. On 19 September 1985, the 592d Bombardment Squadron was consolidated with the 392d Missile Training Squadron; this new unit, the 392d Tactical Missile Squadron, was not activated immediately. Instead, it remained inactive until 1 July 1993, when it was redesignated the 392d Space and Missile Training Squadron and activated at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. On 1 April 1994, the unit was redesignated the 392d Training Squadron. Since its activation, the 392d has been responsible for initial qualification training, specialty code-awarding courses for Minuteman and Peacekeeper ICBM crews, as well as basic mission orientation and refresher training for Air Force Space Command commanders and staff.

Due to restructuring as a result of the creation of Global Strike Command, the 392d shifted its training responsibilities to only training Missile Operators. On 13 July 2012 the 392nd was inactivated, it was absorbed by the 532nd Training Squadron to streamline operations and effectiveness. 592d Bombardment SquadronConstituted as the 592 Bombardment Squadron on 29 January 1943Activated on 16 February 1943 Inactivated on 1 May 1944 Consolidated with the 392d Missile Training Squadron as the 392d Tactical Missile Squadron on 19 Sep 1985392d Training SquadronConstituted as the 392d Missile Training Squadron on 20 May 1957Activated on 15 September 1957 Redesignated 392d Missile Training Squadron on 1 April 1958 Discontinued and inactivated on 1 February 1963 Consolidated with the 592d Bombardment Squadron as the 392d Tactical Missile Squadron on 19 Sep 1985Redesignated 392d Space and Missile Training Squadron on 1 July 1993Activated on 1 July 1993 Redesignated 392d Training Squadron on 1 April 1994 Inactivated c. 2 July 2012 396th Bombardment Group, 16 February 1943 – 1 May 1944 704th Strategic Missile Wing, 15 September 1957 1st Missile Division, 1 July 1959 392d Strategic Missile Wing, 18 October 1961 1st Strategic Aerospace Division, 19 December 1961 – 1 February 1963 17th Technical Training Group, 1 July 1993 Second Air Force, 1 April 1994 381st Training Group, 1 October 1994 – c. 2 July 2012 Mountain Home Army Air Field, Idaho, 16 February 1943 Moses Lake Army Air Base, Washington, 10 April 1943 Drew Field, Florida, 6 November 1943 – 1 May 1944 Cooke Air Force Base (later Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, 15 September 1957 – 1 February 1963 Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, 1 July 1993 – c. 2 July 2012 Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, 1943-1944 SM-75 Thor, 1958-1962 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website

Craven, Wesley F. The Army Air Forces in World War II. Vol. VI, Men & Planes. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. LCCN 48003657. OCLC 704158. Retrieved 17 December 2016. Goss, William A.. "The Organization and its Responsibilities, Chapter 2 The AAF". In Craven, Wesley F; the Army Air Forces in World War II. Vol. VI, Men & Planes. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. LCCN 48003657. OCLC 704158. Retri