Northfield is a city in Dakota and Rice counties in the State of Minnesota. The city is in Rice County, with a small portion in Dakota County; the population was 20,007 during the 2010 census. Northfield was platted in 1856 by John W. North.. Local legend says that the town was named for a Mr. Field. John North, realizing that the town was located astride the proposed northern border of Rice county, went to the state capital to lobby to move the border one mile to the north. Northfield was founded by immigrants from New England known as "Yankees" as part of a New England colonization of what was the far west. Northfield was an early agricultural center with many corn farms; the town supported lumber and flour mills powered by the Cannon River. As the "wheat frontier" moved west, dairy operations and diversified farms replaced the wheat-based agriculture; the region has since moved away from beef operations. Today it produces substantial crops of corn, soybeans, as well as producing hogs; the local cereal producer Malt-O-Meal is one of the few remnants of Northfield's historic wheat boom.
The city's motto, "Cows and Contentment", reflects the influence of the dairy farms as well as its two liberal arts colleges. Since early in its history, Northfield has been a center of higher education. Carleton College was founded in 1866 on the northern edge of town by the Minnesota Conference of Congregational Churches whose Congregation consisted of the "Yankee" settlers who had founded the town; these were people. St. Olaf College was founded in 1874 on the western edge of town by Norwegian Lutheran immigrant pastors and farmers, who were eager to preserve their faith and culture by training teachers and preachers; these two institutions, which today enroll a total of more than 5,000 students, make Northfield a college town. In the 1970s, completion of Interstate Highway 35 six miles west of Northfield enabled the expansion of the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metro area south of the Minnesota River; the downtown grain elevator accepted its last load of corn in 2000 and was torn down in 2002. Residential growth has been rapid since the mid-1990s.
A new area hospital, which opened in 2003 in the northwest corner of town, is in Dakota County, so chosen because government reimbursement rates are more generous for Dakota county than for Rice county. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.61 square miles. The peak elevation is about 912 feet. Speaking, the town is centered around the Cannon River and rises both to the east and the west away from this bisecting river body. Interstate 35 is 6 mi west of Northfield. Minnesota State Highways 3, 19, 246 are three of the main routes in Northfield; as of the census of 2010, there were 20,007 people, 6,272 households, 3,946 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,337.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,832 housing units at an average density of 798.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.8% White, 1.3% African American, 0.2% Native American, 3.5% Asian, 4.0% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.4% of the population.
There were 6,272 households of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.1% were non-families. 30.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.04. The median age in the city was 26.4 years. 19.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.4% male and 52.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 17,147 people, 4,909 households, 3,210 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,452.2 people per square mile. There were 5,119 housing units at an average density of 732.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.57% White, 0.90% African American, 0.34% Native American, 2.36% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.78% from other races, 1.99% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.73% of the population. There were 4,909 households out of which 35.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.7% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.6% were non-families. 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.08. In the city, the population was spread out with 20.2% under the age of 18, 32.1% from 18 to 24, 21.0% from 25 to 44, 16.1% from 45 to 64, 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $49,972, the median income for a family was $61,055. Males had a median income of $40,008 versus $28,456 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,619. About 2.8% of families and 7.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.3% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of thos
Dakota War of 1862
The Dakota War of 1862 known as the Sioux Uprising, the Dakota Uprising, the Sioux Outbreak of 1862, the Dakota Conflict, the U. S.–Dakota War of 1862 or Little Crow's War, was an armed conflict between the United States and several bands of Dakota. It began on August 17, 1862, along the Minnesota River in southwest Minnesota, four years after its admission as a state. Throughout the late 1850s in the lead-up to the war, treaty violations by the United States and late or unfair annuity payments by Indian agents caused increasing hunger and hardship among the Dakota. During the war, the Dakota made extensive attacks on hundreds of settlers and immigrants, which resulted in settler deaths, caused many to flee the area. Intense desire for immediate revenge ended with soldiers capturing hundreds of Dakota men and interning their families. A military tribunal tried the men, sentencing 303 to death for their crimes. President Lincoln would commute the sentence of 264 of them; the mass hanging of 38 Dakota men was conducted on December 1862, in Mankato, Minnesota.
Traders with the Dakota had demanded that the government give the annuity payments directly to them. In mid-1862, the Dakota demanded the annuities directly from Thomas J. Galbraith; the traders refused to provide any more supplies on credit under those conditions, negotiations reached an impasse. On August 17, 1862, one young Dakota with a hunting party of three others killed five settlers while on a hunting expedition; that night a council of Dakota decided to attack settlements throughout the Minnesota River valley to try to drive whites out of the area. There has never been an official report on the number of settlers killed, although in President Abraham Lincoln's second annual address, he said that no fewer than 800 men and children had died. Over the next several months, continued battles of the Dakota against settlers and the United States Army, ended with the surrender of most of the Dakota bands. By late December 1862, US soldiers had taken captive more than a thousand Dakota, including women and elderly men in addition to warriors, who were interned in jails in Minnesota.
After trials and sentencing by a military court, 38 Dakota men were hanged on December 26, 1862 in Mankato in the largest one-day mass execution in American history. In April 1863, the rest of the Dakota were expelled from Minnesota to South Dakota; the United States Congress abolished their reservations. Additionally, the Ho-Chunk people living on reservation lands near Mankato were expelled from Minnesota as a result of the war; the United States and Dakota leaders negotiated the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux on July 23, 1851, Treaty of Mendota on August 5, 1851, by which the Dakota ceded large tracts of land in Minnesota Territory to the U. S. in exchange for promises of money and goods. From that time on, the Dakota were to live on a 20-mile wide Indian reservation centered on a 150 mile stretch of the upper Minnesota River. However, the United States Senate deleted Article 3 of each treaty, which set out reservations, during the ratification process. Much of the promised compensation never arrived, was lost, or was stolen due to corruption in the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Annuity payments guaranteed to the Dakota were provided directly to traders instead. When Minnesota became a state on May 11, 1858, representatives of several Dakota bands led by Little Crow traveled to Washington, D. C. to negotiate about enforcing existing treaties. The northern half of the reservation along the Minnesota River was lost, rights to the quarry at Pipestone, were taken from the Dakota; this was a major blow to the standing of Little Crow in the Dakota community. The land was divided into plots for settlement. Logging and agriculture on these plots eliminated surrounding forests and prairies, which interrupted the Dakota's annual cycle of farming, hunting and gathering wild rice. Hunting by settlers reduced wild game, such as bison, whitetail deer and bear. Not only did this decrease the meat available for the Dakota in southern and western Minnesota, but it directly reduced their ability to sell furs to traders for additional supplies. Although payments were guaranteed, the US government was behind or failed to pay because of Federal preoccupation with the American Civil War.
Most land in the river valley was not arable, hunting could no longer support the Dakota community. The Dakota became discontented over their losses: land, non-payment of annuities, past broken treaties, plus food shortages and famine following crop failure. Tensions increased through the summer of 1862. On August 4, 1862, representatives of the northern Sissetowan and Wahpeton Dakota bands met at the Upper Sioux Agency in the northwestern part of the reservation and negotiated to obtain food; when two other bands of the Dakota, the southern Mdewakanton and the Wahpekute, turned to the Lower Sioux Agency for supplies on August 15, 1862, they were rejected. Indian Agent Thomas Galbraith managed the area and would not distribute food to these bands without payment. At a meeting of the Dakota, the U. S. government and local traders, the Dakota representatives asked the representative of the government traders, Andrew Jackson Myrick, to sell them food on credit. His response was said to be, "So far as I am concerned, if they are hungry let th
Le Sueur County, Minnesota
Le Sueur County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 27,703, its county seat is Le Center. Le Sueur County is part of the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area; the Minnesota Territory legislature established several counties in 1853. This county was created on March 5 of that year, it was named for French explorer Pierre-Charles Le Sueur, who visited the area in 1700. The settlement of Le Sueur had sprung up on the east bank of the Minnesota River, both being platted in 1852; the combined area was named by the legislature as the first county seat. However, its remoteness from most of the county meant hardship for most of the area's residents since the county was covered with dense hardwood forest and existing roads were impassable when wet. Several efforts were made to acquire a more central location. In the early 1870s, Cleveland held a referendum to become the county seat; the referendum was challenged due to irregularities in the voting.
In 1875 another referendum was successful, Cleveland became the county seat. In 1876 another referendum approved moving the seat to the newly-created town of Le Sueur Center. In the 1870s, businessmen from Waterville gained ownership of a quarter-section of land near the county's center, cleared the timber, platted the city of Le Sueur Center; the seat was moved there. The county seat has remained in Le Sueur Center since 1876; the first railroad entered the county in 1867. This began the era of mobility; the first purpose-built courthouse in Le Sueur Center was constructed in 1896-7. It has been extensively enlarged two times since then; the Minnesota River flows northeastward along the west border of Le Sueur County, on its way to discharge into the Mississippi. The terrain consists of low rolling hills, dotted with ponds; the soil is black. The terrain slopes to the north and east, with its highest point near the midpoint of its east border, at 1,145' ASL; the county has an area of 474 square miles, of which 449 square miles is land and 25 square miles is water.
Le Sueur is one of seven Minnesota savanna region counties where no forest soils exist and one of 17 counties where savanna soils dominate. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 25,426 people, 9,630 households, 6,923 families in the county; the population density was 56.6/sqmi. There were 10,858 housing units at an average density of 24.2/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 96.56% White, 0.15% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2.02% from other races, 0.67% from two or more races. 3.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 44.9 % were of 9.0 % Czech, 9.0 % Norwegian and 8.2 % Irish ancestry. 94.0 % spoke 3.5 % Spanish and 1.7 % Czech as their first language. There were 9,630 households out of which 34.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.40% were married couples living together, 6.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.10% were non-families. 23.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.10. The county population contained 27.40% under the age of 18, 7.50% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 23.20% from 45 to 64, 14.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 100.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $45,933, the median income for a family was $53,000. Males had a median income of $34,196 versus $24,214 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,151. About 4.80% of families and 6.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.50% of those under age 18 and 10.40% of those age 65 or over. Okaman Le Sueur County vote Republican. In 78% of national elections since 1980, the county selected the Republican Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Le Sueur County, Minnesota Le Sueur County government’s website
Cannon Falls, Minnesota
Cannon Falls is a city in Goodhue County, United States. The population was 4,083 at the 2010 census. Located along U. S. Route 52 to the southeast of the Twin Cities, Cannon Falls may be best known as the home of Pachyderm Studio, where many famous musicians have recorded their music. Nirvana is the best known band to use the site; the group recorded In Utero at the studio. Cannon Falls is named for the falls along the Cannon River and serves as the western trailhead for the Cannon Valley Trail. Colonel William J. Colvill, a hero of the Battle of Gettysburg, is buried in the Cannon Falls Cemetery. Two American presidents have visited the city; the first, Calvin Coolidge, visited in 1928 to dedicate the memorial erected in honor of Colonel Colvill. The second, Barack Obama, visited on August 15, 2011, to kick off the first day of his campaign for a second term; the first settler was Edway Stoughton. Charles Parks settled the land, now the village of Cannon Falls in July 1854. Cannon Falls village proper was laid out by Richard and William Freeborn and was platted in 1855 by county surveyor S. A. Hart.
The village was incorporated March 10, 1857. A post office was established as Cannon River Falls in 1855, the name of the post office was shortened to Cannon Falls in 1889. Cannon Falls was reincorporated as a city in 1905. An abundance of water power from both the big Cannon River and the Little Cannon River attracted manufacturers and capital investment; the first flouring mill was built by R. C. Knox & Co. in 1957. Other manufacturers, such as a wool mill, a grist mill and a mill producing syrup from amber cane, used power generated from the Little Cannon River starting in 1861. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.45 square miles, of which 4.35 square miles is land and 0.10 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 52, State Highway 19, State Highway 20 are three of the main routes in the city. Lake Byllesby, a reservoir of the Cannon River, lies just west of town; as of the census of 2010, there were 4,083 people, 1,708 households, 1,061 families residing in the city.
The population density was 938.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,869 housing units at an average density of 429.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.3% White, 2.4% African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.8% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.2% of the population. There were 1,708 households of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.2% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.9% were non-families. 32.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 15% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age in the city was 40 years. 23.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.3% male and 51.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,795 people, 1,550 households, 996 families residing in the city.
The population density was 946.4 people per square mile. There were 1,611 housing units at an average density of 401.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.18% White, 0.18% African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.42% from other races, 0.26% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.08% of the population. There were 1,550 households out of which 32.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.4% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.7% were non-families. 31.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.03. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 19.5% from 45 to 64, 17.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.3 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $40,721, the median income for a family was $53,903. Males had a median income of $37,095 versus $24,906 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,820. About 3.5% of families and 5.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.7% of those under age 18 and 8.7% of those age 65 or over. St. Paul's Lutheran Church is a member of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod in Cannon Falls; the Episcopal Church of the Redeemer is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Cannon Falls has a public elementary and high school system. St. Paul's Lutheran School is a Christian pre-school and K-8 school of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod in Cannon Falls. See Cannon Falls Area Schools. President Barack Obama delivered a speech in Cannon Falls on August 15, 2011, as part of a three-day bus tour through Minnesota and Illinois. Cannon Falls Public Library Cannon Falls, MN – Official site Cannon Falls Area Chamber of Commerce
Cannon Valley Trail
The Cannon Valley Trail is a paved rail trail that follows the Cannon River in southeast Minnesota. The trail follows an abandoned Chicago Great Western Railway corridor for 20 miles between Cannon Falls and Red Wing, Minnesota. In the spring and fall months, the trail is open to hiking and inline skating. In the winter months, the trail is groomed for cross-country skiing. Local private citizens purchased the railroad roadbed for a recreational trail in 1983 following the C&NWs decision to abandon the line; the trail is managed by a joint powers board consisting of representatives from Cannon Falls, Red Wing and Goodhue County, Minnesota. Points of interest on the trail include the Cannon River, wildlife management areas, a 1.5-mile mountain-bike trail, Welch Village ski area, the Red Wing archaeological preserve. Camping is available at the Hidden Valley campground near Welch; the Cannon Valley Trail contains milepost markers installed by CGW, which indicate the distance from Mankato — the railroad's original western terminus.
The section of the Chicago Great Western from Faribault to Mankato is now the Sakatah Singing Hills State Trail. The section of the Chicago Great Western between Faribault and Cannon Falls is being developed by the Mill Towns Trail Association which would result in the former route of the entire Chicago Great Western from Mankato to Red Wing being converted to trail use. In Red Wing, the trail connects to the Goodhue Pioneer State Trail
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
The American bison or bison commonly known as the American buffalo or buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed North America in vast herds. Their historical range, by 9000 BCE, is described as the great bison belt, a tract of rich grassland that ran from Alaska to the Gulf of Mexico, east to the Atlantic Seaboard as far north as New York and south to Georgia and per some sources down to Florida, with sightings in North Carolina near Buffalo Ford on the Catawba River as late as 1750, they became nearly extinct by a combination of commercial hunting and slaughter in the 19th century and introduction of bovine diseases from domestic cattle. With a population in excess of 60 million in the late 18th century, the species was down to 541 animals by 1889. Recovery efforts expanded in the mid-20th century, with a resurgence to 31,000 animals today restricted to a few national parks and reserves. Two subspecies or ecotypes have been described: the plains bison, smaller in size and with a more rounded hump, the wood bison —the larger of the two and having a taller, square hump.
Furthermore, the plains bison has been suggested to consist of a northern plains and a southern plains subspecies, bringing the total to three. However, this is not supported; the wood bison is one of the largest wild species of bovid in the world, surpassed by only the Asian gaur and wild water buffalo. It is the heaviest, second tallest extant land animal after moose in the Americas; the American bison is the national mammal of the United States. The term buffalo is sometimes considered to be a misnomer for this animal, could be confused with "true" buffalos, the Asian water buffalo and the African buffalo. However, bison is a Greek word meaning ox-like animal, while buffalo originated with the French fur trappers who called these massive beasts bœufs, meaning ox or bullock—so both names and buffalo, have a similar meaning; the name buffalo is listed in many dictionaries as an acceptable name for American bison. Samuel de Champlain applied the term buffalo to the bison in 1616, after seeing skins and a drawing shown to him by members of the Nipissing First Nation, who said they travelled forty days to trade with another nation who hunted the animals.
In English usage, the term buffalo dates to 1625 in North America, when the term was first recorded for the American mammal. It thus has a much longer history than the term bison, first recorded in 1774; the American bison is closely related to the European bison. In Plains Indian languages in general and female buffaloes are distinguished, with each having a different designation rather than there being a single generic word covering both sexes. Thus: in Arapaho: bii, henéécee in Lakota: pté, tȟatȟáŋka Such a distinction is not a general feature of the language, so is due to the special significance of the buffalo in Plains Indian life and culture. A bison has a shaggy, dark-brown winter coat, a lighter-weight, lighter-brown summer coat; as is typical in ungulates, the male bison is larger than the female and, in some cases, can be heavier. Plains bison are in the smaller range of sizes, wood bison in the larger range. Head-rump lengths range from 2 to 2.8 m long and the tail adding 30 to 43 cm or up to 65 cm.
Heights at withers in the species can range from 152 to 186 cm for B. b. bison while B. b. athabascae reaches over 2 m. Weights can range from 318 to 1,000 kg Typical weight ranges in the species were reported as 460 to 988 kg in males and 360 to 544 kg in females, the lowest weights representing typical weight around the age of sexual maturity at 2 to 3 years of age. Mature bulls tend to be larger than cows. Cow weights have had reported medians of 450 to 495 kg, with one small sample averaging 479 kg, whereas bulls may weigh a median of 730 kg with an average from a small sample of 765 kg; the heaviest wild bull recorded weighed 1,270 kg. When raised in captivity and farmed for meat, the bison can grow unnaturally heavy and the largest semidomestic bison weighed 1,724 kg; the heads and forequarters are massive, both sexes have short, curved horns that can grow up to 2 ft long, which they use in fighting for status within the herd and for defense. Bison are grazing on the grasses and sedges of the North American prairies.
Their daily schedule involves two-hour periods of grazing and cud chewing moving to a new location to graze again. Sexually mature young bulls may try to start mating with cows by the age of two or three years, but if more mature bulls are present, they may not be able to compete until they reach five years of age. For the first two months of life, calves are lighter in color than mature bison. One rare condition is the white buffalo, in which the calf turns white. Although they are superficially similar, the American and European bison exhibit a number of physical and behavioral differences. Adult American bison are heavier on average because of their less rangy build, have shorter legs, which render them shorter at the shoulder. American bison tend to graze more, browse less