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Canon (fiction)

In fiction, canon is the material accepted as part of the story in the fictional universe of that story. It is contrasted with, or used as the basis for, works of fan fiction. Influential or accepted fan theories may be referred as "fanon", a portmanteau of fan and canon. Alternatively, the term "headcanon" is used to describe a fan's own interpretation of a fictional universe; the use of the word "canon" originated in reference to a set of texts derives from Biblical canon, the set of books regarded as scripture, as contrasted with non-canonical Apocrypha. The term was first used by analogy in the context of fiction to refer to the Sherlock Holmes stories and novels, written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, as contrasted with numerous Holmes adventures added by other writers; this usage was afterwards extended to the writings of various other authors. When there are multiple "official" works or original media, the question of what is canonical can be unclear; this is resolved either by explicitly excluding certain media from the status of canon, by assigning different levels of canonicity to different media, by considering different but licensed media treatments official and canonical to the series timeline within their own continuities universe, but not across them, or not resolved at all.

The use of canon is of particular importance with regard to reboots or re-imaginings of established franchises, such as the Star Trek remake, because of the ways in which it influences the viewer experience. The official Star Trek website describes Star Trek canon as "the events that take place within the episodes and movies" referring to the live-action television series and films, with Star Trek: The Animated Series having long existed in a nebulous gray area of canonicity. Events and storylines from tie-in novels, comic books, video games are explicitly excluded from the Star Trek canon, but the site notes that elements from these sources have been subsequently introduced into the television series, says that "canon is not something set in stone." Some non-canonical elements that became canonical in the Star Trek universe are Uhura's first name Nyota, introduced in the novels and made canonical in Star Trek, James T. Kirk's middle name Tiberius, introduced in the Star Trek animated series and made canonical in Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country.

The Star Wars canon existed on several levels. The highest level was the original Star Wars films, statements by George Lucas; the complex system was maintained by a Lucasfilm employee. After Disney bought the franchise, all material published prior to April 25, 2014, not any of the Star Wars movies or the CGI cartoon The Clone Wars was declared in the "Legends" continuity, marking them as no longer official canon. All subsequent material exists on the same level of canon, with the Lucasfilm Story Group being established to ensure no contradictions among canon works; the makers of Doctor Who have avoided making pronouncements about canonicity, with Russell T Davies explaining that he does not think about the concept for the Doctor Who television series or its spin-offs. In literature, the term "canon" is used to distinguish between the original works of a writer who created certain characters and/or settings, the works of other writers who took up the same characters or setting. For example, the canon of Sherlock Holmes consists of the 56 short stories and four novels written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and featuring the detective Sherlock Holmes.

The subsequent works by other authors who took up Sherlock Holmes are considered "non-canonical". Fan fiction is never regarded as canonical. However, certain ideas may become influential or accepted within fan communities, who refer to such ideas as "fanon", a portmanteau of fan and canon; the jargon "headcanon" is used to describe a fan's personal interpretation of a fictional universe. Alternative universe Continuity Expanded universe Fictional universe Parallel universes in fiction Reset button technique Rebecca Black, Digital Design: English Language Learners and Reader Reviews in Online Fiction, in A New Literacies Sampler, p. 126 Parrish, Juli J.. "Inventing a Universe: Reading and writing Internet fan fiction". CiteSeerX 10.1.1.93.419. McDonald, Lee Martin; the Biblical Canon: Its Origin and Authority. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers. ISBN 978-1-56563-925-6. Retrieved 30 April 2010. Urbanski, Heather; the Science Fiction Reboot: Canon and Fandom in Refashioned Franchises. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

ISBN 978-0-7864-6509-5. Archived from the original on 24 April 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2013

River Lambourn

The River Lambourn is a chalk stream in the English county of Berkshire. It rises in the Berkshire Downs near its namesake village of Lambourn and is a tributary of the River Kennet, itself a tributary of the River Thames; the river is a 28.9-hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest and Special Protection Area under the European Union Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds. The upper reaches of the river are seasonal, with a perennial source derived from a number of springs located upstream of the village of Great Shefford. At times when the water table in the chalk aquifer feeding the river is high the source of the river migrates upstream. Along the bourn section of the river are located the villages of Eastbury and East Garston, while along the perennial section of the river are the villages of Great Shefford, Boxford, Bagnor and Shaw. Below Shaw is the confluence of the River Lambourn with the River Kennet, located between Newbury and Thatcham; the River Lambourn itself has a single perennial tributary, the Winterbourne Stream, which joins it at the village of Bagnor.

The Lambourn Valley Way from the Uffington White Horse to Newbury follows the River Lambourn from Lambourn to Donnington Castle, in many places using the embankments of the old Lambourn Valley Railway. The highest source of the Lambourn is on the Maddle Road in the village of Upper Lambourn, near the Wiltshire and Oxfordshire borders, it emerges from a rainwater drain and flows down a channel between the road and pavement. In the village it runs underground in a pipe until re-emerging alongside the road opposite The Malt Shovel and along Malt Shovel Lane. At this point it is little more than a damp, muddy ditch, remains so until halfway through Lynch Wood. Here it is fed by several springs, two of which are close to the Goose Green road, forming a short stream that runs ten feet downhill into the river; these springs fill the channel and the river swells ten to twenty feet wide and over three feet deep, submerging several fallen trees. Although bourne until Great Shefford the river was not dry below Lynch Wood in 2007-08.

However, it dried up in June–July 2009 and the riverbed remained dry until January 2010 due to 4-5 inches of snow melting in a thaw. It dried up again from the summer of 2010 until the spring of 2012, when increased rainfall filled the river, since when the adjacent roads in Upper Lambourn and Eastbury have been flooded; the river leaves the wood and enters Lambourn under a bridge crossed by the Goose Green Road, here it flows more as the channel narrows to four to six feet across and six to eight inches deep. It is constricted by the houses built on the riverbank, which were flooded in July 2007 as numerous weeds clogged the river under the many small bridges built over it, it passes by The Lamb and the Royal Berkshire Fire and Rescue Service and runs between the houses on the south side of the Newbury Road and the playing fields to the north of Bockhampton Road. There is a ford next to the Bockhampton Road bridge, used by horses and the river leaves the town through Bockhampton Manor Farm.

Bernard's Ford is found to the west of Eastbury, suitable only for tractors and horses. Here the Lambourn forced its banks in July 2007 and flowed down the Newbury Road for over a hundred yards before rejoining the river; the Lambourn runs through the middle of Eastbury, past The Plough Inn, which holds The Great Eastbury Duck Race on the river in May. In East Garston there are many houses are built on one bank with their own bridges from the front door to the road opposite; the river splits into several channels at Great Shefford, is joined by many small streams, which join as it leaves the village under the A338 Swan Bridge and behind The Swan. From Lambourn to Newbury the river remains parallel to the Newbury Road which crosses it many times. In Newbury it runs between Donnington and Speen and south of Shaw House until it joins the River Kennet to the south of The Nature Discovery Centre; the River Kennet joins the River Thames at Reading. The River Lambourn is unique for a chalk stream in southern England in that its flow regime remains near-natural in form.

This situation developed because of a major groundwater abstraction project. In the 1960s the long term water supply situation for London was regarded as vulnerable and one avenue investigated to rectify this was to use untapped water resources stored in the chalk aquifer of low population density areas of south east England. One such area was the West Berkshire Downs, including the catchment of the River Lambourn; the plan was to abstract groundwater from the chalk aquifer during times of drought and use the existing river system as a natural conduit to transport the water to London, via the River Kennet and the River Thames. An area in the catchment of the River Lambourn was selected as a pilot study to assess the feasibility of the project, the Lambourn Valley Pilot Scheme was undertaken between 1967 and 1970; the final conclusion from the pilot study was that the overall scheme appeared feasible and a significant number of large abstraction boreholes and observation boreholes, together with pipelines and control equipment, were installed in the Lambourn catchment and in other nearby river catchments.

The project, named the Thames Groundwater Scheme, was completed in 1976 to coincide with the most serious drought in 50 years, but on final testing of the scheme it was found that the effective increase in river flo

List of bridges in Japan

Notes Agency for Cultural Affairs. "Cultural Heritage Online". Bunka.nii.ac.jp. Japan Society of Civil Engineers. "Winners of Tanaka Prize". Jsce.or.jp. Nicolas Janberg. "International Database for Civil and Structural Engineering". Structurae.com. Others references Transport in Japan List of bridges in Kyoto 土木学会田中賞 - Liste des prix de la Société des ingénieurs civils Tanaka "業務実績". Jbsi.co.jp - Japan Bridge & Structure Institute, Inc.. - List of bridges that received the Tanaka Prize "橋の写真館". Jasbc.or.jp - Japan Bridge Association. - List of japanese bridges "Category: Bridges in Japan". Highestbridges.com. "Suspension Bridges of Japan". Bridgemeister.com. Koukyou Magazine. Jasbc.or.jp - Japan Bridge Association. "Honshū-Shikoku Bridges - informations". Jb-honshi.co.jp. Japan: Honshū-Shikoku Bridge Authority. Archived from the original on November 2018. Prade, Marcel. Les Grands Ponts du Monde: Ponts Remarquables Hors d'Europe. Poitiers: Brissaud. ISBN 2-902170-68-8