Star Wars is an American epic space-opera media franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the eponymous 1977 film and became a worldwide pop-culture phenomenon. The franchise has been expanded into various films and other media, including television series, video games, comic books, theme park attractions, themed areas, comprising an all-encompassing fictional universe; the franchise holds a Guinness World Records title for the "Most successful film merchandising franchise". In 2020, the total value of the Star Wars franchise was estimated at US$70 billion, it is the fifth-highest-grossing media franchise of all time; the original film, retroactively subtitled Episode IV: A New Hope, was followed by the sequels Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back and Episode VI: Return of the Jedi, forming the original Star Wars trilogy. A prequel trilogy was released, consisting of Episode I: The Phantom Menace, Episode II: Attack of the Clones, Episode III: Revenge of the Sith. In 2012, Lucas sold his production company to Disney.
The subsequently-produced sequel trilogy consists of Episode VII: The Force Awakens, Episode VIII: The Last Jedi, Episode IX: The Rise of Skywalker. Together, the three trilogies form what has been referred to as the "Skywalker saga". All nine films were commercially successful. Together with the theatrical spin-off films Rogue One and Solo: A Star Wars Story, the combined box office revenue of the films equates to over US$10 billion, it is the second-highest-grossing film franchise; the Star Wars franchise depicts the adventures of characters "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away", in which humans and many species of aliens co-exist with robots, or'droids', who may assist them in their daily routines. A mystical power known as'the Force' is described in the original film as "an energy field created by all living things... binds the galaxy together." Through training and meditation, those whom "the Force is strong with" are able to perform various superpowers. The Force is wielded by two major knighthood orders at conflict with each other: the Jedi, peacekeepers of the Republic who act on the light side of the Force through non-attachment and arbitration, the Sith, ancient enemies of the galactic democracy, who use the dark side by manipulating fear and aggression.
While Jedi Knights can be numerous, the Dark Lords of the Sith are intended to be limited to two: a master and their apprentice. Force-wielders are limited in numbers in comparison to the rest of the average population; the Jedi and Sith prefer the use of a weapon called lightsaber, the cylinder-like hilt of a sword, but when turned on ignites a blade of energy that can cut through any surface. Battles between the two factions result in duels, which are a mix between sword skills and the use of the Force; the rest of the average population, as well as renegades and soldiers, use laser-powered blaster firearms, the deadly beams of which Force-users can deflect using lightsabers. The Star Wars canon fictional universe spans multiple eras, including three focused around each of the film trilogies: The Age of Republic: The era of the prequel trilogy, in which the democratic Galactic Republic is corrupted by Palpatine—secretly the Sith lord Darth Sidious. After orchestrating the Clone Wars between the government and a Separatist confederation, Palpatine overthrows the Republic and establishes the Galactic Empire.
The prequels feature a sleek and new design aesthetic in comparison to the original trilogy. The Age of Rebellion: The era of the original trilogy, in which the Empire is fought by the Rebel Alliance in a Galactic Civil War that spans several years, climaxing with the death of the Emperor; the surviving Rebellion gives rise to the New Republic. The original trilogy depicts the galaxy as dirty and grimy in George Lucas's depiction of a "used universe"; the Age of Resistance: The era of the sequel trilogy, in which the remnants of the Empire reform as the First Order. Heroes of the former Rebellion, aided by the New Republic, lead the Resistance against the oppressive regime and its rulers, the mysterious being known as Snoke and his puppet master, the revived Palpatine; the films made a return to what J. J. Abrams called "the wonderful preposterousness" of practical effects that were used to create the original trilogy; the Star Wars film series centers around three sets of trilogies, which are collectively referred to as the "Skywalker saga".
They were produced non-chronologically, with Episodes IV–VI being released between 1977 and 1983, Episodes I–III being released between 1999 and 2005, Episodes VII–IX, being released between 2015 and 2019. Each trilogy focuses on a generation of the Force-sensitive Skywalker family; the original trilogy depicts the heroic development of Luke Skywalker, the prequels tell of the downfall of his father Anakin Skywalker / Darth Vader, while the sequels star Luke's nephew, Ben Solo / Kylo Ren and his dyad Rey. An anthology series set between the main episodes entered development in parallel to the production of the sequel trilogy, described by Disney CFO Jay Rasulo as origin stories; the first entry, Rogue One, tells the story of the rebels who steal the Death Star plans directly before Episode IV. Solo: A Star Wars Story focuses on Han Solo's backstory featuring Chewbacca an
Titulus Regius is a statute of the Parliament of England, issued in 1484, by which the title of King of England was given to Richard III. The act ratifies the declaration of the lords and the members of the House of Commons a year earlier that the marriage of Edward IV of England to Elizabeth Woodville had been invalid and so their children, including Edward and Elizabeth, were illegitimate and thus debarred from the throne. Richard III had been proclaimed the rightful king. Since the Lords and Commons had not been convened as a parliament, doubts had arisen as to its validity, so when Parliament convened it enacted the declaration as a law. Following the overthrow of Richard III, the Act was repealed, which had the effect of reinstating the legitimacy of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville's children. Edward's marriage was invalidated because Bishop Robert Stillington testified that the king had precontracted a marriage to Lady Eleanor Butler, and how that at the time of contract of the same pretensed Marriage, before and long time after, the said King Edward was and stood married and troth-plight to one Dame Eleanor Butler, Daughter of the old Earl of Shrewsbury, with whom the same King Edward had made a precontract of Matrimony, long time before he made the said pretensed Marriage with the said Elizabeth Grey, in manner and form above-said.
The document claimed that Elizabeth Woodville and her mother had used witchcraft to get the king to marry her. Since Richard's brother George, Duke of Clarence, had been executed and attainted, his descendants forfeited all rights to the throne, leaving Richard the true heir. For good measure, the document hinted that George and Edward were themselves illegitimate and stated Richard, "born within this land" was the "undoubted son and heir of Richard, late Duke of York". Edward's reign was criticised, he was said to have led by "sensuality and concupiscence" and delighted in "adulation and flattery" and to have been influenced by "persons insolent, vicious and of inordinate avarice", a reference to the Woodville family. In contrast, Richard was said to have been a man distinguished by "great wit, justice, princely courage, memorable and laudable acts in diverse battles." After Richard was overthrown, the Act was repealed by the first parliament of the new king, Henry VII. The repeal was important because the new King and his supporters viewed Richard III's rule as a usurpation and because Henry VII's prospective wife, Elizabeth of York, whom he had pledged to marry if he gained the throne, was the eldest daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville and the Act had made her illegitimate as well.
Henry ordered his subjects to destroy all copies of it and all related documents without reading them. His orders carried out so well that only one copy of the law has been found; that copy was transcribed by a monastic chronicler into the Croyland Chronicle, where it was discovered by Sir George Buck more than a century during the reign of James I. The Repealing Act was passed in the first Parliament of Henry VII, stating that the original Titulus Regius was void, repelled, of noe force ne effecte and that the original be destroyed, that any copies should be either destroyed or returned to Parliament on pain of fine and imprisonment. A law report from his reign stated:...that the said Bill and Record, be annulled and utterly destroyed, that it be ordained by the same Authority, that the same Act and Record be taken out of the Roll of Parliament, be cancelled and brent, be put in perpetual oblivion. Henry succeeded in suppressing the Titulus Regius; the 100-year gap during which Titulus Regius was censored coincided with the ruling period of the Tudor dynasty.
It was known that Richard had claimed that a marriage pre-contract invalidated Edward's sons' right to the throne, but it was not known who Edward's supposed "real" wife was. Thomas More assumed that the Act referred to Edward's longtime mistress, Elizabeth Lucy, a view, repeated until Buck discovered the original document. Edward IV's first son, though Titulus Regius annulled his reign, is still counted as Edward V to emphasize that Richard III was an usurper. Thus, Henry VII's grandson was numbered Edward VI. Act of Accord Original text of Titulus Regius
Roderick Oliver Redman FRS was Professor of Astronomy at the University of Cambridge. Redman was born at Rodborough near Stroud and educated at Marling School and St John's College, Cambridge, he was director of the University of Cambridge Observatories 1947–72. He had started his career at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Victoria, British Columbia 1928–31, he moved to Cambridge University, UK and was Assistant Director at the Solar Physics Observatory 1931–37. He was Chief Assistant at the Oxford University Radcliffe Observatory outside Pretoria, South Africa from 1939–1947. Among his doctoral students were John Hutchings, Colin Scarfe, Gordon Walker, he received his Ph. D. under the direction of Arthur Stanley Eddington in 1931. In 1946 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. From 1947 to 1972 he was Director of Combined Observatories, he served as president of the Royal Astronomical Society from 1959 to 1961. The inner main-belt asteroid 7886 Redman, discovered by Canadian astronomer David D. Balam in 1993, has been named in his memory, jointly with the astronomer Russell Ormond Redman.
No relation except for their shared initials and the fact that both worked at the DAO during significant parts of their careers. The official naming citation was published on 10 June 1998