Cunard Line is a British–American cruise line based at Carnival House at Southampton, operated by Carnival UK and owned by Carnival Corporation & plc. Since 2011, Cunard and its three ships have been registered in Bermuda. In 1839 Samuel Cunard, a Halifax, Nova Scotia, was awarded the first British transatlantic steamship mail contract, the next year formed the British and North American Royal Mail Steam-Packet Company together with Robert Napier, the famous Scottish steamship engine designer and builder, to operate the line's four pioneer paddle steamers on the Liverpool–Halifax–Boston route. For most of the next 30 years, Cunard held the Blue Riband for the fastest Atlantic voyage. However, in the 1870s Cunard fell behind the White Star Line and the Inman Line. To meet this competition, in 1879 the firm was reorganised as the Cunard Steamship Company, Ltd, to raise capital. In 1902 White Star joined the American-owned International Mercantile Marine Co. and the British Government provided Cunard with substantial loans and a subsidy to build two superliners needed to retain its competitive position.
Mauretania held the Blue Riband from 1909 to 1929. The sinking of her running mate Lusitania in 1915 was one of the causes of the United States' entering the First World War. In the late 1920s, Cunard faced new competition when the Germans and French built large prestige liners. Cunard was forced to suspend construction on its own new superliner because of the Great Depression. In 1934 the British Government offered Cunard loans to finish Queen Mary and to build a second ship, Queen Elizabeth, on the condition that Cunard merged with the ailing White Star line to form Cunard-White Star Ltd. Cunard owned two-thirds of the new company. Cunard purchased White Star's share in 1947. Upon the end of the Second World War, Cunard regained its position as the largest Atlantic passenger line. By the mid-1950s, it operated 12 ships to the United States and Canada. After 1958, transatlantic passenger ships became unprofitable because of the introduction of jet airliners. Cunard undertook a brief foray into air travel via the "Cunard Eagle" and "BOAC Cunard" airlines, but withdrew from the airliner market in 1966.
Cunard withdrew from its year-round service in 1968 to concentrate on cruising and summer transatlantic voyages for vacationers. The Queens were replaced by Queen Elizabeth 2, designed for the dual role. In 1998 Cunard was acquired by the Carnival Corporation, accounted for 8.7% of that company's revenue in 2012. In 2004, QE2 was replaced on the transatlantic runs by Queen Mary 2; the line operates Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth. As of 2019, Cunard is the only shipping company to operate a scheduled passenger service between Europe and North America; the British Government started operating monthly mail brigs from Falmouth, Cornwall, to New York in 1756. These ships carried no cargo. In 1818, the Black Ball Line opened a scheduled New York–Liverpool service with clipper ships, beginning an era when American sailing packets dominated the North Atlantic saloon-passenger trade that lasted until the introduction of steamships. A Committee of Parliament decided in 1836 that to become more competitive, the mail packets operated by the Post Office should be replaced by private shipping companies.
The Admiralty assumed responsibility for managing the contracts. The famed Arctic explorer Admiral Sir William Edward Parry was appointed as Comptroller of Steam Machinery and Packet Service in April 1837. Nova Scotians led by their young Assembly Speaker, Joseph Howe, lobbied for steam service to Halifax. On his arrival in London in May 1838, Howe discussed the enterprise with his fellow Nova Scotian Samuel Cunard, a shipowner, visiting London on business. Cunard and Howe were associates and Howe owed Cunard £300. Cunard returned to Halifax to raise capital, Howe continued to lobby the British government; the Rebellions of 1837 were ongoing and London realized that the proposed Halifax service was important for the military. That November, Parry released a tender for North Atlantic monthly mail service to Halifax beginning in April 1839 using steamships with 300 horsepower; the Great Western Steamship Company, which had opened its pioneer Bristol–New York service earlier that year, bid £45,000 for a monthly Bristol–Halifax–New York service using three ships of 450 horsepower.
While British American, the other pioneer transatlantic steamship company, did not submit a tender, the St. George Steam Packet Company, owner of Sirius, bid £45,000 for a monthly Cork–Halifax service and £65,000 for a monthly Cork–Halifax–New York service; the Admiralty rejected both tenders. Cunard, back in Halifax did not know of the tender until after the deadline, he returned to London and started negotiations with Admiral Parry, Cunard's good friend from when Parry was a young officer stationed in Halifax 20 years earlier. Cunard offered Parry a fortnightly service beginning in May 1840. While Cunard did not own a steamship, he had been an investor in an earlier steamship venture, Royal William, owned coal mines in Nova Scotia. Cunard's major backer was Robert Napier whose Robert Napier and Sons was the Royal Navy's supplier of steam engines, he had the strong backing of Nova Scotian political leaders at the time when London needed to rebuild support in British North America after the rebellion.
Over Great Western's protests, in May 1839 Parry accepted Cunard's tender of £55,000 for a three-ship Liverpool–Halifax service with an extension to Boston and
Cherry Ghost were an English music group which began in 2005, first as an alias for singer-songwriter Simon Aldred as a solo artist, before morphing into a full band. Aldred last performed with Cherry Ghost in 2016 on the Marc Riley Show on BBC Radio 6 Music, their debut album, Thirst for Romance, was released in July 2007 and entered the UK Album Charts at No. 7. It was nominated for an Ivor Novello award as well as winning Aldred an Ivor Novello for best song "People Help the People". A second album, entitled Beneath This Burning Shoreline, was released in July 2010 to positive critical acclaim. Aldred, under the moniker Out Cold, released a solo album entitled Invasion of Love in September 2013, featuring a markedly synthpop sound. Cherry Ghost released their third and final album Herd Runners in May 2014. Based in London, Simon Aldred now works outside of music, as well as writing for and with other artists. Aldred was the featured vocalist on the 2015 Avicii single "Waiting for Love"; the name "Cherry Ghost" is a reference to the Wilco song "Theologians" from the album A Ghost Is Born.
In 2005, Simon Aldred began performing as Cherry Ghost as a solo artist, before morphing into a full band. Early sessions with Doves bassist and vocalist Jimi Goodwin and a special appearance on Later...with Jools Holland helped excel the band's beginnings. Cherry Ghost were one of only a handful of bands and musicians to have been invited onto Jools Holland's programme before having released any material. Cherry Ghost signed to Heavenly Records, released their debut single "Mathematics" in April 2007; the debut album, Thirst for Romance, was released in July 2007, following the release of the single "People Help the People" two weeks before, which charted on the UK Singles Chart at No. 27. The album was met with positive reviews, entered the UK Albums Chart at No. 7. A third single, "4 AM," was released in September 2007 and charted at No. 128. A live EP entitled iTunes Festival: Live in London, recorded in July 2007 at the iTunes Festival, was released digitally in November 2007. In September 2007, Cherry Ghost were nominated for Best New Act at the 2007 Q Awards.
In 2008, Cherry Ghost won an Ivor Novello Award for "People Help the People" in the category of Best Contemporary Song. In March 2008, Simon announced through a MySpace blog posting that the band were at the writing stage for the second album and had seven songs written, distilled from over 50 different tunes; the bulk of the album was written in Rome. The band began recording the album in January 2009. A blog post indicated that the band were recording in a converted barn. On 27 December 2009, Simon posted on MySpace that the second album had been finished and was "due to be mixed in the next month or two." On 29 April 2010, a message on the band's MySpace page stated the title of the new album as Beneath This Burning Shoreline, with a release date of 5 July 2010. Beneath This Burning Shoreline was released to positive reviews, garnering 4-star reviews from publications such as Q, The Guardian, The Independent; the album's first single, "Kissing Strangers," was released as a single-track download on 28 June 2010.
Second single "Black Fang" was released in September 2010 as the album's first commercial single on 7" vinyl and download. A fourth single, "Only a Mother", was issued as a download in March 2011. Simon Aldred spent much of 2012 and 2013 recording his solo album Invasion of Love, released under the name Out Cold in September 2013. Aldred went into the project not wanting to make another guitar-driven album, instead turning towards synthesizers. In an interview with The Guardian, he said "The pattern of strumming a guitar felt flat, I didn't want to make another miserable northern record... The last album, I was plucking quotes from Chekhov and film noir, so I wanted to give myself a little break. I could have made an acoustic troubadour-style album, I had half that written, but it shouldn't be that easy...'Invasion' has a negative connotation, but the album is about embracing relationships and love."Aldred and Cherry Ghost recorded their third and final studio album Herd Runners in Sheffield with Colin Elliot and Dan Austin.
The album was released in May 2014 via PIAS Recordings. Simon Aldred – Lead vocals, guitar Jim Rhodes – Guitar Ben Parsons – Keyboards Phill Anderson – Bass, cornet Grenville Harrop – Drums "Junebug" "Finally" "Welcome to the Black Parade" "Back to Black" "Under My Thumb" link "Pounding" "Drive" "Androgynous" "4AM" "People Help the People" Camden Crawl 2007: 19 and 20 April Glastonbury Festival 2007: Queen's Head stage, 24 June Glastonbury Festival 2010: Queen's Head Stage, 26 June Glastonbury Festival 2011: Oxylers In West Stage, 25 June Oxegen Festival 2007: New Bands/Futures stage Latitude 2007: Uncut Arena Summer Sundae 2007: Main stage Guilfest 2007: Guildford, Stoke Park, July 2007 iTunes Festival 2007: London, 22 July V Festival 2007 Weston Park: Virgin Mobile Union stage, 18 August V Festival 2007 Hylands Park: Virgin Mobile Union stage, 19 August Dpercussion 2007, Main Stage, 4 August Ben & Jerry's Sundae On The Common 25 July 2010 Cherry Ghost's official website Cherry Ghost's official Facebook Page Cherry Ghost's official MySpace page
West Ham United F.C.
West Ham United Football Club is a professional football club based in Stratford, East London, England. They compete in the top tier of English football; the club re-located to the London Stadium in 2016. The club was reformed in 1900 as West Ham United, they moved to the Boleyn Ground in 1904. The team competed in the Southern League and Western League before joining the Football League in 1919, they were promoted to the top flight in 1923, when they were losing finalists in the first FA Cup Final held at Wembley. In 1940, the club won the inaugural Football League War Cup. West Ham have been winners of the FA Cup three times, in 1964, 1975, 1980, have been runners-up twice, in 1923, 2006; the club have reached two major European finals, winning the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1965 and finishing runners-up in the same competition in 1976. West Ham won the Intertoto Cup in 1999, they are one of eight clubs never to have fallen below the second tier of English football, spending 60 of 92 league seasons in the top flight, up to and including the 2017–18 season.
The club's highest league position to date came in 1985–86, when they achieved third place in the First Division. Three West Ham players were members of the 1966 World Cup final-winning England team: captain Bobby Moore and goalscorers Geoff Hurst and Martin Peters; the earliest accepted incarnation of West Ham United was founded in 1895 as Thames Ironworks F. C. the works team of the largest and last surviving shipbuilder on the Thames, Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company, by foreman and local league referee Dave Taylor and owner Arnold Hills and was announced in the Thames Ironworks Gazette of June 1895. Thames Ironworks was based in Leamouth Wharf in Blackwall and Canning Town on both banks of the River Lea, where the Lea meets the Thames. Thames Ironworks built the most famous being HMS Warrior; the last ship built there was the yard shut soon after. The repair yard of the Castle Shipping Line was a near neighbour and their work team known as the Castle Swifts, would informally merge with the Thames Ironworks own team.
The team played on a amateur basis for 1895 at least, with a team featuring a number of works employees. Thomas Freeman was Walter Parks, a clerk. Johnny Stewart, Walter Tranter and James Lindsay were all boilermakers. Other employees included William Chapman, George Sage and Fred Chamberlain, as well as apprentice riveter Charlie Dove, to have a great influence on the club's future at a date. Thames Ironworks won the West Ham Charity Cup, contested by clubs in the West Ham locality, in 1895 won the London League in 1897, they turned professional in 1898 upon entering the Southern League Second Division, were promoted to the First Division at the first attempt. The following year they came second from bottom, but had established themselves as a fledged competitive team, they comfortably fended off the challenge of local rivals Fulham in a relegation play-off, 5–1 in late April 1900 and retained their First Division status. The team played in full dark blue kits, as inspired by Mr. Hills, an Oxford University "Blue," but changed the following season by adopting the sky blue shirts and white shorts combination worn through 1897 to 1899.
Following growing disputes over the running and financing of the club, in June 1900 Thames Ironworks F. C. was disbanded almost relaunched on 5 July 1900 as West Ham United F. C. with Syd King as their manager and future manager Charlie Paynter as his assistant. Because of the original "works team" roots and links, they are still known as "the Irons" or "the Hammers" amongst fans and the media. West Ham Utd joined the Western League for the 1901 season while continuing to play in the Southern Division 1. In 1907, West Ham were crowned the Western League Division 1B Champions, defeated 1A champions Fulham 1–0 to become the Western League Overall Champions; the reborn club continued to play their games at the Memorial Grounds in Plaistow but moved to a pitch in the Upton Park area in the guise of the Boleyn Ground stadium in 1904. West Ham's first game in their new home was against fierce rivals Millwall drawing a crowd of 10,000 and with West Ham running out 3–0 winners, as the Daily Mirror wrote on 2 September 1904, "Favoured by the weather turning fine after heavy rains of the morning, West Ham United began their season most auspiciously yesterday evening.
In 1919, still under King's leadership, West Ham gained entrance to the Football League Second Division, their first game being a 1–1 draw with Lincoln City, were promoted to Division One in 1923 making it to the first FA Cup Final to be held at the old Wembley stadium. Their opponents were Bolton Wanderers; this was known as the White Horse Final, so named because an estimated 200,000 people came to see the match. The Cup Final match; the team enjoyed mixed success in Division 1 but retained their status for ten years and reached the FA Cup semi-final in 1933. In 1932, the club was relegated to Division Two and long term custodian Syd King was sacked after serving the club in the role of manager for 32 years, as a player from 1899 to 1903. Following rel
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k
William Lever, 1st Viscount Leverhulme
William Hesketh Lever, 1st Viscount Leverhulme was an English industrialist and politician. Having been educated at a small private school until the age of nine at church schools until he was fifteen. Following an apprenticeship and a series of appointments in the family business, which he expanded, he began manufacturing Sunlight Soap, building a substantial business empire with many well-known brands such as Lux and Lifebuoy. In 1886, together with his brother, James, he established Lever Brothers, one of the first companies to manufacture soap from vegetable oils, and, now part of the Anglo-Dutch transnational business Unilever. In politics, Lever sat as a Liberal MP for Wirral and as Lord Leverhulme, in the House of Lords as a Peer, he was an advocate for expansion of the British Empire in Africa and Asia, which supplied palm oil, a key ingredient in Lever's product line. An aspiring patron of the arts, Lever began collecting artworks in 1893 when he bought a painting by Edmund Leighton.
Lever's rival in the soap industry, A & F Pears, had taken the lead in using art for marketing by buying paintings such as "Bubbles" by John Everett Millais to promote its products. Lever's response was to acquire illustrative works, he bought'The New Frock' by William Powell Frith to promote the Sunlight soap brand. In 1922 he founded the Lady Lever Art Gallery at Port Sunlight in Cheshire which he dedicated to his late wife Elizabeth. William Lever was born on 19 September 1851 at 16 Wood Street, Lancashire, England, he was the eldest son and the seventh child born to James Lever, a grocer, Eliza Hesketh, daughter of a cotton mill manager. From age six to age nine William attended a small private school run by the Misses Aspinwall in a house on Wood Street, not far from the Lever family home. At the age of nine he was sent to another of Bolton's private schools before finishing his formal education at Bolton Church Institute from 1864 to 1867. Not a bright scholar, he was keen to acquire academic learning.
His mother wanted him to enter the learned professions, ostensibly medicine, William himself was interested in becoming an architect. His father, had other, somewhat less erudite plans for his eldest son and thus, not long after his fifteenth birthday, he started work in the family grocery business. By the Lever family had moved from Wood Street to a larger house adjacent to the grocery business. In the celebrated Victorian manner, the boss's son was at least, shown no preferential treatment, being required to sweep the floor and tidy up before the staff arrived. Other tasks included various practical assignments more to do with the fundamentals of the wholesale grocery trade certainly designed to prepare the youth for management in years, his remuneration was “a shilling a week all found” which meant that his board and lodgings were provided, making the financial aspect of the contract more-or-less pocket money. At some stage, William was moved to the administration department where he learned about and subsequently reorganized the firm's accounting and bookkeeping systems.
In order to escape the shackles of his father's close supervision, he petitioned to take the place of a retiring sales representative. The Lever family were Congregationalists and James Lever, a teetotaller and a non-smoker, applied its principles in his business life as well as in his personal life. In accordance with nonconformist tenets, the Lever family held frequent bible readings at home, were regular worshipers at the local chapel. Thus, William's circle of friends tended to comprise children of similar beliefs. Among these was Elizabeth Ellen Hulme whose family resided on Wood Street. In the tradition of the nineteenth-century well-to-do middle classes, William paid court to Elizabeth over several years and, when the financial circumstances allowed, he formally proposed marriage. On 17 April 1874, after a two-year engagement, they were married at the Church of St Andrew and St George on St Georges Road, Bolton. In 1879 the Lever family business acquired a failing wholesale grocer in Wigan, affording young William an opportunity to prove his ability as a quasi-autonomous administrator.
The expanded activity necessitated a search for new suppliers, taking William to Ireland and other parts of Europe, appointing local agents to safeguard the firm's interests. At this time, his flair for advertising and branding began to emerge as he differentiated the Lever brand from generic commodities. By the end of 1879, the business’ prospects were good enough to convince William and Elizabeth to invest in a new home in Bolton and by 1881 the expanding Wigan business warranted the commissioning of new premises. In 1902, when he became the first initiate of a lodge bearing his name Lever involved himself in Freemasonry. In 1907 he became Worshipful Master, going on to found many Lodges and hold various offices at national level. In 1907, while sitting as an MP, he was a founder of the Phoenix Lodge 3236, in May 1912 he founded St. Hilary Lodge No. 3591. He became Past Pro-Grand Warden and Immedi
Kathryn Sarah Collins, better known as Katy Cavanagh, is an English actress. She is known for playing the role of Julie Carp in the ITV soap opera Coronation Street from 2008 to 2015, she had regular roles in BBC drama The Cops, the ITV drama Bob & Rose. In November 2017 she appeared in the one-off feature-length drama Murder on the Blackpool Express for TV channel GOLD. Cavanagh was born in North Shields, the daughter of Anne, a drama teacher, Geoff, a headmaster, she grew up in Greater Manchester. She was trained at RADA and National Youth Theatre. Cavanagh has appeared on British television since 1997, she had a regular role as Mel in the award-winning seriesThe Cops from 1998 to 2001. In 2004, she had a regular role as Sergeant Dawn "Spike" Milligan in the television series Dalziel and Pascoe. In 2006, she appeared in an episode of the Channel 4 drama Shameless as Shirley Lawson. In 2008, she joined the ITV soap opera Coronation Street as Julie Carp. Cavanagh appeared in a stage adaptation of the serial, entitled Coronation Street: Street of Dreams in May 2012.
Cavanagh filled the pivotal role of the "Angel of the North". Cavanagh said that the prospect of playing Julie on stage was "very exciting". In 2013, she appeared in the short film Bradford Halifax London as Mam. Since late 2013, she has voiced the advertisements for British supermarket chain Iceland. In February 2015, it was announced that she would leave Coronation Street in order to pursue other interests, her final episode aired on 3 July 2015. Cavanagh is married to producer Chris Jupe, they have three children: Noah Jupe, an actor and Jacobi. Katy Cavanagh on IMDb