Canon law is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority, for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members. It is the internal ecclesiastical law, or operational policy, governing the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, the individual national churches within the Anglican Communion; the way that such church law is legislated, interpreted and at times adjudicated varies among these three bodies of churches. In all three traditions, a canon was a rule adopted by a church council. Greek kanon / Ancient Greek: κανών, Arabic Qaanoon / قانون, Hebrew kaneh / קנה, "straight"; the Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons of the Same Holy Apostles is a collection of ancient ecclesiastical decrees concerning the government and discipline of the Early Christian Church, incorporated with the Apostolic Constitutions which are part of the Ante-Nicene Fathers. In the Fourth century the First Council of Nicaea calls canons the disciplinary measures of the Church: the term canon, κανὠν, means in Greek, a rule.
There is a early distinction between the rules enacted by the Church and the legislative measures taken by the State called leges, Latin for laws. In the Catholic Church, canon law is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the Church's hierarchical authorities to regulate its external organization and government and to order and direct the activities of Catholics toward the mission of the Church. In the Latin Church, positive ecclesiastical laws, based directly or indirectly upon immutable divine law or natural law, derive formal authority in the case of universal laws from the supreme legislator, who possesses the totality of legislative and judicial power in his person, while particular laws derive formal authority from a legislator inferior to the supreme legislator; the actual subject material of the canons is not just doctrinal or moral in nature, but all-encompassing of the human condition. The Catholic Church includes the main five rites of churches which are in full union with the Holy See and the Latin Church: Alexandrian Rite Churches which include the Coptic Catholic Church, Eritrean Catholic Church, Ethiopian Catholic Church.
West Syriac Rite which includes the Maronite Church, Syriac Catholic Church and the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church. Armenian Rite Church which includes the Armenian Catholic Church. Byzantine Rite Churches which include the Albanian Greek Catholic Church, Belarusian Greek Catholic Church, Bulgarian Greek Catholic Church, Greek Catholic Church of Croatia and Serbia, Greek Byzantine Catholic Church, Hungarian Greek Catholic Church, Italo-Albanian Catholic Church, Macedonian Greek Catholic Church, Melkite Greek Catholic Church, Romanian Greek Catholic Church, Russian Greek Catholic Church, Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church, Slovak Greek Catholic Church and Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. East Syriac Rite Churches which includes Syro-Malabar Church. All of these church groups are in full communion with the Supreme Pontiff and are subject to the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches; the Catholic Church has what is claimed to be the oldest continuously functioning internal legal system in Western Europe, much than Roman law but predating the evolution of modern European civil law traditions.
What began with rules adopted by the Apostles at the Council of Jerusalem in the first century has developed into a complex legal system encapsulating not just norms of the New Testament, but some elements of the Hebrew, Visigothic and Celtic legal traditions. The history of Latin canon law can be divided into four periods: the jus antiquum, the jus novum, the jus novissimum and the Code of Canon Law. In relation to the Code, history can be divided into the jus novum; the canon law of the Eastern Catholic Churches, which had developed some different disciplines and practices, underwent its own process of codification, resulting in the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches promulgated in 1990 by Pope John Paul II. Roman canon law is a developed legal system, with all the necessary elements: courts, judges, a articulated legal code principles of legal interpretation, coercive penalties, though it lacks civilly-binding force in most secular jurisdictions. One example where it did not apply was in the English legal system, as well as systems, such as the U.
S. that derived from it. Here criminals could apply for the Benefit of clergy. Being in holy orders, or fraudulently claiming to be, meant that criminals could opt to be tried by ecclesiastical rather than secular courts; the ecclesiastical courts were more lenient. Under the Tudors, the scope of clerical benefit was reduced by Henry VII, Henry VIII, Elizabeth I; the Vatican disputed secular authority over priests' criminal offences, this in turn contributed to the English Reformation. The benefit of clergy was systematically removed from English legal systems over the next 200 years, although it still occurred in South Carolina in 1827; the structure that the developed Roman Law provides is a contribution to the Canon Law. The academic degrees in canon law are the J. C. B. (Juris Canonici Baccalaureatus, Bachelor of Canon Law, nor
Brooklyn Sudano is an American actress and dancer. She is best known for playing the role of Vanessa Scott on the ABC sitcom My Wife and Kids, she acted in NBC's action series Taken. Sudano is the daughter of superstar "Disco Queen" Grammy Award-winning singer Donna Summer and songwriter Bruce Sudano, the older sister of Amanda Sudano of the music duo Johnnyswim. Sudano was born in Los Angeles, California, to African American singer Donna Summer and Italian American songwriter Bruce Sudano, she was named after her father's hometown of New York City. Her younger sister is singer-songwriter Amanda Sudano of Johnnyswim, she has an older half-sister, Mimi Sommer, from her mother's first marriage to Helmut Sommer. Sudano spent the early part of her childhood on a 56-acre ranch in Thousand Oaks, California until her family moved to Connecticut when she was 10 years old; when she was 14, her family relocated to Tennessee. Here, Sudano flourished, she sang in the gospel choir at church. Sudano and her sisters spent summers singing backing vocals for their famous mother.
In her leisure, she wrote songs. She attended high school at Christ Presbyterian Academy where she appeared in all the theater productions. Sometimes Sudano accompanied her parents while they toured around the world, continuing her studies with tutors. A distinguished student, she was valedictorian at her graduation. Upon graduation Sudano was accepted at Brown and Georgetown University; however she attended Vanderbilt University. Sudano left Vanderbilt to study at the Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute in New York, she was featured in her mother's song "Brooklyn" on the record. While Sudano was studying acting in New York, Sudano was spotted by a modelling agent and signed to the Ford Modeling Agency. Sudano appeared in numerous advertising campaigns in print and television, including Clairol, Clean & Clear and K-Mart. Brooklyn replaced Meagan Good as Vanessa Scott on My Wife and Kids, she is Junior's girlfriend and wife, who first appears in the season finale of season 3. She continues as a regular cast member throughout the rest of the series' five-year run.
She starred in the film adaptation of V. C. Andrews' novel Rain, she played. She appeared in $h#*! My Dad Says in 2011. More she played the role of Christy Epping in the Hulu series 11.22.63 and appeared on HBO's Ballers. She starred in 10 episodes of Taken Season 1. Sudano married her longtime boyfriend, Mike McGlaflin, on October 8, 2006, they have a daughter. Sudano resides in the Los Angeles area. Brooklyn Sudano on IMDb Rain: An Interview with Brooklyn Sudano Artist Direct
Integra Air offered chartered and scheduled flight services, as well as air ambulance medevac services out of Calgary, Alberta. The airline ceased operations on August 31, 2018, advising that the airline was undergoing corporate restructuring; the closure shuts down operations of the Air Ambulance Services. The company started in 1998 with scheduled flights to Edmonton. In 1999, Integra started its chartered service and four years it began offering aircraft management services. In 2010, Integra Air purchased Bar XH Air. In early 2018, Calgary-based Integra Air came in to assist Orca on March 15, in a March statement their CEO said “Integra Air is in the process of negotiating aircraft and management to support Orca Airways and prevent any further interruption to Orca passengers and customers”; as of April 2018, Integra Air served the following destinations, until ceasing operations. Bonnyville Calgary As of April 2018, Integra Air had the following aircraft registered with Transport Canada, listed under BAR XH Air: 5 BAe Jetstream 31 4 King Air 200 1 IAI WestwindThe listing includes a Cessna 150 and a Cessna 172, both with cancelled certificates.
List of defunct airlines of Canada Integra Air