The history of pre-Celtic Europe remains very uncertain. According to one theory, the root of the Celtic languages, the Proto-Celtic language, arose in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture of Central Europe. Thus this area is called the Celtic homeland. The earliest undisputed examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions beginning in the 6th century BC. Continental Celtic languages are attested almost exclusively through inscriptions and place-names, Insular Celtic languages are attested beginning around the 4th century in Ogham inscriptions, although it was clearly being spoken much earlier. Celtic literary tradition begins with Old Irish texts around the 8th century, coherent texts of Early Irish literature, such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge, survive in 12th century recensions. Between the 5th and 8th centuries, the Celtic-speaking communities in these Atlantic regions emerged as a cohesive cultural entity. They had a linguistic and artistic heritage that distinguished them from the culture of the surrounding polities.
By the 6th century, the Continental Celtic languages were no longer in wide use, Insular Celtic culture diversified into that of the Gaels and the Celtic Britons of the medieval and modern periods. A modern Celtic identity was constructed as part of the Romanticist Celtic Revival in Great Britain, today, Scottish Gaelic and Breton are still spoken in parts of their historical territories, and Cornish and Manx are undergoing a revival. The first recorded use of the name of Celts – as Κελτοί – to refer to a group was by Hecataeus of Miletus, the Greek geographer, in 517 BC. In the fifth century BC Herodotus referred to Keltoi living around the head of the Danube, the etymology of the term Keltoi is unclear. Possible roots include Indo-European *kʲel ‘to hide’, IE *kʲel ‘to heat’ or *kel ‘to impel’, several authors have supposed it to be Celtic in origin, while others view it as a name coined by Greeks. Linguist Patrizia De Bernardo Stempel falls in the group. Yet he reports Celtic peoples in Iberia, and uses the ethnic names Celtiberi and Celtici for peoples there, as distinct from Lusitani, pliny the Elder cited the use of Celtici in Lusitania as a tribal surname, which epigraphic findings have confirmed.
Latin Gallus might stem from a Celtic ethnic or tribal name originally and its root may be the Proto-Celtic *galno, meaning “power, strength”, hence Old Irish gal “boldness, ferocity” and Welsh gallu “to be able, power”. The tribal names of Gallaeci and the Greek Γαλάται most probably have the same origin, the suffix -atai might be an Ancient Greek inflection. Proto-Germanic *walha is derived ultimately from the name of the Volcae and this means that English Gaul, despite its superficial similarity, is not actually derived from Latin Gallia, though it does refer to the same ancient region
They were a horse-riding highland cattle-raising people who lived in circular huts of stone drywall construction. The Albiones were a tribe from western Asturias. Isidore of Seville gave an etymology as coming from a river Asturia, identified by David Magie with the Órbigo in the plain of León, by others the modern Esla. Here they held the towns of Lancia, Mons Medullius, Bedunia, Curunda, Lucus Asturum and Nemetobriga, which was the religious center. The Astures may have part of the early Hallstatt expansion that left the Bavarian-Bohemian homeland and migrated into Gaul, some continuing over the mountains into Spain. By the 6th century BC, they occupied castros, such as Coanna, prior to the Roman conquest in the late 1st century BC, they were united into a tribal federation with the mountain-top citadel of Asturica as their capital. Recent epigraphic studies suggest that they spoke a language akin to the neighbouring Gallaeci Lucenses and Braccarenses. According to classic authors, their structure was matrilineal, whereby the woman inherits the ownership of property.
Their warrior class consisted of men and women and both sexes were considered fierce fighters and they may have venerated the deity Busgosu. They mostly reared sheep, goats, a few oxen and a breed of mountain horse famed in Antiquity, the Asturcon. According to Pliny the Elder, these were small-stature saddle horses, slightly larger than ponies, of graceful walk and very fast, lucan calls them Pale seekers after gold. The Astures entered the record in the late 3rd century BC. After the 2nd Punic War, their history is less clear, the Astures were subdued by the Romans but were never fully conquered, and their tribal way of life changed very little. This was followed by the establishment of military garrisons at Castra Legio VII Gemina and Petavonium, along with colonies at Asturica Augusta and Lucus Asturum. This included their martial traditions, which enabled them to provide the Roman Army with auxiliary cavalry units, the Astures chose Pelayo as their leader and formed the Kingdom of Asturias.
Madrid ISBNs 8487863205,9788487863202 Detailed map of the Pre-Roman Peoples of Iberia http, //www. celtiberia. net
A Roman legion was the largest unit of the Roman army involving from 3000 men in early times to over 5200 men in imperial times, consisting of centuries as the basic units. Until the middle of the first century,10 cohorts made up a Roman Legion and this was changed to nine cohorts of standard size and one cohort, the first cohort, of double strength. In the early Roman Kingdom the legion may have meant the entire Roman army but sources on this period are few, Legions included a small ala or cavalry unit. By the third century AD, the legion was a smaller unit of about 1,000 to 1,500 men. In the fourth century AD, East Roman border guard legions may have even smaller. The Roman army, for most of the Imperial period, consisted mostly of auxiliaries rather than legions, because legions were not permanent units until the Marian reforms, and were instead created and disbanded again, several hundred legions were named and numbered throughout Roman history. To date, about 50 have been identified, toward the end of the 2nd Century BC, Rome started to experience manpower shortages brought about by property and financial qualifications to join the army.
In the time of Augustus, there were nearly 50 upon his succession but this was reduced to about 25–35 permanent standing legions, a legion consisted of several cohorts of heavy infantry known as legionaries. The recruitment of non-citizens was rare but appears to have occurred in times of great need, For example, Caesar appears to have recruited the Legio V Alaudae mostly from non-citizen Gauls. In the period before the raising of the legio and the years of the Roman Kingdom. These centuries were grouped together as required and answered to the leader who had hired or raised them, the roles of century leader, second in command and standard bearer are referenced in this early period. Much Roman history of the era is shrouded in legend, but it is believed that during the reign of Servius Tullius, the census was introduced. Joining the army was both a duty and a mark of Roman citizenship, during the entire pre-Marian period the wealthiest land owners performed the most years of military service.
These individuals would have had the most to lose should the state have fallen. The first and wealthiest common class was armed in the fashion of the hoplite with spear, helmet, breast plate and round shield, there were 82 centuries of these, Roman soldiers had to purchase their own equipment. The second and third class acted as spearmen but were heavily armoured and carried a larger oval or rectangular shield. The fourth class could afford no armour, perhaps bearing a shield and armed with spear. All three of the latter made up about 26 centuries
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was a Roman consul, statesman and architect. As a result of these victories Octavian became the first Roman Emperor, Agrippa assisted Augustus in making Rome a city of marble and renovating aqueducts to give all Romans, from every social class, access to the highest quality public services. He was responsible for the creation of many baths and gardens, Agrippa was father-in-law to the second Emperor Tiberius, maternal grandfather to Caligula, and maternal great-grandfather to the Emperor Nero. Agrippa was born between 64–62 BC, in an uncertain location and his father was perhaps called Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa. He had a brother whose name was Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa. The family had not been prominent in Roman public life, Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. Despite Agrippas association with the family of Julius Caesar, his brother chose another side in the civil wars of the 40s BC. When Catos forces were defeated, Agrippas brother was taken prisoner and it is not known whether Agrippa fought against his brother in Africa, but he probably served in Caesars campaign of 46–45 BC against Gnaeus Pompeius, which culminated in the Battle of Munda.
Caesar regarded him highly enough to him with Octavius in 45 BC to study in Apollonia with the Macedonian legions. In the fourth month of their stay in Apollonia the news of Julius Caesars assassination in March 44 BC reached them. Agrippa and another friend, Quintus Salvidienus Rufus, advised Octavius to march on Rome with the troops from Macedonia, after his arrival, he learned that Caesar had adopted him as his legal heir. Octavius at this time took Caesars name, but modern historians refer to him as Octavian during this period, after Octavians return to Rome, he and his supporters realised they needed the support of legions. Agrippa helped Octavian to levy troops in Campania, once Octavian had his legions, he made a pact with Mark Antony and Lepidus, legally established in 43 BC as the Second Triumvirate. Octavian and his consular colleague Quintus Pedius arranged for Caesars assassins to be prosecuted in their absence and it may have been in the same year that Agrippa began his political career, holding the position of Tribune of the Plebs, which granted him entry to the Senate.
In 42 BC, Agrippa probably fought alongside Octavian and Antony in the Battle of Philippi, Salvidienus remained Octavians main general at this time. In July 40, while Agrippa was occupied with the Ludi Apollinares that were the praetors responsibility, Agrippa advanced on him, forcing him to withdraw. However, the Triumvirate proved unstable, and in August 40 both Sextus and Antony invaded Italy, Agrippas success in retaking Sipontum from Antony helped bring an end to the conflict. Agrippa was among the intermediaries through whom Antony and Octavian agreed once more upon peace, during the discussions Octavian learned that Salvidienus had offered to betray him to Antony, with the result that Salvidienus was prosecuted and either executed or committed suicide
Cantabria is a historic Spanish community and autonomous community with Santander as its capital city. It is bordered on the east by the Basque Autonomous Community, on the south by Castile and León, on the west by the Principality of Asturias, and on the north by the Cantabrian Sea. The most significant site for cave paintings is that in the cave of Altamira, dating from about 37,000 BC and declared, along with nine other Cantabrian caves, the modern Province of Cantabria was constituted on 28 July 1778 at Bárcena la Puente, Reocín. The Organic Law of the Autonomy Statute of Cantabria was approved on 30 December 1981, numerous authors, including Isidore of Seville, Julio Caro Baroja, Aureliano Fernández Guerra and Adolf Schulten, have explored the etymology of the name Cantabria, yet its origins remain uncertain. It is generally accepted that the root cant- comes from Celtic for rock or stone, Cantabrian could mean people who live in the rocks or highlanders, a reference to the steep and mountainous territory of Cantabria.
Cantabria is a mountainous and coastal region, with important natural resources and it has two distinct areas which are well differentiated morphologically, Coast. Santander Bay is the most prominent indentation in the coastline, to the south, the coastal strip rises to meet the mountains. This is a barrier made up of abruptly rising mountains parallel to the sea. The mountains are made of limestone with karst topography. They form deep valleys running north-south, the torrential rivers are short, fast flowing and of great eroding power, so the slopes are steep. The valleys define different natural regions, delimited physically by the mountain ranges, Liébana, Saja-Nansa, Pas-Pisueña, Miera, Asón-Gándara. To the mountain region belongs the Escudo Range, a range of 600 to 1,000 metres high that covers 15 or 20 km in a parallel line to the coast in the West part of Cantabria. Towards the south are higher mountains, the tops of which form the watershed between the basins of the Rivers Ebro and the rivers that flow into the Bay of Biscay.
The great limestone masses of Picos de Europa stand out in the southwest of the region, most of their summits exceed 2,500 m, and their topography is shaped by the former presence of glaciers. Due to the stream, Cantabria, as well as the rest of Green Spain, has a much more temperate climate than might be expected for its latitude. The region has a oceanic climate, with warm summers. Annual precipitation is around 1,200 mm at the coasts, the mean temperature is about 14 °C. Snow is frequent in higher zones of Cantabria between the months of October and March, some zones of Picos de Europa, over 2,500 metres high, have an alpine climate with snow persisting year round
Province of Burgos
The province of Burgos is a province of northern Spain, in the northeastern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. It is bordered by the provinces of Palencia, Vizcaya, Álava, La Rioja, Soria and its capital is the city of Burgos. The Cartularies of Valpuesta from the monastery Santa María de Valpuesta, the site has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The province has an area of 14,300 km² and a population of approximately 375,000 of whom nearly half live in the capital, the other locations higher than 20,000 inhabitants apart from Burgos are Miranda de Ebro and Aranda de Duero, both very industrialized. The Sierra de la Demanda, the northwesternmost end of the Sistema Ibérico, is located in Burgos Province, the most important rivers in the province are the Ebro and the Duero. The river Duero is in the south of the province and leads to the Atlantic Ocean at Porto, planted near it is a notable vineyard, Ribera de Duero. The north and south-east of the province are mountainous, the Ebro flows to the Mediterranean Sea.
In Valpuesta the oldest texts in the Spanish language has been found, transportation is developed through a wide net of highways and roads. Besides, the province is served by the Burgos Airport, in the Bureba Pass area, archaeologists have found evidence of occupation by hominids and humans for more than one million years. Discoveries have included the earliest hominid skull in Europe, the Celtiberian region that became Burgos was inhabited by the Morgobos, Turmodigi and perhaps the Pellendones, the last inhabitants of the northern part of the Celtiberian region. According to the Greek historian Ptolemy, the cities included, Sisara, Ambisna Segiasamon. Under Roman colonization, it was part of Hispania Citerior and Hispania Tarraconensis, in the fifth century, the Visigoths drove back the Suevi. In the eighth century, the Arabs occupied all of Castiles, alfonso III the Great, king of León reconquered the area around the middle of the ninth century, and built many castles for the defence of Christendom.
The region came to be known as Castile, i. e. land of castles, in the eleventh century, Burgos became the capital of the Kingdom of Castile. The province of Burgos is divided in 10 comarcas, list of municipalities in Burgos Media related to Province of Burgos at Wikimedia Commons Website of the Autonomous Community of Castile and León Website of the Province of Burgos delegation
Juliobriga (Spanish, Julióbriga, was the most important urban centre in Roman Cantabria, as stated by numerous Latin authors including Pliny the Elder. The site has traditionally identified with ruins in the village of Retortillo and its Villafría district. Its founding, during the Cantabrian Wars, made it a symbol of Roman domination of the tribes of the Cantabri. The city was named after the reigning emperor Augustus and his family name. Due to its location in the Besaya valley, it was able to control trade between the Douro river and the Bay of Biscay. Juliobriga grew slowly, reaching its peak between the end of the 1st century and the early 2nd century AD, following that, its population began to decline, until the city was completely abandoned in the 3rd century. The ruins of Retortillo were first identified with Julióbriga in the half of the 18th century by Enrique Florez. Numerous historians and archaeologists have worked on the site since, including some of Spains foremost, the ruins of Juliobriga were declared a Heritage Site by the Spanish Government on March 29,1985
Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated.
The senate appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine adopted Christianity which became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos.
The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperor
Legio IV Macedonica
Legio quarta Macedonica, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in 48 BC by Gaius Julius Caesar with Italian legionaries. The legion was disbanded in AD70 by Emperor Vespasian, the legion symbols were a bull and a capricorn. In 48 BC, the Roman Republic was decaying rapidly, Caesar had crossed the Rubicon River in the year before, starting a civil war. Pompey, Cato the younger and the rest of the faction of the senate had fled to Greece. Caesar was preparing to follow in pursuit and, among other preparations, the first battles of the legion were Dyrrhachium and Pharsalus, where Caesar defeated Pompey. After this, the legion was stationed in the province of Macedonia, now Augustus, sent the legion to Hispania Tarraconensis in 30 BC, to take part in the Cantabrian Wars. In 25 BC, they served as the force in the Battle of Vellica under the personal command of Augustus. After Augustus victory in 13 BC, the legion remained in the province, in 43, the legion was transferred to Germania Superior, to replace XIV Gemina as the garrison of Moguntiacum.
Along with XXII Primigenia, the legion supported Vitellius, governor of Germania Superior, in the Year of the Four Emperors, first against Otho, during the Batavian rebellion, IV Macedonica secured Moguntiacum and fought under Petillius Cerialis against the rebels. Their actions deserved no reproach but Vespasian did not trust its men, the legion was disbanded in 70, but reconstituted shortly afterwards under the name of Legio IV Flavia Felix. But we have older references about Legio IV, M. T. Cicero, in Somnium Scipionis, refers Scipio Aemilianus as a tribune of the Fourth Legion. 1 Cum in Africam venissem M. Manilio consuli ad quartam legionem tribunus, - Caius Valerius Cai filius Voltinia Donatus miles legionis IIII Macedonicae annorum XXXIX hic. Livius. org account of Legio IV Macedonica Legio IV MACEDONICA - reenactment site
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth