A cantilever is a rigid structural element, such as a beam or a plate, anchored at one end to a support from which it protrudes. Cantilevers can be constructed with trusses or slabs; when subjected to a structural load, the cantilever carries the load to the support where it is forced against by a moment and shear stress. Cantilever construction allows overhanging structures without external bracing, in contrast to constructions supported at both ends with loads applied between the supports, such as a supported beam found in a post and lintel system. Cantilevers are found in construction, notably in cantilever bridges and balconies. In cantilever bridges, the cantilevers are built as pairs, with each cantilever used to support one end of a central section; the Forth Bridge in Scotland is an example of a cantilever truss bridge. A cantilever in a traditionally timber framed building is called a forebay. In the southern United States, a historic barn type is the cantilever barn of log construction.
Temporary cantilevers are used in construction. The constructed structure creates a cantilever, but the completed structure does not act as a cantilever; this is helpful when temporary supports, or falsework, cannot be used to support the structure while it is being built. So some truss arch bridges are built from each side as cantilevers until the spans reach each other and are jacked apart to stress them in compression before joining. Nearly all cable-stayed bridges are built using cantilevers as this is one of their chief advantages. Many box girder bridges are built segmentally, or in short pieces; this type of construction lends itself well to balanced cantilever construction where the bridge is built in both directions from a single support. These structures rely on torque and rotational equilibrium for their stability. In an architectural application, Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater used cantilevers to project large balconies; the East Stand at Elland Road Stadium in Leeds was, when completed, the largest cantilever stand in the world holding 17,000 spectators.
The roof built over the stands at Old Trafford uses a cantilever so that no supports will block views of the field. The old, now demolished; the largest cantilevered roof in Europe is located at St James' Park in Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, the home stadium of Newcastle United F. C. Less obvious examples of cantilevers are free-standing radio towers without guy-wires, chimneys, which resist being blown over by the wind through cantilever action at their base. Another use of the cantilever is in fixed-wing aircraft design, pioneered by Hugo Junkers in 1915. Early aircraft wings bore their loads by using two wings in a biplane configuration braced with wires and struts, they were similar to truss bridges, having been developed by Octave Chanute, a railroad bridge engineer. The wings were braced with crossed wires so they would stay parallel, as well as front-to-back to resist twisting, running diagonally between adjacent strut anchorages; the cables and struts generated considerable drag, there was constant experimentation for ways to eliminate them.
It was desirable to build a monoplane aircraft, as the airflow around one wing negatively affects the other in a biplane's airframe design. Early monoplanes used either struts, or cables like the 1909 Bleriot XI; the advantage of using struts or cables is a reduction in weight for a given strength, but with the penalty of additional drag. This increases fuel consumption. Hugo Junkers endeavored to eliminate all major external bracing members, only a dozen years after the Wright Brothers' initial flights, to decrease airframe drag in flight, with the result being the Junkers J 1 pioneering all-metal monoplane of late 1915, designed from the start with all-metal cantilever wing panels. About a year after the initial success of the Junkers J 1, Reinhold Platz of Fokker achieved success with a cantilever-winged sesquiplane built instead with wooden materials, the Fokker V.1. The most common current wing design is the cantilever. A single large beam, called the main spar, runs through the wing nearer the leading edge at about 25 percent of the total chord.
In flight, the wings generate lift, the wing spars are designed to carry this load through the fuselage to the other wing. To resist fore and aft movement, the wing will be fitted with a second smaller drag-spar nearer the trailing edge, tied to the main spar with structural elements or a stressed skin; the wing must resist twisting forces, done either by a monocoque "D" tube structure forming the leading edge, or by the aforementioned linking two spars in some form of box beam or lattice girder structure. Cantilever wings require a much heavier spar. However, as the size of an aircraft increases, the additional weight penalty decreases. A line was crossed in the 1920s, designs turned to the cantilever design. By the 1940s all larger aircraft used the cantilever even on smaller surfaces such as the horizontal stabilizer, with the Messerschmitt Bf 109E of 1939–41 being one of the last World War II fighters in frontline service to have bracing struts for its stabilizer. Cantilevered beams are the most ubiquitous structures in the field of microelectromechanical systems.
An early example of a MEMS cantilever is the Resonistor, an
The Cass Park Historic District is a historic district in Midtown Detroit, consisting of 25 buildings along the streets of Temple, 2nd, surrounding Cass Park. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005 and designated a city of Detroit historic district in 2016; the area surrounding Cass Park was laid out as part of a French ribbon farm extending from the Detroit River. Lewis Cass, the park's namesake, purchased the farm in 1816, he constructed a house on Larned Street between First and Second Avenues, in 1840 a larger house on the northwest corner of Fort and Cass Streets. Starting in 1836, Cass began platting lots between Larned and the river. Over the next 30 years, Cass platted more northerly sections of his claim; the area that now encompasses the Cass Park Historic District began to be sold as lots after 1859. In 1860, Cass deeded a section of land to the city of Detroit, bounded by Second, Ledyard and Bagg, to be used as a public park. In 1863, the Detroit City Railway Company began streetcar service Along Woodward Avenue, only a few blocks away from Cass Park.
The streetcar service spurred development including the Cass Park area. The area soon became a fashionable suburb of the city. In 1875, the city landscaped Cass Park. By the 1880s, some of Detroit's most prominent citizens lived along the park, including James Vernor, E. W. Voigt, John H. Avery. Avery's house at 457 Ledyard is the only residence remaining from this period within the district; the Cass Park area continued to be a fashionable address into the 1900s. However, the 1890s saw the introduction of upscale apartment buildings. In 1895, the Alhambra Flats at 100-112 Temple was constructed, followed in 1905 by the Cromwell Flats at 2942 Second, in 1908 by the Ansonia Flats at 2909 Second; as Detrtoit continued developing, apartment buildings with smaller but more numerous units began to appear, including the Manhattan Apartments at 2966 Second in 1905, the Altadena Apartments at 2952 Second in 1911. This marked a transformation of the Cass Park area, as the single family homes surrounding the park were replaced with apartment buildings to house the city's expanding population.
By 1925, a number of new apartment buildings had been constructed. In addition, by the early 1920s, the business development of the city center reached into the Cass Park area, with businesses constructing their headquarters near the park; the first one of these was the Standard Accident Insurance Company, who built their headquarters at 640 Temple in 1921. By 1920, the city's Freemasonry had purchased a plot of land on what is now Temple Avenue to construct a new building, replacing the lodge on Lafayette which the organizations had outgrown. Construction on the Detroit Masonic Temple, the largest building in the district, began in 1920 and was completed in 1926; the Knights of Pythias followed suit, building a headquarters adjacent to the Masonic Temple in 1926. In 1927, the S. S. Kresge Corporation built its World Headquarters along the park. Smaller businesses located along the more traveled Cass Avenue near the Park. A number of structures were constructed in this area, including a commercial buildinghousing the Lasky Corporation at 146-166 Temple in 1923, the Will Mar Garage at 131 Temple in 1924, a film exchange building at 479 Ledyard in 1936.
During World War II the city's exploding population caused apartment owners in the area to subdivide their units to house the influx of workers. After the war, the Cass Park area declined economically, with the apartment buildings being further divided into substandard units. Many buildings were abandoned. During the 1950s-1970s the Cass Park area became one of the most economically depressed neighborhoods of the city, a number of charitable organizations moved into the area. In 1955, the Episcopal Diocese of Detroit constructed the Mariners Inn at 445 Ledyard as a shelter and treatment center for alcoholic sailors; the construction of Interstate 75 in Michigan, cutting off the park from downtown, hastened the decline of the neighborhood. Businesses moved into the suburbs, the buildings left behind were taken over by nonprofit organizations, abandoned, or razed; the Cass Park Historic District includes Cass Park, a formal square with angled paths and scattered statues, as well as various commercial headquarters buildings, apartment buildings, the monumental Detroit Masonic Temple and other structures surrounding the park.
Cass Park is a landscaped green space, containing abundant trees, park benches and modern, multi-color playground equipment. A fountain was once in the center of the park. A statue of Robert Burns, sculpted by George Anderson Lawson in 1921, is located at the north side of the park, facing the Masonic Temple; the new Cass Technical High School is located just to the south of the park, various other buildings, all of which are contained within this historic district and frame the park space. The national designation includes 25 buildings, two of which are demolished and two of which are classified as non-contributing to the district; the city of Detroit designation includes 19 of the 25 buildings included in the national designation, excepting the four demolished and non-contributing structures, as well as the Mariners Inn and the Will Mar Garage. Two of the buildings in the district are individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the buildings in the district include: Mariners Inn, 445 Ledyard: This two-story, rectangular brick office building was desi
Henrietta Temple is the ninth novel written by Benjamin Disraeli, who would become a Prime Minister of Britain. Disraeli wrote the first volume of Henrietta Temple in 1833 at the start of his affair with Henrietta Sykes, on whom the novel’s eponymous heroine is based, completed it three years shortly after the affair had ended; the two volumes reflect these two stages of the relationship, the first with, "the rustle of real petticoats more audible than in any other part of Disraeli's work," the latter where, "passion has vanished". The novel was written at a time when Disraeli was in debt and its limited success helped ease Disraeli’s financial situation. Ferdinand Armine is the scion of an aristocratic Catholic family, which can trace its roots back to the time of William the Conqueror. Ferdinand had an idyllic but isolated childhood, brought up by his loving parents and his tutor Glastonbury; the family estate, Armine, is, however and debt-ridden due to the lifestyle of Ferdinand’s grandfather.
Ferdinand becomes a favourite of his wealthy maternal grandfather, Lord Grandison, despite hints, fails to financially assist his daughter and son-in-law. Glastonbury therefore arranges for a duke in London, whose family he served, to buy an army commission in Malta for Ferdinand. Whilst Ferdinand is in Malta, Lord Grandison’s heir dies and everyone assumes Ferdinand will in due course inherit Grandison’s estate. Ferdinand therefore builds up large debts living an extravagant lifestyle but, when Grandison dies, his estate is bequeathed to his granddaughter, Katherine. On returning to England, Ferdinand realises the only way to deal with his debt is to marry Katherine, his cousin. Ferdinand woos Katherine who accepts his proposal of marriage. Ruminating on the sadness of his predicament, he meets Henrietta Temple and her father, the tenant of the neighbouring estate. Ferdinand and Henrietta fall in love. In the coming days and weeks, with both their families away, the couple spend more time together and enter into a secret engagement.
Ferdinand concludes that he should break his engagement with Katherine and persuades Henrietta to keep their engagement secret until he has squared things with his own father. Ferdinand therefore sets off to Bath to explain, he and Henrietta exchange secret letters but Ferdinand’s become progressively more infrequent and briefer. Henrietta hears of Ferdinand's engagement to Katherine through Lady Bellair. Distraught, she reveals her love for Ferdinand to her father and they resolve to go to Italy. Shortly afterwards Ferdinand, having failed to tell his family about Henrietta, returns and, learning that Henrietta has left the country and has knowledge of his engagement to Katherine, falls gravely ill, his parents and Katherine help nurse him back to health, whereupon Ferdinand confirms to Katherine what Glastonbury had told her, namely that he is in love with someone else. Ferdinand and Katherine resolve to secretly break their engagement but to remain friends. Meanwhile in Italy, Henrietta is ill and reclusive but is brought round by Lord Montfort, the grandson of the duke who arranged the army commission for Ferdinand.
Montfort proposes and to make her father happy, Henrietta accepts. Montfort decides. Coincidentally Mr Temple is the beneficiary of an unexpected inheritance and decides to settle it on Henrietta thus making her the richest heiress in the country. In London Ferdinand and Henrietta meet through mutual friends and chance encounters and learn how unhappy the other is. Katherine realises Henrietta is Ferdinand’s first love and challenges both Henrietta and Lord Montfort on the subject. Henrietta and Ferdinand both separately disclose their feelings to their fathers, who react negatively. News of the termination of Ferdinand's engagement to Katherine reaches one of his creditors, who arranges for Ferdinand to be arrested and taken to a “spunging hole”, a sort of pre-debtor prison. Various friends visit Ferdinand but he refuses help. Montfort turns up and presents him with a note written by Henrietta which states that Montfort and Katherine are to wed, thus freeing Ferdinand to marry Henrietta. Ferdinand is delighted and the following day allows a friend to pay off his debt.
With all the main characters reconciled, the novel ends describing how Montfort and Ferdinand went on to become Whig MPs and how Ferdinand and Henrietta raised their four children at the former’s family home, now restored to its former splendour. According to its author, the main theme of the novel is love at first sight, as described when Ferdinand first sets eyes on Henrietta. There love at first sight; this is the surpassing offspring of sheer and unpolluted sympathy. All other is the illegitimate result of observation, of reflection, of compromise, of comparison, of expediency; the passions that endure flash like the lightning: they scorch the soul, but it is warmed for ever. Disraeli writes that, "the magic of first love is our ignorance that it can end,” but the novel contains additional themes common to his other work such as a character mirroring “his own wiser alter ego”, a key scene being set in a ruined abbey and artificially life-like art; the novel's hero escapes debt by a combination of marrying into a wealthy family and entering Parliament, both of which Disraeli was to do in the 3 years following the novel’s publication.