Canton System

The Canton System served as a means for China to control trade with the West within its own country by focusing all trade on the southern port of Canton. Known in Chinese as the Yīkǒu tōngshāng the policy arose in 1757 as a response to a perceived political and commercial threat from abroad on the part of successive Chinese emperors. From the late seventeenth century onwards, Chinese merchants, known as Hongs, managed all trade in the port. Operating from the Thirteen Factories located on the banks of the Pearl River outside Canton, in 1760, by order of the Qing Qianlong Emperor, they became sanctioned as a monopoly known as the Cohong. Thereafter Chinese merchants dealing with foreign trade (known as yángháng acted through the Cohong under the supervision of the Guangdong Customs Supervisor, informally known as the "Hoppo", the Governor-general of Guangzhou and Guangxi. At the start of his reign, the Kangxi Emperor faced a number of challenges, not the least of, to integrate his new dynasty with the Chinese Han majority.

The Manchu-led Qing dynasty had only come to power in 1644. Support for the previous rulers remained strong in the south of the country. Kangxi twice banned all maritime trade for strategic reasons, to prevent any possible waterborne coup attempt. Several rebellions took place, including one led by Ming loyalist Koxinga and separately the Rebellion of the Three Feudatories, which led to the capture of Taiwan in 1683. Once the rebellions had been quelled, in 1684 Kangxi issued an edict:Now the whole country is unified, everywhere there is peace and quiet, Manchu-Han relations are integrated so I command you to go abroad and trade to show the populous and affluent nature of our rule. By imperial decree I open the seas to trade. Hǎiguān, or customs stations, were subsequently opened at Canton, Xiangshan County and Macau in Guangdong Province. One year in 1685, foreign traders received permission to enter Chinese ports; the Qing Court under Kangxi set up a trading company in Canton in 1686 to deal with Western trade known as the Yánghuò Háng.

This dealt with both imports and exports with sub-offices responsible for taxes and import/export declarations respectively. When a ship arrived or departed, the Chinese merchant involved would visit the Ocean Trading House to pay any taxes due; this set up became the basis for the Thirteen Factories through which all foreign trade would be conducted. Although many ports on the coasts of China were open, most Westerners chose to trade at Canton as it is closer to Southeast Asia and it was not profitable to go further north. In 1704, the Baoshang system was established; this system licensed trade with Western merchants: licences were granted to a number of Chinese merchants as long as they helped to collect duties from the Westerners aligning trading interests with the government's revenue collection. This was the predecessor for the Cohong system. Although he now had the foreign trade situation under control, Kangxi's liberal attitude towards religion led to a clash between Chinese and Christian spiritual authority.

After Pope Clement XI issued his 1715 papal bull Ex illa die, which condemned Chinese religious practices, Kangxi expelled all missionaries from China except those employed in a technical or scientific advisory capacity by the Qing Court. In 1745, Kangxi's grandson the Qianlong Emperor ordered his court to implement changes to the Ocean Trading House system. Thereafter a local Chinese merchant stood as guarantor for every foreign trading vessel entering Canton Harbour and took full responsibility for the ship and its crew along with the captain and supercargo. Any tax payments due from a foreign trader were to be guaranteed by the local merchant. With permission from the authorities, in 1760 Hong merchant Pan Zhencheng and nine others hong specializing in the western trade joined together to become the intermediary between the Qing government and the foreign traders; the role of the new body would be to purchase goods on behalf of the foreigners and deduct any taxes and duties payable for imports and exports.

Henceforth, the Cohong possessed imperial authority to levy taxes on the foreign merchants as they saw fit. In 1757 the Qianlong Emperor banned all non-Russian ships from the ports of northern China. Russians were however not allowed to use Canton. All customs offices other than the one at Canton were closed; the emperor did this after receiving a petition regarding the presence of armed Western merchant ships all along the coast. The Western merchant ships were protected from pirates, guarded against, by the Guangdong Navy, subsequently increased in strength. Thereafter all such commerce was to be conducted via a single port under what became known as the Canton System (In Chinese: Yī kŏu tōngshāng. During Qianlong's reign Qing foreign trade policies had a political aspect based on real or imagined threats from abroad

Joe Finley

Joseph Scott Finley is an American ice hockey defenseman. He is playing for HIFK in the Finnish Liiga. Finley was selected by the Washington Capitals in the 1st round of the 2005 NHL Entry Draft. Before Finley had arrived to Helsinki in 2016 he got a nickname, "The Red #3" after Lalli Partinen, a former defensman who played for HIFK in 1969–1977. Finley played for the Edina Peewee A state championship team in 1999–2000. Finley was a standout playing Minnesota High School hockey for the Edina Hornets. Due to Finley's strong play and leadership his freshman year, he made the White line the following year. In 2005, he said that making the White Line may well have been the greatest accomplishment of his hockey career. Finley missed the majority of the 2009–10 season on injured reserve when on November 21, 2009, in a game with the Stingrays against the Gwinnett Gladiators, he ruptured an artery in his hand which required surgery. On September 18, 2011, Finley accepted an invitation to training camp by the Buffalo Sabres.

He impressed enough that he was signed to an AHL contract, assigned to the Rochester Americans. Through the first quarter of the season, Finley was impressive as one half of the Americans shut-down defensive pairing, he led the Amerks in +/- with a +10. The Sabres and Finley reached a three-year contract on November 28, 2011, that will allow Finley to be called up by Sabres organization. Two days after the deal was completed, Finley was called up by the Sabres where he made his NHL debut against the Red Wings on December 2, 2011. Finley was the 475th player to play in the NHL after starting his career in the ECHL. Prior to the lockout shortened 2012–13 NHL season, Finley was claimed off waivers from the Sabres by the New York Islanders on January 14, 2013. On July 29, 2014, Finley signed as a free agent to a one-year AHL contract with the Hamilton Bulldogs. In the 2014–15 season, Finley appeared in 54 games with the Bulldogs, contributing with 3 assists and 132 penalty minutes. On October 8, 2015, Finley continued in the AHL, signing a one-year AHL deal with the Iowa Wild, an affiliate to the Minnesota Wild.

In the 2015–16 season, Finley appeared in 56 games with Iowa, recording a professional high of 5 goals from the blueline. On June 21, 2016, Finley opted to pursue a career abroad, agreeing to a one-year deal with Finnish club, HIFK, of the Liiga. On February 3, 2017, HIFK announced a two-year contract extension with Finley. Joe Finley career statistics at Joe Finley career statistics at The Internet Hockey Database Joe Finley's profile at

Louisiana statistical areas

The statistical areas of the United States of America comprise the metropolitan statistical areas, the micropolitan statistical areas, the combined statistical areas defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget. Most on December 1, 2009, the Office of Management and Budget defined 1067 statistical areas for the United States, including 7 combined statistical areas, 8 metropolitan statistical areas, 17 micropolitan statistical areas in the State of Louisiana; the table below shows the recent population of these statistical areas and the 64 parishes of Louisiana. The table below describes the 32 United States statistical areas and 64 parishes of the State of Louisiana with the following information: The combined statistical area as designated by the OMB; the CSA population as of July 1, 2016, as estimated by the United States Census Bureau. The core based statistical area as designated by the OMB; the CBSA population as of July 1, 2016, as estimated by the United States Census Bureau.

The parish or county. The parish or county population as of July 1, 2016, as estimated by the United States Census Bureau. State of Louisiana Outline of Louisiana Index of Louisiana-related articles Geography of Louisiana Demographics of Louisiana Louisiana parishes Louisiana statistical areas Demographics of the United States United States Census Bureau List of US states and territories by population List of US cities by population Cities and metropolitan areas of the US United States Office of Management and Budget Statistical Area Primary Statistical Area List of the 725 PSAsCombined Statistical Area List of the 128 CSAsCore Based Statistical Area List of the 955 CBSAsMetropolitan Statistical Area List of the 374 MSAs List of US MSAs by GDP Micropolitan Statistical Area List of the 581 μSAs United States Government United States Census Bureau 2010 United States Census USCB population estimates United States Office of Management and Budget