La Sarine or Saane is a major river of Switzerland. It is 128 km long and has an area of 1,892 km2. It is a tributary of the Aare, the Sarine rises in the Bernese Alps, near Sanetschhorn, in the Canton of Valais. It forms the Lac de Sénin reservoir at 2034 m, and enters the Canton of Bern and it forms the westernmost valley of the Bernese Oberland, flowing past Gsteig and Saanen in the Obersimmental-Saanen district. Downstream of Saanen, at 982 m, it enters the Canton of Vaud, passing Rougemont, Château-dŒx and Rossinière, at 833, it traverses the Creux de lEnfer and enters the Canton of Fribourg, forming Lac de Montbovon at 777 m. From this point, it more or less follows the boundary between French- and German-speaking Switzerland across the bilingual canton of Fribourg. Passing Villars-sous-Mont, Gruyères and Broc, it reaches Lac de la Gruyère at 677 m and it continues in serpentines towards Fribourg itself, the historical city was built in 1157 on a peninsula of the River Sarine, protected on three sides by steep cliffs.
Downstream of Fribourg, it widens into the Schiffenensee reservoir at 532 m, and is taken to Laupen in a channel. Flowing north for another 6 km, it joins the Aar just downstream of Wohlensee, at 461 m
Fribourg or Freiburg is the capital of the Swiss canton of Fribourg and the district La Sarine. Its Old City, one of the best maintained in Switzerland, the region around Fribourg has been settled since the Neolithic period, although few remains have been found. These include some flint tools found near Bourguillon, as well as a stone hatchet, a river crossing was located in the area during the Roman Era. The main activity in the Swiss plateau bypassed the area to the north, therefore, only a few remains from the Roman era have been found in Fribourg. These include the traces of a foundation on the plains near Pérolles. The town was founded in 1157 by Berchtold IV von Zähringen and its name is derived from German frei and Burg. Its most ancient part is located on a former peninsula of the river Sarine. The easily defended city helped the Dukes of Zähringen to strengthen, beginning at the time of its inception, Fribourg built a city-state, the land it controlled lay some distance away. When the dukes of Zähringen died out in 1218, the city was transferred to the related Kybourg family and they granted the city its former privileges and wrote the municipal laws in the so-called Handfeste in 1249, in which the legal and economic organizations were established.
Several treaties with neighbouring city-states, including Avenches, the city was sold to the Habsburgs in 1277. Trade and industry began as early as the mid-13th century, in the early period, Fribourg consisted of four distinct inner city districts, Burg, Au, La Neuveveville, and Spital. These expansions reflect the economic boom in Fribourg, the 14th century was dominated by trade, and cloth and leather production, which brought the city renown in Central Europe by 1370. In 1339, Fribourg participated alongside the Habsburgs and the County of Burgundy in the Battle of Laupen against Bern, the treaty with Bern was renewed in 1403. The leaders of the city began an acquisition, in which they gradually brought more nearby land under their control. This laid the ground-work for the Canton of Fribourg, by 1442 the city had control of all the land within about 20 kilometres, on both sides of the Saane. It was therefore controlled by the city leaders, not by any intermediate administration. The mid-15th century was shaped by military conflicts.
First, considerable losses in a war against Savoy had to be made good, the Savoyard influence on the city grew, and the Habsburgs ceded it to them in 1452
Sense District is one of the seven administrative districts of the canton of Fribourg in Switzerland, and the only completely German-speaking one. It is named for the Sense River, which forms the majority of its border with the canton of Bern. The Sense region was first mentioned historically in 1076 under the name Sensuna and it became a district since the canton was reorganized from four into seven districts in 1848. Most of the Sense belonged to the lordship of the Republik Freiburg until the demise of the ancien régime, the district has its own dialect, called Sensler German. The municipalities are now, The blazon of the coat of arms is Azure. Sense has a population of 43,196, most of the population speaks German as their first language, French is the second most common and Albanian is the third. There are 200 people who speak Italian and 14 people who speak Romansh, as of 2008, the population was 50. 1% male and 49. 9% female. The population was made up of 18,568 Swiss men and 1,821 non-Swiss men, there were 18,786 Swiss women and 1,553 non-Swiss women.
Of the population in the district,15,257 or about 39. 8% were born in Sense and lived there in 2000. There were 11,390 or 29. 7% who were born in the canton, while 7,378 or 19. 3% were born somewhere else in Switzerland. As of 2000, there were 16,738 people who were single, there were 18,372 married individuals,1,914 widows or widowers and 1,275 individuals who are divorced. There were 3,592 households that consist of one person and 1,320 households with five or more people. The historical population is given in the chart, On 1 January 1962 the municipality of Grossbösingen changed its name to Bösingen. On 1 January 1971 the former municipality of Neuhaus merged into Plasselb, on 1 January 1974 the municipality of Wünnewil changed its name to Wünnewil-Flamatt. On 1 January 2017 the former municipalities of Zumholz and Oberschrot merged into Plaffeien, in the 2011 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 23. 0% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the CVP, the SPS and the CSP, a total of 15,267 votes were cast in this election, of which 149 or 1. 0% were invalid.
From the 2000 census,26,849 or 70. 1% were Roman Catholic, there were 2 individuals who were Jewish, and 1,142 who were Islamic. There were 62 individuals who were Buddhist,33 individuals who were Hindu and 29 individuals who belonged to another church,1,463 belonged to no church, are agnostic or atheist, and 1,058 individuals did not answer the question
The Vanil Noir is a mountain of the Fribourg Prealps, located on the border between the cantons of Fribourg and Vaud in western Switzerland. Reaching a height of 2,389 metres above sea level and it is the northernmost point in the canton of Vaud above 2,300 metres and the most prominent summit of both cantons. The Vanil Noir is the point of the range separating the regions of Gruyère and Pays-dEnhaut, although it is followed by the almost equally high Vanil de lEcri. With these two mountains, it forms a cirque on the south and east side, overlooking the alp of Paray Doréna. On the west side, it consists of a smaller cirque, on the northeast side it overlooks the valley of Les Morteys. All three valleys descending from the Vanil Noir are part of the Saane drainage basin, the closest localities are Grandvillard and Château dOex. Several vertiginous trails lead to the summit, and cross it from north to south, the Vanil Noir is part of a nature reserve since 1983. List of mountains of Switzerland List of most isolated mountains of Switzerland Media related to Vanil Noir at Wikimedia Commons Vanil Noir on Hikr Vanil Noir Nature Reserve
Canton of Bern
The canton of Bern is the second largest of the 26 Swiss cantons by both surface area and population. Located in west-central Switzerland, it borders the canton of Jura, to the west lie the canton of Neuchâtel, the canton of Fribourg and Vaud. To the south lies the canton of Valais, east of the canton of Bern lie the cantons of Uri, Obwalden and Aargau. The canton of Bern is bilingual and has a population of 1,017,483, as of 2007, the population included 119,930 foreigners. The cantonal capital, the capital of Switzerland, is Bern. Bern joined the Swiss Confederation in 1353 and was between 1803 and 1814 one of the six directorial cantons of the Napoleonic Swiss Confederation and these caves were used at various times during the last ice age. The first open-air settlement in the area is an upper paleolithic settlement at Moosbühl in Moosseedorf, during the warmer climate of the mesolithic period, increasing forest cover restricted the movement of hunters and gatherers. Their temporary settlements were built along lake and marsh edges, which remained free of trees due to fluctuations in water level, important mesolithic sites in the Canton are at Pieterlenmoos and Burgäschisee lake along with alpine valleys at Diemtig and Simmental.
During the neolithic period, there were a number of settlements on the shores of Lake Biel, several of these sites are part of the Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. One of the best explored neolithic sites is at Twann, in the Twannbach delta there were about 25 Cortaillod culture and Horgen culture villages that existed between 3800 and 2950 BC. One of the oldest examples of bread from Switzerland, a sourdough from 3560–3530 BC, simple copper objects were already in use in the 4th millennium BC, including a copper pin from Lattrigen from 3170 BC and a knife blade from Twann. Shortly before 2000 BC bronze production entered the area and brought about a surge in development, settlements began to spread into the pre-Alpine and Alpine areas. The area between Lake Thun and the Niedersimmental were densely settled, Late Bronze Age settlements along Lake Biel have yielded up a wealth of items. During the early Iron Age changes in climate forced them to settlements along many waterways and in the valley floors and move to the plateaus.
With increased trade contacts across the Alps, the influence of the Mediterranean grew in the area. Evidence of this include a hydria which was discovered in Grächwil. Burial rituals and social classes became more developed during this time, the so-called princely graves became more common, many of the burial mounds were over 30 m in diameter and 4 m high and richly outfitted with grave goods. In a grave mound in Bützberg the first burial in the mound was followed by burials
Districts of Switzerland
In contrast to centrally organised states, in the federally constituted Switzerland each canton is completely free to decide its own internal organisation. Therefore, there exists a variety of structures and terminology for the subnational entities between canton and municipality, loosely termed districts, most cantons are divided into Bezirke. They are termed Ämter, district or distretto, the Bezirke generally provide only administration and court organization. However, for historical reasons districts in cantons Graubünden and Schwyz are their own legal entities with jurisdiction over tax, seven of the 26 cantons – Uri, Nidwalden, Zug, Basel-City and Geneva – have always existed without the district level of government. An eighth one, Appenzell Innerrhoden, uses no intermediate level either, bern in 2006 decided a reduction of its 26 districts to five administrative regions. Vaud decided a reduction from 19 to 10 districts, valais is planning a similar reduction and in Thurgau, a reduction of eight to four districts is under discussion.
From 2005, districts only have a statistical meaning, the districts are functionally equivalent to municipalities elsewhere in Switzerland, and are generally shown as municipalities on maps etc. The Canton is divided into 6 districts, Appenzell Gonten Oberegg Rüte Schlatt-Haslen Schwende Municipalities of Switzerland
Romandy is the French-speaking part of western Switzerland. In 2010 about 1.9 million people, or 24. 4% of the Swiss population, the bulk of romand population lives in the Arc Lémanique region along Lake Geneva, connecting Geneva and the Lower Valais. The adjective romand is a dialectal variant of roman, in Old French used as a term for the Gallo-Romance vernaculars. Suisse romande is used in contrast to Suisse alémanique, Alemannic Switzerland, formed by analogy is Suisse italienne, which is composed of Ticino and of a part of Graubünden. Simple Westschweiz western Switzerland may be used as a loose synonym, in four Swiss cantons, French is the sole official language, Vaud, Neuchâtel, and Jura. There are three cantons where French and German have co-official status, Bern and Valais, the linguistic boundary between French and German is known as Röstigraben. The term is humorous in origin and refers both to the division and to perceived cultural differences between the Romandy and the German-speaking Swiss majority.
The term can be traced to the WWI period, but it entered mainstream usage in the 1970s in the context of the Jurassic separatism virulent at the time. It follows the border between Neuchâtel and Bern and turns south towards Morat, again traversing an areal of traditional bilinguism including the communities of Morat and Fribourg. Cutting across the High Alps at Les Diablerets, the boundary separates the French-speaking Lower Valais from the Alemannic-speaking Upper Valais. It cuts southwards into the High Alps again, separating the Val dAnniviers from the Mattertal, traditionally speaking the Franco-Provençal or Patois dialects of Upper Burgundy, the romand population now speak a variety of Standard French. Today, the differences between Swiss French and Parisian French are minor and mostly lexical, although in rural speakers, in particular, some parts of the Swiss Jura participate in the Frainc-Comtou dialect spoken in the Franche-Comté region of France. Since the 1970s, there has been an amount of linguistic revivalism.
In this context, the Franco-Provençal dialects are called Arpitan and their historical area Arpitania, the cultural identity of Romandy is supported by Télévision Suisse Romande, Radio Suisse Romande and the universities of Geneva, Fribourg and Neuchâtel. Historically, most of Romandy has been strongly Protestant, especially Calvinist, Roman Catholicism continued to predominate in Jura and Fribourg. In recent decades, due to significant immigration from France and Southern European countries, languages of Switzerland Swiss French Röstigraben Jurassic separatism Bernese Jura Lake Geneva region Rhodanic Republic Arpitania Organisation internationale de la Francophonie
Bulle is a municipality in the district of Gruyère in the canton of Fribourg in Switzerland. In January 2006 Bulle incorporated the independent municipality of La Tour-de-Trême. Bulle is first mentioned in the 9th century as Butulum, in 1200 it was mentioned as Bollo. The municipality was known by its German name Boll, however. Very little is known about the history of the Bulle area. In 1995, a grave mound from the early Hallstatt period was partially excavated. The grave mound lies about 300 m from the hill on which the church was built, during the Early Middle Ages it was the home of a parish church that covered a large parish. This Church of St. Eusebius was probably built in the 6th or 7th century by the Bishop of Lausanne, the church is mentioned several times between 852-875. In the 9th century, the parish was split into several independent parishes, as the parish shrunk in size, the church gradually lost its former importance, but it remained the center of the Decanate of Ogo until the 16th century.
The deanery covered the whole Saanen valley to Treyvaux, the Jaun and Sionge valleys, Bulle probably came under the secular power of the Bishop of Lausanne as early as the 6th century, and together with Avenches and Curtilles formed the territory originally owned by the bishop. Since the counts of Gruyères possessed sovereign rights in Bulle, since these conflicts were always decided in favor of the bishop, the counts eventually lost all rights in Bulle. Even by the 12th century, Bulle was an important regional economic center, in 1195/96, Count Rudolph closed the market in Gruyère and extended his support to the older market in Bulle. At that time, the town was a collection of homesteads, in the 13th Century the bishops recognized that the town was crucial to their income and to administer and defend the surrounding region. Bishop Boniface erected a city wall surrounding a town with two lanes and four rows of houses in 1231-39. A little later, possibly under the episcopate of William de Champvent, the main building of the castle was a 33-metre-high tower that dominated the south gate and the surrounding plain.
Throughout the Middle Ages, the bishops appointed two officers, the castellan and the mayor to rule the town, throughout the 13th to 15th centuries, the noble de Bulle family held the office of mayor. Although citizens of Bulle are mentioned in 1195/96, they first had an organization in the 14th century testifies, starting around 1350, many of the towns in the Saanen valley between Gruyere and Arconciel lost most of their historic importance and population. However, due to Bulles favorable location, its infrastructure and the support of the bishops and it was able to recover quickly from a devastating fire in 1447
Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the Swiss Confederation. The nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the form of the first three confederate allies used to be referred to as the Waldstätte, with the Napoleonic period of the Helvetic Republic the term canton/cantone/Kanton was fully established. From 1833, there were 25 cantons, which became 26 after the secession of the canton of Jura from Bern in 1979. The term canton, now used as English term for administrative subdivisions of other countries, originates in French usage in the late 15th century, from a word for edge. After 1490, canton was increasingly used in French and Italian documents to refer to the members of the Swiss Confederacy, English use of canton in reference to the Swiss Confederacy dates to the early 17th century. It was increasingly replaced by Stand after 1550, the French term canton was not adopted into German usage prior to 1648, and after that only in occasional use. The prominent usage of Ort and Stand only gradually disappeared in German-speaking Switzerland with the Helvetic Republic, only with the Act of Mediation of 1803 did German Kanton become an official designation, retained in the Swiss Constitution of 1848.
The term Stand remains in usage and is reflected in the name of the upper chamber of the Swiss Parliament. Republic Some cantonal constitutions provide for a formal name of the state. Most of Romandys cantons and Ticino call themselves république/Repubblica officially, at least within their constitutions, for example, the canton of Geneva refers to itself formally as the République et canton de Genève. Though they were part of the Holy Roman Empire, they had become de facto independent when the Swiss defeated Emperor Maximillian in 1499 in Dornach. The old system was abandoned with the formation of the Helvetic Republic following the French invasion of Switzerland in 1798, the cantons of the Helvetic Republic had merely the status of an administrative subdivision with no sovereignty. The Helvetic Republic collapsed within five years, and cantonal sovereignty was restored with the Act of Mediation of 1803, the status of Switzerland as a federation of states was restored, at the time including 19 cantons.
Three additional western cantons, Neuchâtel and Geneva, acceded in 1815, the process of Restoration, completed by 1830, returned most of the former feudal rights to the cantonal patriciates, leading to rebellions among the rural population. The Liberal Radical Party embodied these democratic forces calling for a new federal constitution and this tension, paired with religious issues escalated into armed conflict in the 1840s, with the brief Sonderbund War. The victory of the party resulted in the formation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848. The cantons retained far-reaching sovereignty, but were no longer allowed to maintain standing armies or international relations. Each canton has its own constitution, legislature and courts, most of the cantons legislatures are unicameral parliaments, their size varying between 58 and 200 seats