The French invaded Switzerland and turned it into an ally known as the Helvetic Republic. The interference with localism and traditional liberties was deeply resented, although some modernizing reforms took place, resistance was strongest in the more traditional Catholic bastions, with armed uprisings breaking out in spring 1798 in the central part of Switzerland. During the French Revolutionary Wars of the 1790s, the French Republican armies expanded eastward, the French Republican armies enveloped Switzerland on the grounds of liberating the Swiss people, whose own system of government was deemed as feudal, especially for annexed territories such as Vaud. Some Swiss nationals, including Frédéric-César de La Harpe, had called for French intervention on these grounds, the invasion proceeded largely peacefully, since the Swiss people failed to respond to the calls of their politicians to take up arms. On 5 March 1798, French troops completely overran Switzerland and the Old Swiss Confederation collapsed, on 12 April 1798,121 cantonal deputies proclaimed the Helvetic Republic and Indivisible.
On 14 April 1798, an assembly was called in the canton of Zürich. The new régime abolished cantonal sovereignty and feudal rights, the occupying forces established a centralised state based on the ideas of the French Revolution. Many Swiss citizens resisted these ideas, particularly in the central areas of the country. Some of the controversial aspects of the new regime limited freedom of worship. In response, the Cantons of Uri and Nidwalden raised an army of about 10,000 men led by Alois von Reding to fight the French and this army was deployed along the defensive line from Napf to Rapperswil. Reding besieged French-controlled Lucerne and marched across the Brünig pass into the Berner Oberland to support the armies of Bern, at the same time, the French General Balthasar Alexis Henri Antoine of Schauenburg marched out of occupied Zürich to attack Zug and the Sattel pass. Even though Redings army won victories at Rothenthurm and Morgarten, Schauenburgs victory near Sattel allowed him to threaten the town of Schwyz, on 4 May 1798, the town council of Schwyz surrendered.
On 13 May and Schauenburg agreed to a cease-fire, no general agreement existed about the future of Switzerland. Leading groups split into the Unitaires, who wanted a republic, and the Federalists. Coup-attempts became frequent, and the new régime had to rely on the French to survive, the occupying forces insisted that the accommodation and feeding of the soldiers be paid for by the local populace, which drained the economy. The treaty of alliance with France broke the tradition of neutrality established by the Confederation, all this made it difficult to establish a new working state. Instability in the Republic reached its peak in 1802–1803, which included the Bourla-papey uprising, by then, it was 12 million francs in debt having started with a treasury of 6 million francs. This together with local resistance caused the Helvetic Republic to collapse, at that time, Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul of France, summoned representatives of both sides to Paris in order to negotiate a solution
Morges is a municipality in the Swiss canton of Vaud, located in the district of Morges and is the seat of the district. Morges is first mentioned in 1288 as Morgia and it was known by its German name Morsee though that name is no longer used. There were several settlements along what is now the Morges lakefront. The largest and best known, Grande-Cité, was occupied in the late Bronze Age, one of the wooden objects at Grande-Cité has been dendrochronologically dated to 1031 BC. Many of the stilts and building structures have been preserved in situ, a dugout of oak was discovered near the settlement and in 1877 half of it was recovered and placed in the Musée dhistoire et dart in Geneva. About a hundred meters north is the village of Vers-lEglise. The first settlement here dates back to the Neolithic, based on a layer of ceramic objects that date from between 2900 BC and 2700 BC and it remained occupied through the Late Bronze Age. North-east of Grande-Cité is the lake settlement, Les Roseaux.
It is a site for artifacts including numerous edge strips for bronze axes. The arrangement of the show the organization of the huts. Dendrochronological investigations of the stilts have determined that many of the houses were built between 1776 and 1600 BC, on top of the older settlement, a smaller Late Bronze Age settlement, dendrochronologically dated to 1055 BC, has been discovered. The Bronze Age settlements were abandoned and the region was inhabited until the Gallo-Roman era when a villa. In 1286, Louis of Savoy, founded a city in a pasture where a gallows has previously stood, a castle was built to protect the city. A town charter was granted in 1293, the new city grew at the expense of the county of Vufflens, the diocese of Lausanne and Romainmôtier Abbey, all of which lost property and rights to the new city. It quickly developed into an administrative and market center as well as a hub for transporting goods by land, during the Middle Ages, Morges was a seasonal residence of the court of Savoy and the seat of a bailiff.
The city was ruled as a fief, and the residents were taxed according to their frontage or the width of their property along the street. The city was laid out like many neighboring Zähringer towns, There were two 13–18 m wide longitudinal streets that could be used for markets and fairs. A third, parallel road was added due to the expansion of Morges
It gave its name to the final four years of the French Revolution. The Directory was continually at war with foreign coalitions which at different times included Britain, Prussia, the Kingdom of Naples, Russia and it annexed Belgium and the left bank of the Rhine, while Bonaparte conquered a large part of Italy. The Directory established six short-lived sister republics modelled after France, in Italy, the conquered cities and states were required to send to France huge amounts of money, as well as art treasures, which were used to fill the new Louvre museum in Paris. An army led by Bonaparte conquered Egypt and marched as far as Saint-Jean-dAcre in Syria, the French economy was in continual crisis during the Directory. At the beginning, the treasury was empty, the money, the Assignat, had fallen to a fraction of its value. The Directory stopped printing assignats and restored the value of the money, but this caused a new crisis and wages fell, and economic activity slowed to a standstill. The Jacobin political club was closed and the government crushed an uprising planned by the Jacobins.
The Jacobins took two seats in the Directory, hopelessly dividing it. In 1799, after several defeats, French victories in the Netherlands and Switzerland restored the French military position, Bonaparte returned from Egypt in October, and was engaged by the Abbé Sieyès and other moderates to carry out a parliamentary coup détat on 8–9 November 1799. The coup abolished the Directory, put the French Consulate led by Bonaparte in its place and his leading followers were declared outside the law, and on 28 July were arrested, and guillotined the same day. The Terror quickly came to a halt, the Revolutionary Tribunal, which had sent thousands to the guillotine, ceased meeting and its head, Fouquier-Tinville, was arrested and imprisoned, and after trial was himself guillotined. More than five hundred suspected counter-revolutionaries awaiting trial and execution were immediately released, in the wake of these events, the members of the Convention began planning an entirely new form of government.
They wished to continue the Revolution, but without its excesses and this executive will have a force concentrated enough that it will be swift and firm, but divided enough to make it impossible for any member to even consider becoming a tyrant. A single chief would be dangerous, each member will preside for three months, he will have during this time the signature and seal of the head of state. By the slow and gradual replacement of members of the Directory, you will preserve the advantages of order and continuity and will have the advantages of unity without the inconveniences. To assure that the Directors would have some independence, each would be elected by one portion of the legislature, the members of this legislature had a term of three years, with one-third of the members renewed every year. The Ancients could not initiate new laws, but could veto those proposed by the Council of Five Hundred, the new Constitution required the Council of 500 to prepare, by secret ballot, a list of candidates for the Directory.
The Council of the Ancients chose, again by secret ballot, the Constitution required that Directors be at least forty years old
Payerne is a municipality in the Swiss canton of Vaud. It was the seat of the district of Payerne, and is now part of the district of Broye-Vully, the earliest traces of settlements near Payerne include Neolithic objects and traces of a Bronze Age settlement. There are burial mounds from the Hallstatt and Latène cultures, There was a Celtic bridge and a Roman era road in the area of Les Aventuri. There were Roman buildings within and outside the city walls, Roman cemeteries, during the Early Middle Ages, the village of Payerne first appeared. In 587, Bishop Marius built the villa Paterniacum and a Chapel to St. Mary in the village, the chapel developed into a parish church. The present Gothic building was built in the 14th Century over Roman foundations and it was renovated in the 1990s. In the 10th Century, the Cluniac Payerne Priory was founded, in 1033, Emperor Conrad II was crowned as the King of Burgundy in the priory church. Payerne is first mentioned in 961 as ecclesie sancte Marie Paterniacensis though this comes from a 12th Century copy of the older document, in 1049 it was mentioned as in loco Paterniaco.
The town was known by its German name Peterlingen. Before 1302 the prior granted the citizens the right to establish a council, in 1348 the council created a town charter which was formally recognized. The leader of the towns Council of Twelve served as the mayor, in the 16th Century a second twelve-member council appeared, to handle trade disputes for which it was not necessary to call together all citizens and nobles. The citizenry and the monastery were often in conflict with each other, the town concluded treaties with Bern, the count of Neuchâtel and Murten. In 1362 a hospital was built in the town, in 1395, a schoolmaster was mentioned, and in 1449 there was a secondary school. After the conquest of Vaud in 1536, the town was granted a legal position by Bern. The Schultheiss, who represented the Bernese interests, was a citizen of Payern, the Schultheiss was subordinate to the town military leader, who was elected by the citizens. The Bannerherr chaired the sixty member council, which was divided into the Conseil Premier Douze, the Conseil Second-Douze, the Communauté included representative from the village of Corcelles and the surrounding hamlets.
In 1769, the Council was reduced to 50 members, the City Council building of Payerne was built in 1572, and since 1964 has served as the seat of the District Court. Guillaume Farel and Pierre Viret began to preach the Protestant Reformation in 1532-33 in Payerne, the town adopted the new faith even before the conquest by Bern
The city of Bern or Berne is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their Bundesstadt, or federal city. With a population of 141,762, Bern is the fourth-most populous city in Switzerland, the Bern agglomeration, which includes 36 municipalities, had a population of 406,900 in 2014. The metropolitan area had a population of 660,000 in 2000, Bern is the capital of the canton of Bern, the second-most populous of Switzerlands cantons. The official language in Bern is German, but the language is an Alemannic Swiss German dialect. In 1983, the old town in the centre of Bern became a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Bern is ranked among the top ten cities for the best quality of life. The etymology of the name Bern is uncertain and it has long been considered likely that the city was named after the Italian city of Verona, which at the time was known as Bern in Middle High German. As a result of the find of the Bern zinc tablet in the 1980s, it is now common to assume that the city was named after a pre-existing toponym of Celtic origin.
The bear was the animal of the seal and coat of arms of Bern from at least the 1220s. The earliest reference to the keeping of bears in the Bärengraben dates to the 1440s. No archaeological evidence that indicates a settlement on the site of city centre prior to the 12th century has been found so far. In antiquity, a Celtic oppidum stood on the Engehalbinsel north of Bern, fortified since the second century BC, during the Roman era, a Gallo-Roman vicus was on the same site. The Bern zinc tablet has the name Brenodor, in the Early Middle Ages, a settlement in Bümpliz, now a city district of Bern, was some 4 km from the medieval city. The medieval city is a foundation of the Zähringer ruling family, according to 14th-century historiography, Bern was founded in 1191 by Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen. In 1218, after Berthold died without an heir, Bern was made an imperial city by the Goldene Handfeste of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. In 1353, Bern joined the Swiss Confederacy, becoming one of the eight cantons of the period of 1353 to 1481.
The city grew out towards the west of the boundaries of the peninsula formed by the river Aare, the Zytglogge tower marked the western boundary of the city from 1191 until 1256, when the Käfigturm took over this role until 1345. It was, in turn, succeeded by the Christoffelturm until 1622, during the time of the Thirty Years War, two new fortifications – the so-called big and small Schanze – were built to protect the whole area of the peninsula
Solothurn is a town, a municipality, and the capital of the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland. It is located in the north-west of Switzerland on the banks of the Aare, the town is the only municipality of the district of the same name. The town got its name from Salodurum, a Roman-era settlement, from 1530 to 1792 it was the seat of the French ambassador to Switzerland. The pedestrian-free old town was built between 1530 and 1792 and shows an impressive array of Baroque architecture, combining Italian Grandezza, French style, the town has 18 structures listed as heritage sites. Agricultural, once the dominant sector of employment, has become almost non-existent, most people today are employed in manufacturing and education. The official language of Solothurn is German, but the spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. The oldest finds from Solothurn probably date from the Paleolithic era, the remains of a Mesolithic camp were discovered in 1986 during renovations of the former Kino Elite building.
From the Neolithic and Iron Age, only a few scattered items have been discovered, the Roman settlement at Solothurn was probably built around AD 15-25 as a road station and bridge head on the road from Aventicum to Augusta Raurica or Vindonissa. A small vicus or settlement quickly developed around the castrum, Solothurn is first mentioned in 219 as vico salod on the so-called Eponastein. The name may indicate either that a Celtic settlement existed on the site before or just be a testimony to the mixed Gallo-Roman culture in the north-west provinces of the Roman Empire and it came to be known as Salodurum. Its strategical importance lay in the position at the approach to the Rhine from southeast, in the 2nd-3rd Century AD, the vicus expanded rapidly to fill almost all of what is now the old town of Solothurn, including a portion of todays suburb south of the Aare. The Roman bridge was probably somewhat above the current Wengibrücke, the Roman era river bed was 40–80 meters north of the present Aare.
The main street of the Vicus was well below the present main street, in addition to the normal government of the settlement, there were two mayors, and a six-member college, which was entrusted with supporting the imperial cult. Salodurum was home to a detachment of the XXII Legion. According to inscriptions, there was a temple of Jupiter, a temple of Apollo Augustus and an altar to the goddess of horses Epona, the locations of those three temples is not known. There was bath house on the street and a pottery district in the northwest of the town which have been documented archaeologically. A cemetery with urns and cremation burials on the end of the Vicus was discovered in 1762-63 during the demolition of the old church of St. Ursus. In addition, two Roman tombs were discovered in the same area, around 325-350, the unfortified settlement along the road was transformed into a fortified camp or castrum, which covered only half of the former settlement area
Paul I of Russia
Paul I reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. His reign lasted five years, ending with his assassination by conspirators and his most important achievement was the adoption of the laws of succession to the Russian throne - rules that lasted until the end of the Romanov dynasty and of the Russian Empire. He became de facto Grand Master of the Order of Hospitallers, Paul was born in the Palace of Empress Elizabeth in Saint Petersburg. He was the son of the Grand Duchess Catherine, Empress Catherine the Great, who was the wife of Elizabeths heir and nephew, the Grand Duke Peter, Emperor Peter III. During his infancy, Paul was taken immediately from his mother by the Empress Elizabeth, as a boy, he was reported to be intelligent and good-looking. His pug-nosed facial features in life are attributed to an attack of typhus, some claim that his mother Catherine hated him, and was restrained from putting him to death. Paul was put in the charge of a governor, Nikita Ivanovich Panin. It is interesting to note that Panins nephew went on to one of Pauls assassins.
The Russian Imperial court, first of Elizabeth and of Catherine, was not a home for a lonely, needy. His tutor, complained that he was always in a hurry, the use made of his name by the rebel Yemelyan Pugachev, who impersonated his father Peter, tended no doubt to render Pauls position more difficult. On the birth of his first child in 1777 the Empress gave him an estate and his wife gained leave to travel through western Europe in 1781–1782. In 1783 the Empress granted him another estate at Gatchina, where he was allowed to maintain a brigade of soldiers whom he drilled on the Prussian model, an unpopular stance at the time. Catherine the Great and her son and heir, the future Paul I, the aunt of Catherines husband, Empress Elizabeth, took up the child as a passing fancy. Elizabeth proved an obsessive but incapable caretaker, as she had raised no children of her own, Paul was supervised by a variety of caregivers. Roderick McGrew briefly relates the neglect to which the infant heir was sometimes subject, On one occasion he fell out of his crib, even after Elizabeths death, relations with Catherine hardly improved.
Paul was often jealous of the favours she would shower upon her lovers, in one instance the empress gave to one of her court favourites fifty thousand Rubles on her birthday, while Paul received a cheap watch. Pauls early isolation from his mother created a distance between them which events would reinforce and she never considered inviting him to share her power in governing Russia. And once Pauls son Alexander was born, it appeared that she had found a suitable heir
The Stecklikrieg of 1802 resulted in the collapse of the Helvetic Republic, the renewed French occupation of Switzerland and ultimately the Act of Mediation dictated by Napoleon on 10 March 1803. The conflict itself was between insurgents, mostly drawn from the population, and the official forces of the Helvetic Republic. The term Stäckli, or wooden club, from which the conflict draws its name refers to the weaponry of the insurgents. Following the Treaty of Lunéville, the French troops left Switzerland during the summer of 1802, resulting in rapid destabilization of the country. The war began with an engagement at Rengg pass in Pilatus on the 28th of August, followed by attacks on Bern and Zürich during September. It was succeeded by cantonal governments, and a Tagsatzung in Schwyz led by Alois von Reding, Napoleon was concerned that the instability of Switzerland could infect Europe at large, and was authorized to negotiate a settlement between the feuding sides. His Act of Mediation made concessions to the demands of the insurgents and he likewise stated the natural state of Switzerland was federal and that attempts to force any other system upon them were unwise.
French intervention constituted a breach of the Treaty of Amiens, which was used as a pretext by the United Kingdom to resume their war against France on 18 May 1803. The French involvement within the affairs of the Swiss was exemplary of Britains worry that it was to have a diminishing role in continental affairs. In regards to civil response to the actions of the French and his poetry of the period was his response to the easy jingoism which he considered to often captivate the British populace. In the Subjugation of Switzerland, he relates his experiences on the differences between the place of a nation and the politics of one, Stecklikrieg in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Abschnitt in der Geschichte des Kantons Bern seit 1798
The Berner Oberland, is the higher part of the canton of Bern, Switzerland, in the southern end of the canton, and one of the cantons five administrative regions. The mountain range in the Berner Oberland south of the Aare, the flag of the Berner Oberland consists of a black eagle in a gold field over two fields in the cantonal colours of red and black. The Swiss German dialects spoken in the Berner Oberland are Highest Alemannic German, contrasting with the High Alemannic Bernese German spoken in Bern, in the short-lived Helvetic Republic, the Berner Oberland had been a separate canton. Prehistorically the Berner Oberland was crossed by hunters or traders, the Romans settled along the river and the lakes. They used a number of alpine passes including, the Brünig, Grimsel, Lötschen, Rawil, during the High Middle Ages, a number of Berner Oberland villages grew around valley parish churches which were religious and cultural centers within each surrounding valley. During Middle Ages, the Berner Oberland first belonged to the Kingdom of Burgundy followed by the Dukes of Zähringen, after the extinction of the Zähringen line, the Berner Oberland was ruled by a number of local Barons.
For a time, some of the Walser barons ruled portions of the Berner Oberland, the Saanen valley was ruled by the Counts of Gruyères. Portions of the passes were held, until the 19th century. The expansionist policy of the city of Bern led them into the Berner Oberland, through conquest, mortgage or marriage politics Bern was able to acquire the majority of the Berner Oberland from the indebted local barons between 1323 and 1400. Under Bernese control, the five valleys enjoyed extensive rights and far-reaching autonomy in the Bäuerten and Talverbänden, throughout the Late Middle Ages, the Berner Oberland, as a whole or in part, revolted several times against Bernese authority. During the Middle Ages, the settlement pattern in the Berner Oberland was somewhat consistent, a main settlement grew on the valley floor below an elevation near 1,100 m. This main settlement had a market and often a castle or other fortifications and this market town was surrounded by scattered villages and individual farm houses to an elevation of 1,600 m.
During the 14th-16th centuries, the Berner Oberland villages began extensive trading with the Bernese grain producing towns in the lowlands. This allowed the villages to renounce self-sufficiency in grain and focus on raising cattle in the high alpine pastures. They exported cattle over the passes into Italy and into the Bernese lowlands, around 1500, in addition to the seven medieval markets, eleven new cattle markets opened to allow the Berner Oberland villagers to sell their cattle. After the Napoleonic invasion of Switzerland in 1798, the old Bernese order was fractured, within this new canton, historic borders and traditional rights were not considered. As there had no previous separatist feeling amongst the conservative population. In 1729, Albrecht von Haller published the poem Die Alpen about his travels through the alpine regions and this combined with other reports and alpine paintings started the tourism industry in the Berner Oberland
La Sarraz is a municipality of the canton of Vaud in Switzerland, located in the district of Morges. La Sarraz is first mentioned in 1149 as Sarrata and it is known as the place of establishment of Le Congrès International dArchitecture Moderne in 1928. La Sarraz has an area, as of 2009, of 7.71 square kilometers, of this area,3.72 km2 or 48. 2% is used for agricultural purposes, while 3.01 km2 or 39. 0% is forested. Of the rest of the land,0.92 km2 or 11. 9% is settled,0.04 km2 or 0. 5% is either rivers or lakes and 0.05 km2 or 0. 6% is unproductive land. Of the built up area and buildings made up 6. 0%, of the agricultural land,36. 8% is used for growing crops and 10. 2% is pastures, while 1. 2% is used for orchards or vine crops. All the water in the municipality is flowing water, the municipality was part of the Cossonay District until it was dissolved on 31 August 2006, and La Sarraz became part of the new district of Morges. The municipality is located in the Venoge river, at the foot of the Mormont, the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Per pale Gules and Or, overall capital S Argent lined Sable.
La Sarraz has a population of 2,564, as of 2008,26. 6% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 29. 8% and it has changed at a rate of 27. 9% due to migration and at a rate of 2% due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks French, with German being second most common, There are 35 people who speak Italian. Of the population in the municipality 363 or about 21. 0% were born in La Sarraz and lived there in 2000. There were 657 or 38. 0% who were born in the canton, while 237 or 13. 7% were born somewhere else in Switzerland. In 2008 there were 16 live births to Swiss citizens and 3 births to non-Swiss citizens, ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 3 while the foreign population increased by 2. There were 4 Swiss men who immigrated back to Switzerland and 1 Swiss woman who emigrated from Switzerland, at the same time, there were 12 non-Swiss men and 10 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland.
The total Swiss population change in 2008 was an increase of 45 and this represents a population growth rate of 4. 9%. The age distribution, as of 2009, in La Sarraz is,244 children or 11. 3% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 254 teenagers or 11. 8% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population,316 people or 14. 7% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 355 people or 16. 5% are between 30 and 39,343 people or 16. 0% are between 40 and 49, and 264 people or 12. 3% are between 50 and 59