The Sonderbund War of November 1847 was a civil war in Switzerland, still a relatively loose confederacy of cantons. It ensued after seven Catholic cantons formed the Sonderbund in 1845 to protect their interests against a centralization of power, the war concluded with the defeat of the Sonderbund. It resulted in the emergence of Switzerland as a federal state, the Sonderbund consisted of the cantons of Lucerne, Valais, Schwyz and Zug, all predominantly Catholic and governed by Conservative administrations. The cantons of Ticino and Solothurn, predominantly Catholic but governed by liberal administrations and he ordered his troops to care for the injured, anticipating the formation of the Red Cross in which he participated a few years later. Major actions were fought at Fribourg, Lunnern and finally at Gisikon, the rest of the Sonderbund surrendered without armed resistance in the subsequent weeks. It proposed a new Constitution for the Swiss Confederation which would draw the several cantons into a closer relationship, in 1843, the conservative city patricians and mountain or Ur-Swiss from the largely Catholic cantons were opposed to the new constitution.
These cantons combined to form the Sonderbund in 1843, in addition to the centralization of the Swiss government, the proposed new Constitution included protections for trade and other progressive reform measures. When Lucerne, in retaliation, recalled the Jesuits to head its education the same year and this caused a revolt, mostly because rural cantons were strongholds of ultramontanism. The confederate army was raised against the members of the Sonderbund, the army was composed of soldiers of all the other cantons except Neuchâtel and Appenzell Innerrhoden. By the Treaty of Vienna of 1815, the major powers guaranteed the new Swiss Constitution and had a right to intervene if they all agreed it was necessary, at this point and France were conservative Catholic powers and wanted to help the Swiss conservatives. Austria did provide some money and munitions, but bickered with France on exactly what to do, when they finally did agree, Lord Palmerston Prime Minister of Britain vetoed any intervention, because he favored the liberal cause and wanted the Jesuits expelled.
There was no significant foreign intervention, the question of command remained long unsettled with the Sonderbund. The coalitions strong man, Constantin Siegwart-Müller of Lucerne, first considered appointing a foreigner, general Ludwig von Sonnenberg and Colonel Philippe de Maillardoz of Fribourg were considered, but ultimately the council elected Guillaume de Kalbermatten of Valais. After Kalbermatten declined the appointment, Colonel Jean-Ulrich de Salis-Soglio of Grisons was elected and he appointed Franz von Elgger as chief of staff. Although a Protestant himself, Salis-Soglio was a staunch Conservative and an opponent of the liberal Radicals who now controlled the rump Confederation, the Sonderbund cantons, except for Lucerne and Fribourg and obtained the assent of their popular assemblies for general conscription. These votes occurred on September 26, October 3 and October 10, troop mobilisation began on October 16 and was concluded on October 19. In his letter of acceptance to the Diet of October 22 and it took two sessions behind closed doors, and a delegation of the representatives of Geneva, to convince Dufour to reconsider and to be sworn in on 25 October.
On October 30, the Diet ordered the mobilisation of the army and, on November 4
The Birs is a 73-kilometre long river in Switzerland that flows through the Jura region and ends as a tributary to the Rhine between Basel and Birsfelden. It is the most important river of the Swiss Jura, the Birs has its source in a spring near the Col de Pierre Pertuis at 762 metres above sea level a little southwest of Tavannes in the Jura bernois. It starts as a river, the large amount of water is the product of an extended underground river system. The Birs runs through wider valleys and narrow gorges, near Delémont, the capital of the canton of Jura, it joins the Sorne and the Scheulte. Between Soyhières and Liesberg, it leaves the French-speaking part of Switzerland, in Laufen it forms a waterfall, which was the source of power and of the name of the city. At the gorge of Angenstein, the river runs into the Birseck, between Aesch and Dornach, the Birs is rich in fresh-water crabs, the native species of which are now threatened by the American red crab. Earlier, the Birs was polluted and dammed, but it has largely restored to its original state.
The Reinacherheide is a preserve with 83 species of bird. The mouth of the Birs was hardly settled until the 18th century, the city of Münchenstein stands there. The lower stretches of the Birs form the border between Basel-Stadt and Basel-Landschaft, in 2004, it was restored from a concrete canal to a more natural river. Beavers have even been sighted along the river, the Birs forms the border between the cities of Basel and Birsfelden. It flows into the Rhine at Birskopf after 73 kilometres, birsköpfli Birs in the Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz
History of Switzerland
The early history of the region is tied to that of Alpine culture. Switzerland was inhabited by Gauls and Raetians, and it came under Roman rule in the 1st century BC, gallo-Roman culture was amalgamated with Germanic influence during Late Antiquity, with the eastern part of Switzerland becoming Alemannic territory. The area of Switzerland was incorporated into the Frankish Empire in the 6th century, in the high medieval period, the eastern part became part of the Duchy of Swabia within the Holy Roman Empire while the western part was part of Burgundy. The Swiss Reformation divided the Confederacy and resulted in a history of internal strife between the Thirteen Cantons in the Early Modern period. In the wake of the French Revolution, Switzerland fell to a French invasion in 1798 and was reformed into the Helvetic Republic, the history of Switzerland since 1848 has been largely one of success and prosperity. Archeological evidence suggests that hunter-gatherers were already settled in the north of the Alps in the Middle Paleolithic period 150,000 years ago.
By the Neolithic period, the area was densely populated. Remains of Bronze Age pile dwellings from as early as 3800 BC have been found in the areas of many lakes. Around 1500 BC, Celtic tribes settled in the area, the Raetians lived in the eastern regions, while the west was occupied by the Helvetii. In 58 BC, the Helvetii tried to evade migratory pressure from Germanic tribes by moving into Gaul, the alpine region became integrated into the Roman Empire and was extensively romanized in the course of the following centuries. The center of Roman administration was at Aventicum, in 259, Alamanni tribes overran the Limes, putting the settlements on Swiss territory on the frontier of the Roman Empire. The first Christian bishoprics were founded in the fourth century, with the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Germanic tribes entered the area. Burgundians settled in the west, while in the north, Alamanni settlers slowly forced the earlier Celto-Roman population to retreat into the mountains, Burgundy became a part of the kingdom of the Franks in 534, two years later, the dukedom of the Alamans followed suit.
In the Alaman-controlled region, only isolated Christian communities continued to exist, under the Carolingian kings, the feudal system proliferated, and monasteries and bishoprics were important bases for maintaining the rule. The Treaty of Verdun of 843 assigned Upper Burgundy to Lotharingia, in the 10th century, as the rule of the Carolingians waned, Magyars destroyed Basel in 917 and St. Gallen in 926. Only after the victory of King Otto I over the Magyars in 955 in the Battle of Lechfeld, were the Swiss territories reintegrated into the empire. In the 12th century, the dukes of Zähringen were given authority over part of the Burgundy territories which covered the part of modern Switzerland. They founded many cities, including Fribourg in 1157, and Bern in 1191, under the Hohenstaufen rule, the alpine passes in Raetia and the St Gotthard Pass gained importance
The Jura Mountains French, Massif du Jura, are a sub-alpine mountain range located north of the Western Alps, mainly following the course of the France–Switzerland border. The Jura separates the Rhine and Rhône basins, forming part of the watershed of each, the name Jura is derived from juria, a Latinized form of a Celtic stem jor- forest. The mountain range gives its name to the French department of Jura, the Swiss Canton of Jura, the Jurassic period of the timescale. The Jura Mountains are a province of the larger Central European uplands. In France, the Jura covers most of the Franche-Comté region, the range reaches its highest point at Le Crêt de la Neige in the department of Ain and finds its southern terminus in the northwestern part of the department of Savoie. The north end of the Jura extends into the tip of the Alsace region. Roughly 1,600 square kilometres of the range in France is protected by the Jura Mountains Regional Natural Park. The Swiss Jura is one of the three geographical regions of Switzerland, the other being the Swiss plateau and the Swiss Alps.
In Switzerland, the covers the western border with France in the cantons of Basel-Landschaft, Jura, Neuchâtel. Much of the Swiss Jura region has no association with Early Modern Switzerland and was incorporated as part of the Swiss Confederacy only in the 19th century. In the 20th century, a movement of Jurassic separatism developed which resulted in the creation of the canton of Jura in 1979, the Swiss Jura has been industrialized since the 18th century and became a major centre of the watchmaking industry. The area has several cities at very high altitudes, such as La Chaux-de-Fonds, Le Locle, the Jura range proper is continued as the Table Jura in the cantons of Basel-Landschaft and Aargau, and further to Schaffhausen and into southern Germany towards the Swabian and Franconian plateaus. The range is built up vertically while decreasing in size laterally and this deformation accommodates the compression from alpine folding as the main Alpine orogenic front moves roughly northwards. The deformation becomes less pervasive away from the younger, more active Alpine mountain building, the geologic folds comprise three major bands of building that date from three epochs, the Lias, the Dogger and the Malm geologic periods.
Each era of folding reveals effects of shallow marine environments as evidenced by beds with carbonate sequences, containing abundant bioclasts. Structurally, the Jura consists of a sequence of geologic folds, the highest peak in the Jura range is Le Crêt de la Neige at 1,720 metres. Vosges and Jura coal mining basins The Jura range offer a variety of tourist activities including hiking, downhill skiing, there are many signposted trails including the Jura ridgeway, a 310 km hiking route. Tourist attractions include natural features such as the Creux du Van, lookout peaks such as the Chasseral, caves such as the Grottes de lOrbe, and gorges such as Taubenloch
Act of Mediation
The Act of Mediation was issued by Napoleon Bonaparte on 19 February 1803 establishing the Swiss Confederation. The act abolished the previous Helvetic Republic, which had existed since the invasion of Switzerland by French troops in 1798, after the withdrawal of French troops in July 1802, the Republic collapsed. The Act of Mediation was Napoleons attempt at a compromise between the Ancien Régime and a Republic and this intermediary stage of Swiss history lasted until the Restoration of 1815. Following the French invasion of 1798, the decentralized and aristocratic Old Swiss Confederation was replaced with the highly centralized, however the changes were too abrupt and sweeping and ignored the strong sense of identity that most Swiss had with their canton or city. Throughout the following four years, French troops were often needed to support the Helvetic Republic against uprisings, the government of the Republic was divided between the Unitary and the Federalist parties. By 1802 a draft constitution was presented, but was defeated in a popular vote in June 1802.
In July Napoleon withdrew French troops from Switzerland, ostensibly to comply with the Treaty of Amiens, following the withdrawal of French troops in the summer of 1802, the rural population revolted against the Helvetic Republic. In the Canton of Léman, the Bourla-papey revolt broke out against the restoration of land holdings. While this rebellion was quieted through concessions, the following Stecklikrieg, so called because of the Stäckli or wooden club carried by the insurgents, with Napoleon acting as a mediator, representatives of the Swiss cantons met in Paris to end the conflict and officially dissolve the Helvetic Republic. When the Act of Mediation was produced on 19 February 1803 it attempted to address the issues that had torn the Republic apart, much of the language of the Act was vague and unclear, which allowed the cantons considerable room in interpretation. In the preamble of the Act of Mediation Napoleon declared that the political state of the Swiss was as a Federation.
The next 19 sections covered the 19 cantons that existed in Switzerland at the time, the original 13 members of the old Confederation were restored and 6 new cantons were added. Two of the new cantons were formerly associates, while the four others were made up of lands that had been conquered at different times — Aargau, Ticino. Five of the six new cantons – Graubünden was the exception – were given modern representative governments, however, in the 13 original cantons many of the pre-revolutionary institutions remained in place. The landsgemeinden, or popular assemblies, were restored in the cantons, the cantonal governments in other cases being in the hands of a great council. Overall, the granted to the state were extremely broad. The following 40 articles, which were known as the Acte fédéral or Acts of Confederation, defined the duties, the responsibilities of the Confederation included, providing equality for all citizens, creation of a Federal Army, the removal of internal trade barriers and international diplomacy.
There were to be no privileged classes, burghers or subject lands, Switzerland was mentioned throughout the Act
Dornach is a quarter of the French city of Mulhouse, and Dòrnach is the Gaelic name for Dornoch in the Scottish Highlands. Dornach is a municipality in the district of Dorneck in the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland, Dornach is first mentioned in 1223 as de Tornacho. In 1307 it was mentioned as zu Dornach and it has been settled since at least 1223 when a local lay priest was known as Johannes de Tornacho. The site was the location of the decisive 1499 Battle of Dornach, the battle is memorialized in a 1949 relief wall. Today Dornach is famous for the Goetheanum and is home to the headquarters of the Anthroposophical movement founded by Rudolf Steiner. Dornach has an area, as of 2009, of 5.77 square kilometers, of this area,1 km2 or 17. 3% is used for agricultural purposes, while 2.67 km2 or 46. 3% is forested. Of the rest of the land,2.05 km2 or 35. 5% is settled,0.02 km2 or 0. 3% is either rivers or lakes and 0.01 km2 or 0. 2% is unproductive land. Of the built-up area, industrial buildings made up 3. 6% of the area while housing and buildings made up 22. 4%.
While parks, green belts and sports made up 2. 3%. Out of the land,44. 2% of the total land area is heavily forested and 2. 1% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land,6. 1% is used for growing crops and 8. 0% is pastures, all the water in the municipality is flowing water. The municipality is in the Dorneck district and it consists of the village of Dornach which is made up of two villages and Dornachbrugg. Until the last quarter of the 19th century the two villages were completely separate, the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Argent two Fish-hooks inverted and addorsed Sable. Dornach has a population of 6,538, as of 2008,23. 8% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 4. 2%, most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common and French being third. There are six people who speak Romansh, as of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 47. 7% male and 52. 3% female.
The population was made up of 2,221 Swiss men and 771 non-Swiss men, There were 2,463 Swiss women and 819 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality 1,343 or about 22. 8% were born in Dornach and lived there in 2000
A watch is a small timepiece intended to be carried or worn by a person. It is designed to keep working despite the motions caused by the persons activities, a wristwatch is designed to be worn around the wrist, attached by a watch strap or other type of bracelet. A pocket watch is designed for a person to carry in a pocket, watches evolved in the 17th century from spring-powered clocks, which appeared as early as the 14th century. During most of its history the watch was a device, driven by clockwork, powered by winding a mainspring. In the 1960s the electronic quartz watch was invented, which was powered by a battery, by the 1980s the quartz watch had taken over most of the market from the mechanical watch. Today most inexpensive and medium-priced watches, used mainly for timekeeping, have quartz movements, various extra features, called complications, such as moon-phase displays and the different types of tourbillon, are sometimes included. Modern watches often display the day, date and year, time-related features such as timers and alarm functions are common.
Some modern designs incorporate calculators, GPS and Bluetooth technology or have heart-rate monitoring capabilities, some watches use radio clock technology to regularly correct the time. Developments in the 2010s include smartwatches, which are elaborate computer-like electronic devices designed to be worn on a wrist and they generally incorporate timekeeping functions, but these are only small fractions of what the smartwatch can do. The study of timekeeping is known as horology, watches evolved from portable spring-driven clocks, which first appeared in 15th century Europe. Watches werent widely worn in pockets until the 17th century, one account says that the word watch came from the Old English word woecce which meant watchman, because it was used by town watchmen to keep track of their shifts at work. Another says that the term came from 17th century sailors, who used the new mechanisms to time the length of their shipboard watches, the increased accuracy of the balance wheel focused attention on errors caused by other parts of the movement, igniting a two-century wave of watchmaking innovation.
The first thing to be improved was the escapement, the verge escapement was replaced in quality watches by the cylinder escapement, invented by Thomas Tompion in 1695 and further developed by George Graham in the 1720s. The British had predominated in watch manufacture for much of the 17th and 18th centuries, aaron Lufkin Dennison started a factory in 1851 in Massachusetts that used interchangeable parts, and by 1861 it was running a successful enterprise incorporated as the Waltham Watch Company. The concept of the wristwatch goes back to the production of the very earliest watches in the 16th century, elizabeth I of England received a wristwatch from Robert Dudley in 1571, described as an arm watch. The oldest surviving wristwatch is one made in 1806 and given to Joséphine de Beauharnais, from the beginning, wrist watches were almost exclusively worn by women, while men used pocket-watches up until the early 20th century. The Garstin Company of London patented a Watch Wristlet design in 1893, officers in the British Army began using wristwatches during colonial military campaigns in the 1880s, such as during the Anglo-Burma War of 1885.
In continental Europe Girard-Perregaux and other Swiss watch makers began supplying German naval officers with wrist watches in about 1880 and these early models were essentially standard pocket-watches fitted to a leather strap but, by the early 20th century, manufacturers began producing purpose-built wristwatches
The Aare or Aar is a tributary of the High Rhine and the longest river that both rises and ends entirely within Switzerland. There are more than 40 hydroelectric plants along the course of the Aare River, the rivers name dates to at least the La Tène period, and it is attested as Nantaror Aare valley in the Berne zinc tablet. The name was Latinized as Arula/Arola/Araris, the Aare rises in the great Aargletschers of the Bernese Alps, in the canton of Bern and west of the Grimsel Pass. The Finsteraargletscher and Lauteraargletscher come together to form the Unteraargletscher, which is the source of water for the Grimselsee. The Oberaargletscher feeds the Oberaarsee, which flows into the Grimselsee. Right after Innertkirchen it is joined by its first major tributary, less than 1 kilometre the river carves through a limestone ridge in the Aare Gorge. It is here that the Aare proves itself to be more than just a river, a little past Meiringen, near Brienz, the river expands into Lake Brienz. Near the west end of the lake it receives its first important tributary.
It runs across the plain of the Bödeli between Interlaken and Unterseen before flowing into Lake Thun. Near the west end of Lake Thun, the river receives the waters of the Kander. Lake Thun marks the head of navigation, on flowing out of the lake it passes through Thun, and flows through the city of Bern, passing beneath eighteen bridges and around the steeply-flanked peninsula on which the Old City is located. The river soon changes its flow for a due westerly direction. From the upper end of the lake, at Nidau, the river issues through the Nidau-Büren Channel, called the Aare Canal, and runs east to Büren. A short distance further, below Brugg it receives first the Reuss, its major tributary, and shortly afterwards the Limmat, its second strongest tributary. It now turns to north, and soon becomes itself a tributary of the Rhine, the Rhine, in turn, empties into the North Sea after crossing into the Netherlands. New York, NY, Columbia University Press, the Columbia Gazetteer of the World. New York, NY, Columbia University Press, Germany, Veriag von Gustav Mayer.
Gresswell, R. Kay, Anthony, standard Encyclopedia of the Worlds Rivers and Lakes
Solothurn is a town, a municipality, and the capital of the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland. It is located in the north-west of Switzerland on the banks of the Aare, the town is the only municipality of the district of the same name. The town got its name from Salodurum, a Roman-era settlement, from 1530 to 1792 it was the seat of the French ambassador to Switzerland. The pedestrian-free old town was built between 1530 and 1792 and shows an impressive array of Baroque architecture, combining Italian Grandezza, French style, the town has 18 structures listed as heritage sites. Agricultural, once the dominant sector of employment, has become almost non-existent, most people today are employed in manufacturing and education. The official language of Solothurn is German, but the spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. The oldest finds from Solothurn probably date from the Paleolithic era, the remains of a Mesolithic camp were discovered in 1986 during renovations of the former Kino Elite building.
From the Neolithic and Iron Age, only a few scattered items have been discovered, the Roman settlement at Solothurn was probably built around AD 15-25 as a road station and bridge head on the road from Aventicum to Augusta Raurica or Vindonissa. A small vicus or settlement quickly developed around the castrum, Solothurn is first mentioned in 219 as vico salod on the so-called Eponastein. The name may indicate either that a Celtic settlement existed on the site before or just be a testimony to the mixed Gallo-Roman culture in the north-west provinces of the Roman Empire and it came to be known as Salodurum. Its strategical importance lay in the position at the approach to the Rhine from southeast, in the 2nd-3rd Century AD, the vicus expanded rapidly to fill almost all of what is now the old town of Solothurn, including a portion of todays suburb south of the Aare. The Roman bridge was probably somewhat above the current Wengibrücke, the Roman era river bed was 40–80 meters north of the present Aare.
The main street of the Vicus was well below the present main street, in addition to the normal government of the settlement, there were two mayors, and a six-member college, which was entrusted with supporting the imperial cult. Salodurum was home to a detachment of the XXII Legion. According to inscriptions, there was a temple of Jupiter, a temple of Apollo Augustus and an altar to the goddess of horses Epona, the locations of those three temples is not known. There was bath house on the street and a pottery district in the northwest of the town which have been documented archaeologically. A cemetery with urns and cremation burials on the end of the Vicus was discovered in 1762-63 during the demolition of the old church of St. Ursus. In addition, two Roman tombs were discovered in the same area, around 325-350, the unfortified settlement along the road was transformed into a fortified camp or castrum, which covered only half of the former settlement area
A cement is a binder, a substance used in construction that sets and adheres to other materials, binding them together. Cement is seldom used solely, but is used to bind sand, Cement is used with fine aggregate to produce mortar for masonry, or with sand and gravel aggregates to produce concrete. Non-hydraulic cement will not set in wet conditions or underwater, rather, it sets as it dries and it is resistant to attack by chemicals after setting. Hydraulic cements set and become adhesive due to a reaction between the dry ingredients and water. The chemical reaction results in mineral hydrates that are not very water-soluble and so are quite durable in water and this allows setting in wet condition or underwater and further protects the hardened material from chemical attack. The chemical process for hydraulic cement found by ancient Romans used volcanic ash with added lime, the word cement can be traced back to the Roman term opus caementicium, used to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder.
The volcanic ash and pulverized brick supplements that were added to the burnt lime, to obtain a hydraulic binder, were referred to as cementum, cimentum, cäment. In modern times, organic polymers are used as cements in concrete. Non-hydraulic cement, such as slaked lime, hardens by carbonation in the presence of carbon dioxide which is present in the air. The carbonation reaction requires the dry cement to be exposed to air and this whole process is called the lime cycle. Conversely, hydraulic cement hardens by hydration when water is added, Hydraulic cements are made of a mixture of silicates and oxides, the four main components being, Alite, Tricalcium aluminate, Brownmillerite. The chemistry of the above listed reactions is not completely clear and is still the object of research, chemically speaking, is a product that includes lime as the primary curing ingredient, but is far from the first material used for cementation. The Babylonians and Assyrians used bitumen to bind together burnt brick or alabaster slabs, in Egypt stone blocks were cemented together with a mortar made of sand and roughly burnt gypsum, which often contained calcium carbonate.
Lime was used on Crete and by the ancient Greeks, there is evidence that the Minoans of Crete used crushed potshards as an artificial pozzolan for hydraulic cement. A kind of powder which from natural causes produces astonishing results and it is found in the neighborhood of Baiae and in the country belonging to the towns round about Mt. Vesuvius. This substance when mixed with lime and rubble not only lends strength to buildings of other kinds, the Greeks used volcanic tuff from the island of Thera as their pozzolan and the Romans used crushed volcanic ash with lime. This mixture was able to set under water increasing its resistance, the material was called pozzolana from the town of Pozzuoli, west of Naples where volcanic ash was extracted. In the absence of ash, the Romans used powdered brick or pottery as a substitute
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Biberist is a municipality in the district of Wasseramt in the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland. Biberist is first mentioned in 762 as Biberussa, in 1300 Ober- and Unterbiberist were mentioned as ze beiden Biberschon. During the Helvetic Republic it was the capital of the Biberist district, Biberist has an area, as of 2009, of 12.3 square kilometers. Of this area,4.53 km2 or 36. 8% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,3.25 km2 or 26. 4% is settled,0.27 km2 or 2. 2% is either rivers or lakes. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 4. 4% of the area while housing and buildings made up 12. 7%. While parks, green belts and sports made up 1. 1%. Out of the land,32. 3% of the total land area is heavily forested and 1. 8% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land,26. 3% is used for growing crops and 8. 9% is pastures, all the water in the municipality is flowing water. The municipality is located in the Wasseramt district, between the Emme and Aare rivers south of Solothurn, the two villages of Ober- and Unterbiberist were merged into a single municipality in 1857.
The blazon of the coat of arms is Per fess Gules. Biberist has a population of 8,223, as of 2008,20. 4% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 4. 7% and it has changed at a rate of 7. 3% due to migration and at a rate of -2. 2% due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common, There are 63 people who speak French and 3 people who speak Romansh. As of 2008, the distribution of the population was 48. 9% male and 51. 1% female. The population was made up of 2,959 Swiss men and 939 non-Swiss men, There were 3,283 Swiss women and 796 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality 2,178 or about 28. 6% were born in Biberist and lived there in 2000. There were 2,004 or 26. 4% who were born in the canton, while 1,830 or 24. 1% were born somewhere else in Switzerland. In 2008 there were 37 live births to Swiss citizens and 22 births to non-Swiss citizens, ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 40 while the foreign population increased by 19