Canton of Zürich

The canton of Zürich is a Swiss canton in the northeastern part of the country. With a population of 1,520,968, it is the most populated canton in the country, its capital is the city of Zürich. The official language is German; the local Swiss German dialect, called Züritüütsch, is spoken. In English the name of the canton and its capital is written without an umlaut; the prehistoric pile dwellings around Zürichsee comprise 11 of total 56 prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps in Switzerland, that are located around Lake Zürich in the cantons of Schwyz, St. Gallen and Zürich. Located on the shore of Lake Zürich, there are Freienbach–Hurden Rosshorn, Freienbach–Hurden Seefeld, Rapperswil-Jona/Hombrechtikon–Feldbach, Rapperswil-Jona–Technikum, Erlenbach–Winkel, Meilen–Rorenhaab, Wädenswil–Vorder Au, Zürich–Enge Alpenquai, Grosser Hafner and Kleiner Hafner; because the lake has grown in size over time, the original piles are now around 4 metres to 7 metres under the water level of 406 metres.

On the small area of about 40 square kilometres around Zürichsee, there the settlements Greifensee–Storen/Wildsberg on Greifensee and Wetzikon–Robenhausen on Pfäffikersee lakeshore. As well as being part of the 56 Swiss sites of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, each of these 11 prehistoric pile dwellings is listed as a Class object in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance. Zurihgauuia was a subdivision of Turgowe in the Duchy of Alamannia, consisting of the territory between Reuss and Töss. From the 740s, substantial portions of Zürichgau were owned by the Abbey of St. Gall. In c. 760, an administrative re-organisation under counts Ruthard and Warin exempted the castle town of Zürich from comital rule. A county of Zürichgau was established under Louis the Pious, for a count Ruadker, in 820. Zürichgau remained a nominally separate territory in the 9th century but was ruled by the same count as Thurgau. In 915, Zürichgau together with Thurgau fell to the Bucharding dukes of Swabia.

In the late 10th century, the county of Zürich was ruled by the Nellenburger, during 1077–1172 by the Lenzburger. By the 13th century, Zürichgau was divided between the Habsburgs and the Kyburger, who held the territory west and east of Lake Zürich, respectively; the territory of the canton of Zürich corresponds to the lands acquired by the city of Zürich after it became reichsfrei in 1218. Zürich pursued a policy of aggressive territorial expansion during the century following the revolution of the guilds in 1336. Zürich joined the Swiss Confederacy in 1351. Zürich lost the Toggenburg in the Old Zürich War of the 1440s; the northern parts up to the river Rhine came to the canton after the city of Zürich purchased Winterthur from the Habsburgs in 1468. In 1651, Zürich purchased Rafzerfeld from the counts of Sulz. At this point all of the territory of the modern canton was owned by Zürich. In the 18th century, the "inner bailiwicks" were under direct administration of city officials, while the "outer bailiwicks" were ruled by the reeves of Kyburg, Grüningen, Eglisau, Andelfingen, Wädenswil, Knonau.

The city of Winterthur retained far-reaching autonomy. Zürichgau, the name of the medieval pagus, was in use for the territories of the city of Zürich during the 15th and 16th century. Under the short-lived Helvetic Republic, the canton of Zürich became a purely administrative division. In 1803, some former possessions of Zürich to the west gained independence as part of the Canton of Aargau. In 1804 the Kantonspolizei Zürich was established as Landjäger-Corps des Kantons Zürich. A cantonal constitution was replaced in 1831 by a radical-liberal constitution; the Züriputsch, an armed uprising of the conservative rural population against the radical-liberal order, led to the dissolution of the cantonal government, a provisional conservative government was installed by colonel Paul Carl Eduard Ziegler. Under the threat of intervention of the other radical-liberal cantons of the Confederacy, the provisional government declared that the 1831 constitution would remain in effect. In a tumultuous session on 9 September 1839, the cantonal parliament declared its dissolution In the so-called Septemberregime, the newly elected cantonal government replaced all cantonal officials with conservatives, but it was again ousted by a radical-liberal election victory in 1844.

Alfred Escher was a member of the new cantonal parliament of 1844. The radical-liberal era of 1844–1868 was dominated by the so-called System Escher, a network of liberal politicians and industrialists built by Alfred Escher. Escher governed the canton in monarchical fashion, was popularly dubbed Alfred I. or Tsar of All Zürich. Escher controlled all cantonal institutions, at first with little political opposition, expunging all trace of the conservative takeover of 1839. Under Escher, the city of Zürich rose to the status of economic and financial center it still retains. Opposition against the dominance of Sytstem Escher increased after 186

John J. Tigert

John James Tigert IV was an American university president, university professor and administrator, college sports coach and the U. S. Commissioner of Education. Tigert was the son and grandson of Methodist bishops. After receiving his bachelor's degree, he earned his master's degree as a Rhodes Scholar. After completing his education, Tigert taught at Central College. Tigert gained his greatest national prominence as the U. S. Commissioner of Education from 1921 to 1928, the third president of the University of Florida, from 1928 to 1947, he is remembered as a forceful advocate for American public education, intercollegiate sports and university curriculum reform. Tigert was born in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1882, the third son of a Methodist Episcopal minister, John James Tigert III, his wife, Amelia McTyeire Tigert, the daughter of Methodist Bishop and Vanderbilt University co-founder Holland N. McTyeire. Tigert received his primary education in the public schools of Kansas City and Nashville, earned his high school diploma, with honors, from the Webb School in Bell Buckle, Tennessee.

He was admitted to Vanderbilt University in Nashville, where he was a member of the Phi Delta Theta Fraternity and a standout athlete in baseball, basketball and track. His time at Vanderbilt overlaps with Grantland Rice; as a senior, Tigert was honored as an All-Southern halfback for the Vanderbilt Commodores football team. In his final game, he scored the first points netted all season against rival Sewanee. Tigert graduated from Vanderbilt with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1904. While at Oxford University in Oxford, England, he completed his Master of Arts degree at Pembroke College in 1907, he continued to participate in competitive university sports, including cricket and tennis. After returning to the United States, Tigert taught at the Methodist-affiliated Central College in Fayette, and, at the age of 27, was appointed president of Kentucky Wesleyan College in Owensboro, Kentucky in 1909; that same year, he married the former Edith Jackson Bristol. Tigert received an appointment as a professor of psychology and philosophy at the University of Kentucky in Lexington, where he did work on psychology in advertising.

While there, Tigert served as the athletic director from 1913 to 1917, the Kentucky Wildcats men's basketball coach in 1913, 1916 and 1917, the Wildcats women's basketball coach from 1911 to 1915 and again from 1916 to 1917, the Wildcats football coach in 1915 and 1916. President Warren G. Harding appointed Tigert as the U. S. Commissioner of Education in 1921, he served for seven years during the administrations of Harding and Calvin Coolidge; as commissioner, he was an energetic advocate of education reform and greater educational opportunities for all classes of Americans, he traveled and spoke to any group interested in education. In particular, he took an interest in rural education, advocated innovative ways to impart public education to a wider audience, including the use of radio. During his time in Washington, D. C. he served a term as the national president of Phi Delta Theta Fraternity. The Florida Board of Control selected Tigert as the third president of the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida in 1928.

He assumed leadership of the university during an extended period of economic crisis in the state of Florida. When the Great Depression began with the Wall Street Crash of 1929, Florida was suffering from the after-effects of the 1920s land boom and bust, as well the devastating aftermath of two major hurricanes in 1926 and 1928; the common thread of the nineteen years of Tigert's administration was doing more with less. Faculty salary cuts were common. Among Tigert's many significant reforms, he decentralized the university budget to the level of the individual academic colleges, allowing them to set their own spending priorities; the University Council, composed of the president, the registrar and the college deans, retained final approval authority. Tigert established the faculty senate, the Institute of Inter-American Affairs and the Bureau of Economic and Business Research. One of his most influential reforms as president was the founding of the new University College as an academic division within the University of Florida in 1935.

The college was modeled on the general education college at the University of Chicago, administered the freshman and sophomore-year liberal arts education of undergraduates before they were accepted to the university schools or colleges that administered their academic majors. The college's stated purpose was to "stimulate intellectual curiosity" and "encourage independent work", with new liberal arts requirements in biology, English language and literature, the humanities, mathematics, physical sciences and social sciences, thereby counter the growing trend toward "trade school" education at the university level; as a former university athlete and coach, Tigert took a particular interest in athletics-related policy issues while he was president and was an enthusiastic supporter of the Florida Gators sports program and football in particular. He was responsible for the construction of the university's first and only permanent football stadium, Florida Field, in 1930, he borrowed $10,000 to begin construction of the stadium, and

Hiroki Yasumoto

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