Anchorage is a unified home rule municipality in the U. S. state of Alaska. With an estimated 298,192 residents in 2016, it is Alaska's most populous city and contains more than 40 percent of the state's total population. All together, the Anchorage metropolitan area, which combines Anchorage with the neighboring Matanuska-Susitna Borough, had a population of 401,635 in 2016, which accounts for more than half of the state's population. At 1,706 square miles of land area, the city is the fourth largest city by land in the United States and larger than the smallest state, Rhode Island, at 1,212 square miles. Anchorage is in the south-central portion of Alaska, at the terminus of the Cook Inlet, on a peninsula formed by the Knik Arm to the north and the Turnagain Arm to the south; the city limits span 1,961.1 square miles which encompass the urban core, a joint military base, several outlying communities and all of Chugach State Park. Due to its location equidistant from New York City and Tokyo, Anchorage lies within 9 1⁄2 hours by air of nearly 90% of the industrialized world.
For this reason, the Anchorage International Airport is a common refueling stop for many international cargo flights and home to a major FedEx hub, which the company calls a "critical part" of its global network of services. Anchorage has won the All-America City Award four times: in 1956, 1965, 1984–85, 2002, by the National Civic League, it has been named by Kiplinger as the most tax-friendly city in the United States. Russian presence in south-central Alaska was well-established in the 19th century. In 1867, U. S. Secretary of State William H. Seward brokered a deal to purchase Alaska from Imperial Russia for $7.2 million, or about two cents an acre. His political rivals lampooned the deal as "Seward's folly," "Seward's icebox," and "Walrussia." In 1888, gold was discovered along Turnagain Arm. Alaska became an organized incorporated United States territory in 1912. Anchorage, unlike every other large town in Alaska south of the Brooks Range, was neither a fishing nor mining camp; the area surrounding Anchorage lacks significant economic metal minerals.
A number of Dena'ina settlements existed along Knik Arm for years. By 1911 the families of J. D. "Bud" Whitney and Jim St. Clair lived at the mouth of Ship Creek and were joined there by a young forest ranger, Jack Brown, his bride, Nellie, in 1912; the city grew from its happenstance choice as the site, in 1914, under the direction of Frederick Mears, of a railroad-construction port for the Alaska Engineering Commission. The area near the mouth of Ship Creek, where the railroad headquarters was located became a tent city. A townsite was mapped out on higher ground to the south of the tent city noted in the years since for its order and rigidity compared with other Alaska town sites. In 1915, territorial governor John Franklin Alexander Strong encouraged residents to change the city's name to one that had "more significance and local associations". In the summer of that year, residents held a vote to change the city's name. However, the territorial government declined to change the city's name.
Anchorage was incorporated on November 23, 1920. Construction of the Alaska Railroad continued until its completion in 1923; the city's economy in the 1920s and 1930s centered on the railroad. Col. Otto F. Ohlson, the Swedish-born general manager of the railroad for nearly two decades, became a symbol of residents' contempt due to the firm control he maintained over the railroad's affairs, which by extension became control over economic and other aspects of life in Alaska. Between the 1930s and the 1950s, the city experienced massive growth as air transportation and the military became important. Aviation operations in Anchorage commenced along the firebreak south of town, which residents used as a golf course. An increase in air traffic led to clearing of a site directly east of town site boundaries starting in 1929. However, Merrill Field still sees a significant amount of general aviation traffic. Elmendorf Air Force Base and Fort Richardson were constructed in the 1940s, served as the city's primary economic engine until the 1968 Prudhoe Bay discovery shifted the thrust of the economy toward the oil industry.
The 2005 Base Realignment and Closure process led to the combining of the two bases to form Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson. On March 27, 1964, the magnitude 9.2 Good Friday earthquake hit Anchorage, killing 115 people and causing $116 million in damages. The earth-shaking event lasted nearly five minutes, it was the world's second-largest earthquake in recorded history. Rebuilding dominated the remainder of the 1960s. In 1968, ARCO discovered oil in Prudhoe Bay on the Alaska North Slope, the resulting oil boom spurred further growth in Anchorage. In 1975, the City of Anchorage and the Greater Anchorage Area Borough merged into the geographically larger Municipality of Anchorage The city continued to grow in the 1980s, capital projects and an aggressive beautification campaign took place. During this time Anchorage became known as the "Gree
Denali Highway is a traveled gravel highway in the U. S. state of Alaska. It leads from Paxson on the Richardson Highway to Cantwell on the Parks Highway. Opened in 1957, it was the first road access to Denali National Park. Since 1971, primary park access has been via the Parks Highway, which incorporated a section of the Denali Highway from Cantwell to the present-day park entrance; the Denali Highway is 135 miles in length. The highway is now little used and poorly maintained, closed to all traffic from October to mid-May each year. Only the easternmost 21.3 miles and westernmost 2.6 miles are paved. Washboarding and extreme dust are common, the recommended speed limit is 30 mph. Traveling west, the Denali Highway leaves the Richardson Highway at Paxson, climbs steeply up into the foothills of the central Alaska Range; the first 21 miles, to Tangle Lakes, are paved. Along its length, the highway passes through three of the principal river drainages in Interior Alaska: the Copper River drainage, the Tanana/Yukon drainage and the Susitna drainage.
Along the way, in good weather, there are stunning views of the peaks and glaciers of the central Alaska Range, including Mount Hayes, Mount Hess and Mount Deborah. At MP 15, from the pullout on the south side of the road, in clear weather you can see the Wrangell Mountains, the Chugach Mountains and the Alaska Range; the first 45 miles winds through the Amphitheater Mountains, cresting at Maclaren Summit, at 4,086 feet the second highest road in Alaska. The road drops down to the Maclaren River Valley with fine views north to Maclaren Glacier. After crossing the Maclaren River, the road winds through the geologically mysterious Crazy Notch and along the toe of the Denali Clearwater Mountains to the Susitna River. After crossing the Susitna River the road extends across the glaciers outwash plains to the Nenana River, down the Nenana River to Cantwell on the George Parks Highway. There are developed campgrounds at Tangle Lakes and Brushkana Creek, but there are dozens of pullouts where one can camp on public lands.
Services are scant along this road. Year-round operations include Denali Highway Cabins & Tours, Maclaren River Lodge, Alpine Creek Lodge, Backwoods Lodge and Cantwell Lodge. Winter travel on the Denali Highway is by snowmobile and dogsled. Automobile travelers are discouraged from attempting to traverse the road in winter; the road is cleared by DOT late in April and is passable by non-4WD from until the first snows close it late September on the eastern, tundra end and late October-early November on the lower, boreal forest western end. The Tangle Lakes constitute the headwaters of the Delta River, a popular destination for canoeists as it is the launch point of the Delta River Canoe Trail; the Denali Highway is an important birding destination. It offers road access to alpine terrain – not that common in Alaska – and, in the brief birding season there, good viewing of a number of alpine breeders, including Arctic Warbler, Smith's Longspur, Long-tailed Jaeger, Surfbird, Lapland Longspur, Horned Lark, Short-eared Owl, Wandering Tattler and much more.
A walk north along The Bureau of Land Management's Maclaren Summit Trail can be productive. There are trumpeter swans and various other waterfowl in the lakes and ponds along the route. Fishing for grayling and lake trout is decent, if not spectacular, in any of the clear water streams; because the area is hunted larger mammals are much less common than in Denali National Park, but moose, grizzly bear, caribou are common. The Nelchina caribou herd 36,000 animals as of winter 2009–2010 passes through this area after calving season ends, some autumns and winters as many as 16,000 animals can be seen at once; the herd forms an important foodsource for many residents of southcentral Alaska, visitors eager to view the animals may be competing with hunters. The many lakes along the road are a destination for duck hunting in the fall. Most of the land along the highway is publicly owned. There are several BLM-maintained trails, dozens of informal trails; this is a stretch of wild Alaska, pretty much unspoiled accessible and scenic.
Alaska portal U. S. Roads portal Glennallen Field Office. Denali Highway: points of interest. Glennallen, AK: United States Bureau of Land Management. BLM Recreation Guide BLM/AK/GI-88/023+8351+050, Rev. 07. Whitfield, Paul. Rough Guide to Alaska. London: Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-84353-258-3. Cycling the Denali Highway, including altitude profiles, on WorldOnaBike.com The Denali Highway spring travelogue The Denali Highway autumn travelogue
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Denali Borough, Alaska
The Denali Borough is a borough located in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census the population of the borough was 1,826; the borough seat is Healy, its only incorporated place is Anderson. The borough was incorporated in 1990; the area was a part of the Unorganized Borough, with the Upper Railbelt School District serving as the region's rural education attendance area. The borough has a total area of 12,777 square miles, of which 12,751 square miles is land and 26 square miles is water; the borough contains North America's highest point: Denali, from which it derives its name, at 6190.5 m. Denali National Park and Preserve Denali Wilderness Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area - west/north Fairbanks North Star Borough - northeast Southeast Fairbanks Census Area - east Matanuska-Susitna Borough - south As of the census of 2000, there were 1,893 people, 785 households, 452 families residing in the borough; the population density was 0.148 people per square mile. There were 1,351 housing units at an average density of 0.106 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the borough was 85.74% White, 1.43% Black or African American, 4.75% Native American, 1.53% Asian, 0.37% Pacific Islander, 0.95% from other races, 5.23% from two or more races. 2.48% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 785 households out of which 31.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.40% were married couples living together, 4.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.30% were non-families. 35.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 3.03. In the borough the population was spread out with 23.80% under the age of 18, 6.70% from 18 to 24, 36.80% from 25 to 44, 29.70% from 45 to 64, 3.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 139.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 147.10 males. Denali Borough is the 63rd highest-income county in the United States, highest-income county in Alaska, by personal per capita income as of 2009.
Anderson Clear Clear AFS Cantwell Denali Park Ferry Healy Kantishna Suntrana Usibelli Diamond In the Twilight Saga by Stephenie Meyer, the Denali vampire coven lives in Denali because of the lack of sunlight. List of airports in the Denali Borough National Register of Historic Places listings in Denali Borough, Alaska Media related to Denali Borough, Alaska at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Into the Wild (film)
Into the Wild is a 2007 American biographical survival film written, co-produced, directed by Sean Penn. It is an adaptation of Jon Krakauer's 1996 nonfiction book of the same name, based on the travels of Christopher McCandless across North America and his experiences in the Alaskan wilderness in the early 1990s; the film stars Emile Hirsch as McCandless, Marcia Gay Harden and William Hurt as his parents, features Jena Malone, Catherine Keener, Vince Vaughn, Kristen Stewart, Hal Holbrook. The film premiered during the 2007 Rome Film Fest and opened outside Fairbanks, Alaska on September 21, 2007, it was nominated for two Golden Globes and won the award for Best Original Song: "Guaranteed" by Eddie Vedder. It was nominated for two Academy Awards: Best Editing and Best Supporting Actor for Holbrook. In April 1992, Christopher McCandless arrives in a remote area just north of the Denali National Park and Preserve in Alaska. Noting Chris' unpreparedness, the stranger who drops him off lends him a pair of boots.
Chris travels into the wilderness and sets up a campsite in an abandoned city bus, which he calls "The Magic Bus". At first, McCandless is content with the isolation, the beauty of nature around him, the thrill of living off the land, he hunts with a.22 caliber rifle, reads books, keeps a diary of his thoughts as he prepares himself for a new life in the wild. Two years earlier, in May 1990, McCandless graduates with high honors from Emory University. Shortly afterwards, McCandless rejects his conventional life by destroying all of his credit cards and identification documents, he donates nearly all of his savings to Oxfam and sets out on a cross-country drive in his Datsun 210 to experience life in the wilderness. McCandless does not tell his parents and Billie McCandless, or his sister Carine what he is doing or where he is going, he refuses to keep in touch with them after his departure, causing his parents to become anxious and desperate. At Lake Mead, McCandless' car is caught in a flash flood, causing him to abandon it and begin hitchhiking.
He burns what remains of his cash and assumes a new name: "Alexander Supertramp." In Northern California, McCandless encounters a hippie couple named Jan Rainey. Rainey tells McCandless about his failing relationship with Jan, which McCandless helps rekindle. In September, McCandless arrives in Carthage, South Dakota and works for a contract harvesting company owned by Wayne Westerberg, he is forced to leave. McCandless travels on the Colorado River and, though told by park rangers that he may not kayak down the river without a license, ignores their warnings and paddles downriver until he arrives in Mexico. There, his kayak is lost in a dust storm, he crosses back into the United States on foot. Unable to hitch a ride, he travels on freight trains to Los Angeles. Not long after arriving, however, he starts feeling "corrupted" by modern civilization and decides to leave, he is forced to resume hitchhiking, after being beaten by railroad police. In December 1991, McCandless arrives at Slab City, in the Imperial Valley, encounters Jan and Rainey again.
There, he meets Tracy Tatro, a teenage girl who shows interest in McCandless, but he rejects her because she is underage. After the holidays, McCandless decides to continue heading for Alaska. One month camping near Salton City, McCandless encounters Ron Franz, a retired man who recounts the story of the loss of his family in a car accident while he was serving in the United States Army, he now occupies his time in a workshop as an amateur leather worker. Franz teaches McCandless the craft of leatherwork, resulting in the making of a belt that details McCandless' travels. After spending two months with Franz, McCandless decides to leave for Alaska, despite this upsetting Franz, who has become quite close to McCandless. On a parting note, Franz gives McCandless his old camping and travel gear, along with the offer to adopt him as his grandchild, but McCandless tells him that they should discuss this after he returns from Alaska. Four months at the abandoned bus, life for McCandless becomes harder, he begins to make poor decisions.
As his supplies begin to run out, he realizes that nature is harsh and uncaring. McCandless concludes that true happiness can only be found when shared with others, he seeks to return from the wild to his friends and family. However, he finds that the stream he had crossed during the winter has become wide and violent due to the snow thaw, he is unable to cross. Saddened, he returns to the bus. In a desperate act, McCandless is forced to eat roots and plants, he eats a poisonous one, falling sick as a result. Dying, he continues to document his process of self-realization and imagines his family for one last time, he crawls into his sleeping bag to die. Two weeks his body is found by moose hunters. Shortly afterwards, Carine returns to Virginia with her brother's ashes in her backpack; the scenes of graduation from Emory University in the film were shot in the fall of 2006 on the front lawn of Reed College. Some of the graduation scenes were filmed during the actual Emory University graduation on May 15, 2006.
The Alaska scenes depicting the area around the abandoned bus on the Stampede Trail were filmed 50 miles south of where McCandless died, in the tiny town of Cantwell. Filming at the actual bus would have been too remote for the technical demands of a movie shoot. A replica bus used in the movie is now a tourist attraction at a restaurant in Alaska; the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports that 82% of 194 reviews of the film were positive
The Nenana River is a tributary of the Tanana River 140 miles long, in central Alaska in the United States. It drains an area on the north slope of the Alaska Range on the south edge of the Tanana Valley southwest of Fairbanks, it issues from the Nenana Glacier in the northern Alaska Range, southwest of Mount Deborah 100 mi south of Fairbanks. It flows southwest west north, forming the eastern boundary of Denali National Park and Preserve, it emerges from the mountains onto the broad marshy Tanana Valley, joining the Tanana River from the south at Nenana, Alaska 35 miles southwest of Fairbanks. The Tanana River continues to its confluence with the Yukon River; the upper valley of the river furnishes 100 mi of the northern route of both the Alaska Railroad and the Parks Highway connecting Fairbanks and Anchorage. The Nenana supports populations of Alaska blackfish, Arctic grayling, Arctic lamprey, broad whitefish, chum salmon, humpback whitefish, king salmon, lake chubs, least cisco, longnose suckers, northern pike, round whitefish, silver salmon, slimy sculpins.
Major archaeological sites located in the valley include Broken Mammoth and Swan Point, of late Pleistocene age. Lieutenant Henry Allen of the U. S. Army explored the river in 1887, he named it the Cantwell River after Lieutenant John C. Cantwell, of the Revenue Cutter Service, who had explored the Kobuk River region in 1884–85. In 1898, members of the United States Geological Survey reported that people living along the river called it Tutlut. However, the local Tanana name was spelled Nenana on a map. A century linguist William Bright wrote that the river's name derived from the Lower Tanana word, neenano', meaning the "stopping-while-migrating stream"; the river is one of the most popular destinations for whitewater rafting in Alaska. Thousands of users, some on commercial cruises and others on private trips, travel on the river each year; the proximity of the Denali Highway, which runs parallel to the upper river for about 15 miles, the Parks Highway, which follows the river for 80 miles, makes the river accessible at many places.
The river begins as a Class I rafting stream on the International Scale of River Difficulty. Jetboats and other craft ply the waters along the Denali Highway. Below this, the flow rate increases, the Nenana becomes a Class I to II stream for the 38 miles between Windy Station and McKinley Village Lodge; the most difficult whitewater, for experts only, occurs over the next 23 miles, in Nenana Gorge between McKinley Village and Healy, is rated Class IV. Below this, the river is Class II all the way to Nenana. Dangers include cold swift water, Class IV rapids in the gorge, overhanging trees along the upper river, overhangs and braids on the lower river. An additional danger at the river mouth involves following the wrong braid, missing the take-out at Nenana, being swept into the Tanana River, from which it may not be possible to exit until reaching Manley Hot Springs, 90 miles further downstream. List of rivers of Alaska Nenana Wildwater Festival Fairbanks Paddlers